Desert and Sahara Economy Development
The Third International Congress on Desert Economy - Dakhla.
Energy Economics between Deserts and Oceans.
October 20th – 21st, 2021, Dakhla, Morocco.
The National School of Business and Management, ENCG Dakhla.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +212618086893
The International Congress on Desert Economy – Dakhla (ICDED) is annually co-organized by the National School of Business and Management (ENCG) of Dakhla - Morocco and the Regional Council of Dakhla Oued Eddahab region. This third edition will be held in Dakhla - Morocco, on October 20th and 21st, 2021.
The ultimate purpose of The International Congress on Desert Economy, is to be an interdisciplinary scientific research platform on the desert, arid lands, and the Sahara (hot drylands, hyperarid or semi-arid regions, oasis and rural remote areas) economy, management, and development (rural development), in order to contribute effectively to the good governance and in the sustainable development of arid lands worldwide, by attracting and promoting investment opportunities in the Sahara and deserts, and by stimulating meetings between all stakeholders on a global scale: Academics, Professionals, Policy-Makers, Civil society and NGOs..., with a view to fostering cooperation and partnership, among desert countries: Africa and the Gulf States (the MENA and the Sahel...), the United States of America, China, Australia, India..., with the aim of valuing and promoting the desert knowledge and its related studies' and conferences' findings and recommendations, and creating a conducive environment to the exchange of experiences, expertise, trainings, educational practices and innovation, around themes related to the desert economy and to the arid lands management, such as Tourism and travel industry; Agriculture and aquaculture; The Economics of Water; Renewable energy, energy economics, and energy management; Mining and Natural Resource Management; Transportation and logistics; Fisheries, maritime, sea, and ocean economy; Technology and innovation; Water sports and entertainment, sports economy and sports management; Cultural, tangible and intangible heritage; Biodiversity, wetlands, environment, and nature conservation and management...Thus, each year, an edition will be organized.
Besides the main theme of this third edition entitled “Energy Economics between Deserts and Oceans,” it will also be devoted to addressing general issues on the desert (Sahara) economy management and its sustainable development.
Note that this third edition of the International Congress on Desert Economy - Dakhla. was supposed to be organized on the last April 21st and 22th , 2020, but due to the current situation related to Covid-19 (Coronavirus), it's rescheduled to the next year on October 20th and 21st, 2021.
Dr. Elouali AAILAL: President and Coordinator of the International Congress on Desert Economy. Dakhla
President of the " Desert Action " Association, Dakhla. Morocco.
• Elouali Aailal. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Aziz Sair. Director of the National School of Business and Management, ENCG Dakhla.
• Juan Manuel Benitez. Dean of the Faculty of Economics, Business, and Tourism.
University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
• Kaoutar Roussi. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Hassane Amaazoul. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Hajar El Moukhi. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Fadoua Lemsagued, Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Lamiae El Kahri, Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Lahoucine Assellam. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Mehdi Boutaounte. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Youssef Hanyf. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Asmae El Hidani, Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
• Chahida El Idrissi. Research Professor at the ENCG of Dakhla.
· Aziz Sair. Director of the National School of Business and Management, ENCG Dakhla. Morocco.
· Keith W. Martin. Founding member of The Sahara Spirit Foundation. Morocco. Member of the Rotary International committee. USA.
· Sharon Megdal. President of the International Arid Lands Consortium. Director of the University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC). Arizona. USA.
· Paul Van Son. President & CEO of the DESERTEC Industrial Initiative. Desert Energy. Honorary President of the European Federation of Energy Traders (EFET). Germany.
· Nasir El Bassam. Director of the International Renewable Energy Research Center. USA. Chairman of the World Renewable Energy Council, Germany.
· Alan Gertler. Vice President of Research at the Desert Research Institute (DRI), Reno. Director of the Clean Technologies and Renewable Energy Center. Nevada. USA.
· Ghaleb Alhadrami. Provost & Vice Chancellor of the United Arab Emirates University. UAE.
· Jean Luc Chotte. President of the French Scientific Committee on Desertification (CSFD). Research Director at the Research Institute for Development, IRD. France.
· Juan Manuel Benitez. Dean of the Faculty of Economics, Business, and Tourism. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Spain.
· James Smith. President-elect of the International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE). Southern Methodist University. Texas. USA.
· Roderick Tennyson. Co-Founder and President of the Trans Africa Pipeline Inc (TAP). Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto. Canada.
· Mustapha Taoumi. Clean Energy Key Expert at EU GCC, CETN III. UAE. Former regional officer for MENA region at The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Morocco.
· Carmelo Rodriguez Torreblanca. President of the University of Almería. Spain.
· Hillard Huntington. Director of the Energy Modeling Forum. Stanford University. California. USA.
· Jimmy Cocking. Director of the Desert Knowledge Australia (DKA). CEO of the Arid Lands Environment Center. Vice President of the Australian Conservation Foundation. Australia.
· Johan Hollander. World Maritime University (WMU), Global Ocean Institute, and International Maritime Organization (IMO). Sweden.
· Mustapha Naimi. University Institute of Scientific Research, Rabat. Morocco.
· Ousmane Dramé. President of the Ahmed Baba University (UPAB). President of the Coalition for Higher Education in Mali. Commissioner for the governance of the International Network of Higher Education Institutions of the CAMES Area. Mali.
· Bernard Faye. Founder and the first President of The International Society of Camelid Research and Development (ISOCARD). Camelologist at The French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD). France.
· Mubarak Abdalla. Director of the Desertification and Desert Cultivation Studies Institute. Deputy Dean of Agricultural and Veterinary Studies, University of Khartoum. Sudan.
· Poul Alberg Østergaard. Director of the Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Program. Aalborg University. Denmark.
· Gabriel del Barrio. Experimental Station of Arid Zones, Almería. The Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). Spain.
· Mahamat Saleh Daoussa Haggar. President of the University of N'Djaména. Chad.
· André Torre. Director at MSH Paris-Saclay University. Research Director at the National Institute for Agronomic Research (INRA). President of the European Regional Science Association (ERSA). France.
· Sergio Moreno Gil. Co-Director of International Relations at UNESCO Chair in Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Spain.
· Maureen McCarthy. Tahoe & Great Basin Research Director, University of Nevada. Research Faculty at the Desert Research Institute (DRI), Reno. Nevada. USA.
· Christoph Lütge. Director of the Institute for Ethics in Artificial Intelligence. Technical University of Munich. Germany. Former Visiting Professor at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. USA.
· Najat El Mekkaoui. University Paris Dauphine. France. Board member of the Moroccan Central Bank (Bank Al-Maghrib), Chairman of the Social Funds Steering Committee. Morocco.
· El Moustapha Sidi Mohamed. Director of the Higher Institute of Accounting and Business Administration, ISCAE. Mauritania.
· Aykut Olcer. Head of Maritime Energy Management. World Maritime University. Sweden.
· Kader Kaneye. Founder and President of the African Development University. Niger.
· Romila Verma. Founder and Director of the Trans Africa Pipeline Inc (TAP). University of Toronto. Canada. ISMARE Environmental. India.
· Niels Vestergaard. Director of the Centre for Fisheries and Aquaculture Management and Economics (FAME). University of Southern Denmark. Denmark.
· Latifa Lankaoui. FSJES Souissi, Mohammed V University, Rabat. Member of the Board of Directors of the “Forum des Rencontres et des Echanges Administrateurs Mondial”. Morocco.
· Nishanov Nariman. Economist at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). National Project Coordinator of FAO at the Central Asia Desert Initiative (CADI). Uzbekistan.
· Heriberto Suárez. Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Spain.
· Jinlong Ma. University of Melbourne. Australia. Vice president at APEC Sustainable Energy Centre, Tianjin University, China.
· Houcine Khatteli. General Director of the Institute of Arid Regions, Tunisia.
· Hassan Ramou. IEA, Rabat.
· Abdou Maisharou. General Director of the National Agency of the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel. Niger.
· Ole Kristian Sivertsen. CEO at Desert Control. Norway.
· Andreas Walmsley. Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, University of Iceland. Iceland. Coventry University. United Kingdom.
· Khaled Sharbatly. “ Desert Technologies ”. Saudi Arabia.
· Juan Luis García. Director of the Atacama Desert Center. Faculty of History, Geography and Political Science. Chile.
· Lhasan Elmrani. President of the Center for Studies and Development of Oasis and Desert Territories. Errachidia.
· Julius Gatune. The African Center for Economic Transformation. South Africa.
· Aicha Oujaa. National Institute of Sciences of Archeology and Heritage, Rabat.
· Hanaa Hachimi. President of the Moroccan Society of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Director of the Systems Engineering Laboratory. Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal.
· Abdelbassat Elhajoui. Educational Program Director at the Sports Management School (SMS). Rabat.
· Celestin Christian Tsala Tsala. University of Yaoundé I. Cameroon.
· Ouafae Ouariti Zerouali. ENCG, Agadir.
· Fatima Arib. Director of ACISS, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech.
· Najat Ouaaline. FST, Hassan I University, Settat.
· Asmae Bouaouinate. FLSH, Mohammedia.
· Hamid Nechad. ENCG, Tangier.
· Oumhani Eddelani. FSJES, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, Fez.
· Jamila Saidi. FLSH, Mohammedia.
· Zakaria Ez-zarzari. FSJES, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra.
· Mounir Jerry. FSJES, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra.
· Aimad Elhajri. FSJES, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech.
· Ghita El Kasri. Co-Founder of Blockchain Embassy and Schoonect, EdTech for students’ engagement. Casablanca.
· Seedou Mukhtar Sonko. Assane Seck University of Ziguinchor. Senegal.
· Kaoutar Roussi. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Hassane Amaazoul. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Hajar El Moukhi. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Fadoua Lemsagued. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Lamiae El Kahri. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Lahoucine Assellam. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Mohammed El Amrani. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Asmae El Hidani. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Mehdi Boutaounte. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Youssef Hanyf. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Chahida El Idrissi. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Ouafae Bouchaf. ENCG, Dakhla.
· Sheikh Mohamed Maoulainine. Regional Director of the High Planning Commission, Dakhla.
· Bathily Diahara. University of Law and Political Science of Bamako. Mali.
· Abdellah El Boussadi. ENCG, Casablanca.
· Abdelkarim Asdiou. ENCG, Casablanca.
As the International Congress on Desert Economy - Dakhla, is an interdisciplinary scientific research platform on the desert and arid regions, and due to the lack in economic and scientific literature on deserts, arid zones, and the Sahara, there will be a variety of themes, and contributions will focus mainly on one of the following (non-exhaustive) themes:
1. Trans-Saharan Megaprojects and Initiatives (Trans-African):
· The DESERTEC Project;
· The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative;
· The Trans Africa Pipeline Project (Water);
· The " Power Africa " Initiative;
· The " Desert to Power " Initiative;
· The Morocco - Nigeria Gas Pipeline and the Trans Sahara Gas Pipeline (TSGO);
· The " Prosper Africa " Initiative;
· The MENA and China’s Belt and Road Initiative (China's new silk road).
2. Regional and Inter-African Economic Cooperation and Partnerships in the Sahara and the Sahel.
3. International Cooperation on Arid Lands R&D (on deserts and the Sahara).
4. Business, Entrepreneurship, and Investments in Arid Lands (Deserts, Sahara) and Remote Areas.
5. Energy Business, Entrepreneurship in Energy, and Energy Management.
6. Energy, Desertification, Climate Change (Resilience and Adaptation), and Environment.
7. Renewable Energy and Energy Transition.
8. Offshore Renewable Energy, Marine Wind Energy and Marine Solar Energy (Ocean Power).
9. Wave Energy and Tidal Energy.
10. Low Carbon Energy: Power-to-X and Green Hydrogen (economic, social, and environmental aspects).
11. Deserts (Arid lands, Sahara) and Global Economic Transformation.
12. The Economics of Water, Energy, and Hydraulic Resources Management.
13. Energy Supply and Demand.
14. Energy Crisis Management, Energy Risk Management, and the Impacts of Coronavirus Crisis on Energy Sector (Pre-crisis, during, and Post Covid-19 crisis).
15. Access to Energy and Energy Security.
16. Conventional Energy Resources: Oil, Gas, and Coal.
17. Energy in Tourism, Travel, and Hospitality Industry.
18. Energy in Agribusiness, Aquabusiness (aquaculture), and Fisheries Business (Halieutic).
19. Energy and Food Security in Drylands, Arid Agriculture (Desert Agriculture) and Biosaline Agriculture (economic, social and environmental aspects).
20. Livestock Economics, Management, and Production (Camel, Sheep, Goat, Cows…).
21. Agricultural Economics.
22. Sustainable Mobility (Ecomobility), Transportation, and Logistics.
23. Energy Economics Modeling.
24. Energy Policy, Law, and Regulation.
25. New Technologies (Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain...) and Energy Efficiency (economic, social and environmental aspects).
26. Sustainable Off-Grid Electricity for Rural and Remote Areas, and Poverty Reduction.
27. Economic Geology and Economic Geography.
28. Arid Lands (Deserts and the Sahara) Tourism (Ecotourism, Nature Tourism, Sustainable Tourism), Travel, and Hospitality Industry.
29. Ocean Economy, Sea Economy (Maritime), and Blue Economy.
30. Economics and Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture.
31. Migrations and SDGs.
32. Tourism, Travel, and Hospitality Industry (Tourism Economics).
33. Sports Economy, Water (nautical) Sports Management, and Recreation Economy.
34. Management, Governance, and Sustainability Issues.
35. Cultural Entrepreneurship and Management of Tangible and Intangible Heritage (Arts, Creative Industries, Traditional Crafts, and Artisans.)
36. Entrepreneurship, Marketing, and Innovation.
37. Knowledge Economy and Human Capital.
38. Finance and Financial System.
39. Green Economy, Circular Economy, Social and Solidarity Economy, and Sustainable Development.
40. Social and Solidarity Economy, and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
41. International Collaboration and Trade Logistics.
42. Digital Economy.
43. Economic Intelligence.
44. Public Policy (Planning and Spatial Development), Regional Development and Rural Development (Rural Entrepreneurship).
45. Public/Private Investment and Business Climate.
About this Congress.
The idea of the International Congress on Desert Economy, arose for the first time in the framework of the "Desert Action" association , in Dakhla, the first Moroccan and African association specialized in Arid Lands, Desert, and Sahara economy development (rural development), business, and management, then, thanks to an official convention between the National School of Business and Management (ENCG) of Dakhla and the Regional Council of the Dakhla Oued Eddahab Region, this agreement provides for the annual co-organization of this Congress.
The web page of the last edition of the International Congress on Desert Economy – Dakhla 2019:
The web page of the first edition of the International Congress on Desert Economy –Dakhla 2018:
Gradually we recognize the incredible benefits of inter-African collaboration (and the enormous cost of the lack of inter-African cooperation) both for Africa itself and for the world.
Thanks to multilateral African and international cooperation, deserts and arid lands across the globe, especially in Africa (The Sahara and the Sahel), with their vast and rich natural maritime seaboards and coastlines , are an open workshop and a scene of substantial and Trans-Saharan megaprojects and infrastructures: The DESERTEC Project (Clean and renewable energy), the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (Greening the Sahara and combating the desertification), the Trans Africa Pipeline Project (Water), the "Power Africa " Initiative, the "Desert to Power" Initiative...Such promising Megaprojects and Initiatives, if fully executed, will undoubtedly contribute to rebirthing Africa into holding its deserved high stature, and will play a pivotal role in keeping up with sustainable development and in ensuring African food security, even more, they will provide abundance in the production for export.
The Possible Africa, where there are all ingredients: Diversity and younger population, richness in natural resources, unique geographical configuration and morphology: Savannah, forests, mountains, lakes, vast coasts, deserts, and the Great Sahara Desert.
The Sahara Desert, instead of being underexploited, it could be an exclusive competitive advantage and the mythical and memorable brand image for Africa, and it may be the ideal place to boot a strong and long term inter-African and international cooperation in the service of humankind.
The targeted sustainable development in arid lands, just like anywhere else, is governed by an environmental transformation that will fundamentally change our lifestyle, as sustainability is its corn stone. Concepts like the green economy or circular economy, the blue or ocean economy, and ecotourism (desert tourism) are all plainly supposed to be renewable energy dependant. Thus, the environmental impact of any human activity, such as, travel and tourism industry, land and maritime transport, shipping and logistics, agricultural and fishing... is a major criterion that will tag the range of receptivity and continuity of these economic activities, in the light of an increasingly environmentally-friendly legal arsenal, with a focus on green finance and cleantech.
As a matter of fact, economic development worldwide is entirely dependent on the interactions between energy and economy systems, where our dependence on clean and renewable energy becomes more and more confirmed. Energy Economics could be defined as a branch of economic studies devoted to quantitatively and qualitatively deciphering our well-being and prosperity in their interaction with energy resources.
According to the International Renewable Energy Agency, by 2050, the overall total investment in the energy system would need to reach USD 110 trillion (around 2% of average annual GDP over this period), the level of extra investments required to set the world on a more climate-friendly path above current plans and policies, is USD 15 trillion. The share of renewables in the world's total final energy consumption has to increase six times faster to match up to agreed climate goals, precisely, the seventh Sustainable Development Goal, which states for ensuring that everyone will be able to have access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy. For that, international financial flows to developing countries, in support of clean and renewable energy, reached USD 18.6 billion in 2016, almost doubling from USD 9.9 billion in 2010. This trend is likely to increase due to the promising opportunities offered by a steady decline in renewable energy production costs, leading to lower prices.
So far, in some countries, oceans and seas still the primary sources of conventional energy (oil, gas), despite their richness in marine renewable energies (offshore energy): traditional marine renewable energies (ocean wind energy and ocean solar energy), wave energy and tidal energy, as specific forms of marine (ocean) power. Also, knowing that ocean-based renewable energy has not yet achieved the economies of scale necessary for significant cost reductions, but, as oceans and seas cover more than 70 % of the Earth’s surface, it's not surprising that a large share of future energy production will probably come from ocean-based renewable energy. To show the potential energy glut, published studies have shown that the ocean wind energy potential is so significant and large enough that it could, theoretically, be used to propel human civilization.
Morocco took up the challenge of increasing green renewable energy production from total renewable energy to 52 % by 2030, initially set at 42 % by 2020. This specific achievement becomes a reality thanks to the adoption of an ambitious energy strategy, including generating renewable energies in Moroccan deserts: The Solar Complex (Noor) in Ouarzazate, the largest wind farm in Africa located in the coastal desert of the city of Tarfaya, and last but not least, the project to be implemented in the Sahara of the Dakhla region, aiming to generate renewable and clean energy, from wind, this wind energy will be used in mining the cryptocurrencies based on Blockchain technology, such as the Bitcoin.
Dr. Elouali AAILAL. Founder and President of the International Congress on Desert Economy. Dakhla.Morocco.
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