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tv   Balfour Seeds Of Discord  Al Jazeera  October 31, 2017 11:00pm-12:02am AST

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new yorkers are very receptive. because it is such an international city they are very interested in that global perspective that al jazeera lives. in india. to find their i mean maybe what i want to use meets these. at this time. well you're watching al-jazeera these are the headlines spain's national court has called catalonia is the post president katniss frees the moment to testify on
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thursday this is a process is rebellion and sedition charges against them for the clearing independence from spain meanwhile prism one says he is not in belgium to see political asylum but the acting freedom and safety madrid imposed that wrecked rule on catalonia on friday dissolving the regional government and ordered new elections in the center where the man says he will accept the outcome of that vote. and. in regards to the elections called by the spanish central government we think there are democratic challengers and we're not scared by democratic challenges quite the opposite if the spanish government wishes to carry out these elections to legitimize article one five five use of course we will face these elections. the most creaking there from brussels far from where they were changed in our reports. that oppose catalan leader has not said a word for the last four days so he was in the middle of a media scrum today they were very anxious to hear what he had to say essentially
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he said that he was in brussels not to seek political asylum as many people were speculating a but to use the the freedom and the safety of brussels which he described as the heart of democracy in the european union to carry on with his hand his campaign he said that what madrid was doing was using violence and intimidation against the project of catalan independence and he said that he essentially agreed that he would take part in the imposed election reason election on december the twenty first but he left open exactly how he's going to do that because is he going to stay here and campaign or is he going to go back to spain he said he wouldn't go back to spain without what he called legal guarantees but they're still preparing charges additions and bezel meant and rebellion against him and some seven of the ministers he had with him here in brussels and so it seems unlikely that will
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happen somehow he's got to keep this campaign going from this distance from inside brussels where he feels safest and over the next few days perhaps we'll see some more events planned by the catalan leader to make sure that the world keeps focusing on this issue and he keeps getting his message across that he doesn't want this to be a violent confrontation he wants peace and he wants dialogue. kenya's opposition leader violently has called for the result of the presidential election rerun to be an old president a hurricane yet it was the clear the winner but the election was widely boycotted by opposition supporters kenyatta took in ninety eight point two percent of the vote but the turnout was well below forty percent well i think i made no mention of a legal challenge but warned of the election result will undermine the public's faith in the moxy it's bringing some news just coming in to us from the united
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states police are investigating an incident in central new york city police officials say that one person has been taken into custody after the incident which happened close to the west side highway in lower manhattan the gabriel is on the joins us live now on the line from the scene gave tell us a little bit about what we know about this incident. and. many.
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more details. we'll get more from again for a little later in the hour will be crossing live and bring you the latest on this for the moment al-jazeera world is coming up next by. the end. good. luck. thanks thanks.
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thanks thanks thanks thanks thanks. thanks thanks. thanks thanks. thanks thanks thanks. thanks for the voice of david ben-gurion declaring the establishment of the state of israel in maine one nine hundred forty eight. the balfour declaration was a letter sent by british foreign secretary arthur balfour to
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a member of the british house of lords child on the second of november one thousand nine hundred seventeen. this letter sent to a leading figure in the british jewish community one hundred years ago had repercussions which even its authors cannot have imagined. whatever its real intentions it went on to have a profound impact on the middle east and its people. and its effects still resonates across the region today. in one nine hundred fourteen these soldiers were fighting on the battlefields of europe in the first world war the allies britain france and russia fought the
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central powers of germany austria-hungary and the ottoman empire for four years but the land and sea war was not the only battleground. muscle was also being flexed behind closed doors as allies conspired to redraw maps to their own advantage when the conflict eventually ceased. sir mark sykes for the british and french. for the french plotted how to divide the arab lands of the ottoman empire assuming it would finally fall. agreement to divide it into french and british spheres of influence france taking most of the levant southern anatolia and the area while the british extended their control over the southern expanding eastward. and all the land between there.
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and the french territory. historic palestine then still part of the ottoman empire was a bone of contention and would be put under international administration. but. that. i don't. order. was it that one of them while with your how to have fought can be when i can
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let you can i can't be sure i think the british felt that there had not been enough government involvement in concluding the states because agreement with the french and in the process they had not really protected their interests well enough for a post world war era in which the british empire would continue to seek to be a dominant force in european affairs and so really officials across whitehall including mark sykes himself felt it was a bad deal if you have ilja going to archives of europe must add it in the fuel not the havoc so you need you on every night or just me and you who would have my own. data for the scene when you're home your new shoot people have seen or people feel well and are second in the have been many who are living. i mean.
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and i mean i look at that before and it's a huge significance that when they're making these discussions jews and zionism and not discussed jews were not to feature in the new at the middle east which was to be based on the idea of the arab nation. zionism was the movement supporting the reestablishment of a jewish homeland in the area defined as the historic land of israel. the movement was active in early twentieth century london especially because of the persecution of jews in russia and eastern europe. theodore hurt so had founded the zionist movement in the late one nine hundred century but jewish people in western europe had not rushed to support it because they were integrating quite successfully into society zionists believed that all jews should someday return to that country one of the problems was that palestine belong to the ottoman empire
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and the ottoman empire was not clear that it wanted massive jewish immigration into palestine and the british government offered to let jews move unimpeded in great numbers into uganda if they wished. but in any event it really didn't happen and it didn't happen because a majority of scientists felt that hurts or was selling them out and that the only place for jews to move back to least conscious zionist jews to move back to was palestine in this i think britain began to look at the zionist movement as a possible cartney in justifying a reader goshi a sions of their agreement with the french you see for britain simply to claim territory against what they'd already concluded in the green that with france could create diplomatic problems for the british. if they were to make a claim to palestine not out of self-interest but in order to advance
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a great historic ideal of the restoration of the jewish people to the homeland that this could justify an adjustment of the terms of the sites because. in a way that the french would accept the british wanted somehow and more and more increasingly they felt that the jews held the key to winning the war. and so they had to figure out how to bribe the jews to support them. sir mark sykes had succeeded in drawing the line he wanted from a car in the west to car cook in the east but for some in government this was not enough. the british were using the jewish national movement to secure palestine for themselves is this is what highlights been is really going to find open ears of ten downing street in the foreign office in the colonial office and it's paving the
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way towards that critical decision in november of one nine hundred seventeen and so i think you can direct you can draw a direct connection. between britain's sudden acknowledgement of zionism as an idea of an ideal. and what they were dissatisfied with the term the psychs because. i am vitamin was a chemistry lecturer in manchester who had become a prominent member of the british zionist movement he was politically well connected and rubbed shoulders with senior figures in government so high in vitamin was russian by birth he was a chemist. and then he joined the zionist movement. he climbed in the zionist movement he moved to great britain before the war well before the war maybe ten
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years before the war began he was not before the war very well known in the english zionist movement he was pretty well known in the world zionist federation but he was by no means the most visible zionist when world war one began in great britain. vitamin later wrote in his memoirs about having been introduced to a british government minister herbert samuel. samuel was jewish but vitamine was apparently concerned that he might be anti zionist. however herbert samual turned out to be extremely receptive to vitamin and went on to write an official memo in one nine hundred fifty setting out a number of different possibilities for palestine and the jewish people. and was. so.
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through the number. of us who were caught up with the qur'an for us the in. latin have been alamy. who were. only markers. brittany kept up with her kyra. sure but there's still a philosophy in badminton tell how to help them a lot and then let them a lot and hope see. the. very funny year for last year. but then he suddenly had the lady who the commonwealth. but he didn't find willing in whitehall or the colonial office for schemes that involved the establishment of the jewish state in palestine britain was really
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concerned with two things by the time that the first world war had broken out they wanted to with the war first and foremost this was an imperative for the survival of britain and its empire and secondly they wanted to ensure that coming out of the war victorious that their empire would benefit from the victory so at this stage high invites and herbert samuels ideas about the rights of the jews to resettle in palestine. did not find much sympathy in the corridors of power in london. disappointed fights munro to a friend asking whether there wasn't at least a discussion to be had about what he called the chance for the jewish people. i realize of course he went on we cannot claim anything we are much too atomized for it's. what the debate did do however was to throw together fights man the russian jewish immigrants searching for a homeland and refuge from persecution with her brood samuel and lord rothschild
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for members of the british jewish elite established in society and part of the political and capitalist class. so it isn't for the most part of course all of the community was actually in the minority but certainly most of all within the jewish elite because it threatened the notion of them as one hundred percent committed members of british society and this was complete and that for somebody like me montague to become secretary of state for india for him zionism is his worst nightmare the idea that jews are not satisfied simply with being citizens of britain or other countries around the world they're always longing to go back to the land of israel for him he wanted to demonstrate that the jews of britain were first and foremost british it's important to remember
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that for people like rothschild zionism and actually been a threat you see the elite in british jewellery had fought for generations to gain acceptance in british society it was only with the arrival of disraeli and that i can century that jews entered parliament and could rise to become prime minister and for people of. so high finance or banking interests the really lete of the jewish community in britain their struggle to demonstrate their place in british society then design is with its claims that jews were a people apart and should be a nationalist movement in their own right or another with their early lamba army. and how concerned if they were corrupt. how to get. hold. of but i would be when i had the time movement get fifty i wouldn't actually be the old the field but
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i would be everyman german general call up you and i do have the sheer will and no i must lean a bit of time even for my honey brand of beer and damaeus of blush who will live in a salad we don't have if mark you have to say well it's an x. vitamin vien sure in much of the love in your mind doesn't need a mental ability. keep delaying the instability. of the. vitamin. the fim. it's vitamin that makes the difference and i think he was probably unique in his ability to persuade the leading british figures that the jews were in fact a vast sub to raney and influence which they were not. that all jews were zionists
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which was far from the truth and that therefore the big key to winning jewish support was to offer them palestine vitamine talked up the degree to which the jewish community supported zionism in order to get his message across to the government. but for the british it seemed to be about self-interest about winning the war recognizing zionism would be closely linked to gaining global juice the poor it put the objective on which would start its future arresting so the british motives for supporting zionism when we can boil it down to two elements of british self interest at that time not an emotional interest inside ism or a love of jews and the jewish plight and the desire for a return of the jews to the holy land no for very specific self interest matters of
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policy they were first of all all of the british government agreed that they wanted to mobilize behind britain and the allies this idea of jewish power in the world. they were like all of the different policy elites in the war believe in the notion that jews have tremendous influence in the corridors of power around the globe if the british government appeared to support zionism they would win over. to their side and all that entailed the british were convinced that zionism was really at the center of the jewish heart. in may nine hundred sixteen sir mark sykes had agreed his t. quit deal with the french psychs because it would form the basis of the future carve up of their own ottoman empire. so he immediately turned his attention to palestine still part of the ottoman empire and how to use dynasty ambitions to
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outmaneuver the french. formal contact between the british government and the zionist followed he immediately phoned herbert samuel and told him about the plan and herbert samuel then phoned him vitamin and vitamin brought with him sokolow this meeting took place on the eleventh of april one thousand nine hundred seen it took place at moses castors house in maida vale. and gaster wrote in his diary afterwards how proud he was that this meeting which he thought was the most important meeting that had ever taken place in the history of zionism had taken place at his house. mark sykes the. head of the uni i once she doesn't know my guster know where khalil must stand the jelly hoodie but by then. i was one who really. thought that north who are in
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the fight that i look. the most disgusting very quickly understands that sykes is looking to gain support from suppose it jewish power in the world and gets to works with this idea and manipulates this to consolidate sykes's interest in sign ism and we see actually the british government becomes very close already nazi sixteen of issuing a public declaration of support for zionism there in the end this doesn't happen that year the planned sikes got herbert samuels to pass on to the zionist leaders involved joint british french administration of palestine and a charter guaranteeing british support for the line isn't. but his idea was rejected. they didn't want an anglo-french condominium in palestine they wanted the british to protect them not
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the french and that's because they thought that the french always sort of converted their colonized people into becoming frenchmen and what they wanted was to remain as self conscious jews and they thought that the british would leave them alone and let them do that and how much she helped to live in begun by. her the share a blue team. vial of him going in the basement not to need committee got armor you did to his coat of not you needed them it would get them. where were you dame know you to name him remember bomb atom our matter. you know. it's. bolstered by their newfound credibility the british dynas thought about making
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specific demands after the sykes meeting but events overtook them. on the sixth of december one thousand nine hundred sixty british prime minister asquith resigned. in the change of government arthur balfour became foreign secretary under prime minister david lloyd george. lloyd george. has been half awake i walked away from us by some it was our. times of fashion. and i'll. tell you what that you know. yeah. but. it's a completely. people saying.
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was of rather philosophical bent. and i think he wanted to think in theological terms you wanted to think in historical terms. and it was with that frame of mind i think that he approached the whole question yes it was the fall of. howard. and marsh. as it was i thought george. but the attack. before. david lloyd george. balfour and all of those who supported the battle declaration
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within the british government we can absolutely categorize as being riven with anti semitic thinking and not only that but the thinking behind the balfour declaration that drove them to the balfour declaration was from this anti semitic thought the idea of jewish power of jewish he said this and of a unified jewish attachment design is above all else. whatever its basis the relationship between the british dynasty and the government would continue to grow throughout the one nine hundred seventeen. leading to the declaration that would change the face of the middle east and ultimately determine the destinies of two different peoples.
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captivating stories and award winning film. as tensions on the korean peninsula remain high president trump mbox in a five nation tour to east asia november on al-jazeera. i think it was different whether someone was going for some of his favorites but the truth i think it's how you approach an individual and if it is a certain way of doing it to congress in a good story and fly out. hello there i'm barbara starr in london these are the top stories on al-jazeera and we start with some breaking news a number of people were injured and some are feared dead after
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a pickup truck plowed into a psychopath in new york city police say one person has been taken into custody after the incident that happened about an hour ago close to the westside highway in lower manhattan witnesses say shots were also fired we'll bring you more on that story in the news hour as we get it and we are understanding that several people are dead and it is now be. treated as a terrorist attack will get you more news on that more developments as we get them here on al-jazeera in other news a spain's national court has called catalonia as the post president catalyst pushed the mont to testify on thursday as a process is rebellion insufficient charges against him for declaring independence from spain he says he's not in belgium to seek political asylum but to act in freedom and safety with britain pose that wrecked rule in catalonia on friday
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dissolving the regional government and ordered new elections in the center wisdom and says he will accept that out you will accept the outcome of that vote. in regards to the elections called by the spanish central government we think there are democratic challengers and we're not scared by democratic challenges quite the opposite if the spanish government wishes to carry out these elections to legitimize article one five five use of course we will face these elections. kenya's opposition leader has called for the result of the presidential election rerun to be an old president who or can you tell was the clear the winner but the election was widely boycotted by opposition supporters kenyatta took ninety eight point two percent of the vote with the turnout below forty percent made no mention of a legal challenge but warned the election results will undermine the public's faith in democracy. lawyers for social media companies facebook twitter and google are
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testifying to u.s. senators in washington it's part of the investigation into whether russia use the companies to interfere in last year's presidential election we're going to have more on all of that and that breaking news coming out of new york in the al-jazeera news hour stay with us throughout the zero world continues next. the first world war pitted britain france and russia against germany austria hungary and the ottoman empire the british in the shape of the diplomats or mark sykes were determined to divide autumn and territory in a way that best suited them once the war was over for their own strategic interests . by nine hundred seventeen the war was shifting in the allies favor and in the
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middle east the british were moving through sinai towards the borders of historic palestine. further north the russian revolution in february one nine hundred seventeen cast doubt on russia's continued involvement in the war. as britain and france tried to outmaneuver one another the british zionist movement took on increasing political importance. get back in touch with scientists and think about. incorporates elitism in british planning for palestine and at this moment we see a hugely important meeting taking place in the home of moses guesstimate of. seventeen and this is the point in which sykes mates for the first time. and the. another time in this in which it's discussed what the zionists are looking
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for and the british interest in zionism so he had to bring the zionists along without divulging what were the secret agreements that britain and france had come to with regard to palestine which was that they would jointly administer parts of palestine at this meeting for the british government was sykes and herbert samuel he was there on the other side there were. vitamin and sokolow and there was moses gaster and he brought a couple of his allies because he realised that vitamin was beginning to push him out of the way the other very important figure was james rothschild who attended this meeting. at the meeting it became clear to sykes that vitamin not gaster was the most important zionist this is also the moment where
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moses cast is dislodged. sykes is part of the french side because i haven't liked guest guster it been insistent that this should be a jewish state and nothing less coming into being after the war and pick up clearly wanted saudis who were much more willing to compromise with the interests of the great powers and the home circle of a kind vice who was certainly happy to fit that bill. the meetings between the zionists and the government seemed to give momentum to the idea of british support for a jewish homeland in palestine and their potential role in its administration. but the secrets agreements between britain and france which formed the basis of the future division of the ottoman empire planned to put palestine under international administration any change would have to be negotiated with france. niamh
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so-called of emerged as the man to talk to the french and horse look at where the. story. she he. circled became the acknowledged lead diplomat for zionism and all the accounts say that he had an extremely sort of elegant bearing and wore very fine clothing and that his manners were polished and polite and smooth silky smooth so that he could talk. on an equal basis with the representatives of the german kaiser or the. british government or whatever so the day after the meeting. between sykes and the
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zionist leaders sykes brought sokol to meet the french diplomat pekoe what sikes wanted was for suckle. to a persuade pekoe that zionism must be taken seriously that zionism really was the key to winning the war. and that the zionists would only help the allies win the war if britain was the main power in palestine not france for twelve just because they didn't particular good or may. so call off without force or cooperation when quotes are put out for that core i reckon. reeve.
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and also mossad. there's not a good aussie course a record of that they are home but not on their degree i want to tell you we read them and psych snuff saw in a circle of you know what a tabloid any know our friends are or your mother had this you can associate mom and british cabinet or that often or position a friend so we have been were at one for. bill cabinet the english or law and not already different so into lot of city it's hard to know how much influence sykes ultimately had over british policy making he was given more prominence in british policy making around the middle east during the war years than he ever deserved he was a relatively ill educated inexperienced man whose only connection to the art of the world had been as a tourist. so for this man to be playing such a role in the halls of power over deciding british policy towards the near east
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seems to us today to be normal is indeed ridiculous. regardless of psych's role things continue to progress for the zionists and in june one nine hundred seventeen british foreign secretary arthur balfour asked high in vitamin to present his demands as a declaration and promise to try and persuade his government to adopt its. the leading zionist form the political committee and drafted their demands and then submitted them to the british government. this original document was one of the first drafts written at the imperial hotel in london on the seventeenth of july one thousand nine hundred seventeen. it also introduced a new term and concept the national home of the jewish people so in the initial zionist drafting of the declaration. there were protests monks
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size leaders to no home circle of that there's no mention of the terminology of the jewish state that instead they're talking about a national home and this is. what this i was trying to achieve and so response was that we mustn't go too far we have to take small steps we have to go with what is acceptable to the british government at this time and then slowly slowly we can advance our cause once we have this in hand. if you look at what. you have been could be. certain. that. on the eighteenth of september one thousand nine hundred seventeen there was
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a meeting of the british war cabinet the foreign secretary arthur balfour was absent. the secretary of state for india edwin montague who was jewish strongly disagreed with the declaration. he was opposed to zionism and said i deny that palestine is today associated with the jews or properly be regarded as a fit place for them to live montague thought a french to clear ration for porting zionism in june one nine hundred seventeen was anti semitic and negotiated changes to the british version as it went through several drafts. so you've got a battle. you are going to. alice shut.
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your hood. she will. see if you. can borrow it what people gonna. do you. gonna the well. a few days later secretary of state for war vi counts milner and the jewish politician philip magnus sent a modified version to the cabinet it incorporated some of montague's changes. including the caviar that quote nothing shall be done that might prejudice the rights and political status enjoyed by such jews who are fully contented with their existing nationality and citizenship.
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drafting especially by a board millner the by september was closer to the language that would eventually be adopted in november of one thousand and seventeen namely speaking not about power stein as a whole. but. some sort of presence in palestine on behalf of the jews which is quite different cannot call can we will for in her manner. not. only their national. a literary if. their and look at all and national. but not the national home and i would not the national.
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fear fall of the in. the committed zionists wanted to ensure the declaration was clear that the whole of historic palestine would be a national homeland exclusively for the jewish people. the latest draft was sent to hire men who in turn center to the zionist movement in the united states for their feedback. there was some consultation during the summer of one thousand nine hundred seventeen with the united states and in the early drafts. it had the imprint of the zionist elements in britain would have referred to palestine in its entirety as being for sort of jewish and b. and those elements eventually were modified before the drafting was
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finalized another key part of the terminology that emerged out of the drafting was in some british redrafting where sort of for the jewish people it was written the jewish race adventure this was taken out but i think it's very revealing that british officials wanted to use this kind of terminology because after all this was how they understood the jews of the world as being a racial group when tremendous power and also could be inspired all together as one behind the cause of zionism supported by britain and the allies it's striking that the existing arab people in the region were not named at all they're simply called the quote existing non jewish communities in palestine the very point. i say that with every little idea but that usually the men tell you screwed it up just want the government ot the community nor free the ownership men but they're
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not is obviously not we've concluded was she we just if you don't bother the party keek. by october of one nine hundred seventeen the final draft of the balfour declaration was ready and waiting only british government final approval. there was a rumor that germany was about to issue a similar declaration supporting the rights of the jews in palestine when balfour heard he rushed to get his final draft discussed at the cabinets meeting on the thirty first of october one thousand nine hundred nineteen. so when we think about the centenary of the balfour declaration everyone considers second of november nineteenth seventeen as the moment of the day creation itself but it was actually
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agreed to by the british cabinet on the thirty first of october and this was a hugely significant meeting and in the minutes of that meeting balfour will reiterate the principle reasons for supporting zionism and highlights its expected propaganda effects amongst jews around the world particularly in the united states and in russia the argument was was put forward most strongly by lord balfour at the meeting of october thirty first and what he argued was that issuing this declaration would be extremely helpful for the british in sillett of flying the support of the united states and also in countering propaganda from germany the critical thing to remember about british diplomatic pronouncements is that what one individual says does not represent the views of the government as a whole and you will find many different points of view among british officials in
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the years one thousand seven hundred nine hundred eighteen and right into the early years of the mandate but the british were very clear that they had not promised statehood to the zionist movement they had no interest in doing so the british did not support jewish nationalism they did not support arab nationalism they supported british imperialism but this is also the meeting where lord curzon. it was a member of the walk and it disquiet about the possible effects of supporting zionism on the palestinian population and the palestinian opposition is completely disregarded lord curzon wrote a paper to the cabinet asking what was quote to become of the people of this country. there were over half a million syrian arabs a mixed community with arab hebrew canaanite greek egyptian and possibly crusaders blood they and their forefathers of occupied the country for the best part of one
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thousand five hundred years they own the soil they profess the mohammedan faith they will not be content either to be exposed for jewish immigrants or to act merely as he was of wood and drawers of water to the latter. but his prescient remarks fell on deaf ears it's like who tells hyde bites at the end of the workout that it's meeting. it's a boy and so they witness the birth of an agreement to create a jewish national home as a baby in the middle east. the final draft of the balfour declaration was sixty seven words long. his majesty's government view with favor the establishment in palestine of a national home for the jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object it being clearly understood that nothing
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shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non jewish communities in palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by jews in any other country. i should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the zionist federation your sincerely of james balfour. in terms of international law it really has very little standing in international law you know treaties between nations have significance. but governments often issue policy statements statements of intention about what they plan to do and those really don't have any standing as as a matter of of law for britain this was. i suppose you would say
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a statement of its intention as to what it would do if it were to take over palestine which of course it had not yet done as of november of one nine hundred seventeen that's going to go right to whether you like that. she. will come i'm sure of britannia if. you do so because your mind. show you off your royalty only two years after the declaration a church leader in jerusalem wrote to british prime minister lloyd george about jews in palestine trying to control holy sites. lloyd george's office had said that high invites men didn't want to do anything affecting the rights of arabs it said he simply wanted to be involved in a council to help provide refuge to jews fleeing russia and eastern europe. this
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exchange suggested that britain felt it had not promised a jewish state but simply a place for them to live alongside arabs. when the league of nations set out the british mandate in. palestine in one nine hundred twenty three it made britain responsible for implementing the balfour declaration. as a result jewish immigration to palestine increased as did the arab opposition to its expressed in a series of palestinian protests against britain in the one nine hundred twenty s. they understood the people of palestine to be muslims and christians but did not imagine that they would constitute a national community that would seek national independence and after the war very quickly when it becomes clear that palestinian arab nationalists and mobilizing against zionism the british government a quick to see a major problem the balfour declaration had put in train
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a series of events that began to signal its deep flaws arab descent built to the three year revolts between one nine hundred thirty six and one nine hundred thirty nine it was a nationalist uprising against the british administration demanding arab independence and the end of jewish immigration it was in the pill commission of one nine hundred thirty seven that the british first recognized that instead of balancing communities they had certain motion a rivalry between incompatible national movements jewish and palestinian arabs. and it was at that point that they tried to solve the problem by dividing palestine into two states arab and jewish through a partition plan and i think there you have the first recognition or admission from british officials of the failure of the balfour declaration. in may nine hundred thirty nine the british government published a policy document on palestine called a white paper it abandoned the partitioning of palestine into two states and called
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instead for an independent palestine in which arabs and jews would share government . it limited jewish immigration to seventy five thousand for five years and said that the arab majority should determine future immigration levels. it's also said that balfour had not meant to create a jewish state at the expense of the arabs any more than the mcmahon his tame correspondent twenty four years before had promised an arab state to shareef hossain of mecca. but the white paper met opposition and was dropped. the british government equate to see a major problem but there's no way that they can back away from support for zionism because this becomes the basis for their justification for being in the holy land their commitment to supporting the movement in the balfour declaration which becomes in shrines in international law in the terms of the mandate for palestine
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so the british are stuck with zionism they didn't believe that scientists wanted independent jewish state. and after the it became very clear that actually the vast majority of scientists didn't only want statehood they expected. i think if we're trying to assess whether or not britain's policy towards zionism in the first world war served british interests or not the first thing we have to appreciate is the key reason they supported saddam was based on an incorrect idea they believed that they could mobilize something that they saw as jewish power around the world behind their light course so first of all that was entirely wrong and didn't happen because the. power is fake it's force. in september one nine hundred thirty nine german expansionism led to the second world war over sixty million people died including between five and six million
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jews the majority in nazi concentration camps. the british mandate ended at midnight on the fourteenth of may one nine hundred forty eight and immediately the formation of the state of israel was announced justified by the terms of the balfour declaration issued thirty one years before. while israelis celebrated the birth of their nation seven hundred thousand palestinians were forced into camps and exile the family done a lot of damage you're not afraid and because we're. going to be done you know they're coming. for palestinians the balfour declaration represents the moment an imperial power promised their land the way to another people. which is the best. out there which was. they hold bell for responsible for their expulsion displacement and occupation.
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a new level of luxury has arrived. an experience that will transform the way we treat. our impeccable service remains but none comes with breaking heat is a. ritual you share with business clients. the old forces for the sake
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of the free state. whether conducting business or sharing a special journey with flyers bringing you the things to. the feeling that. someone in trying somewhere else you'll centuries in the sky. introducing who said. this to us. because only it was going places together. the consequence of war and that ventures and russia will be served in the marine corps for one thousand nine hundred ninety five that just doesn't go away it's been living out of his truck for the last couple years. he's homeless al-jazeera follows a group of u.s. army veterans troll much iced by war. as they struggle to get their lives back.
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hello i'm barbara starr this is the news hour live from london coming up in the next sixty minutes reports of six dead after a truck drives the wrong way down a cycle path in new york lawyers for facebook twitter and google go before congress to explain how russia allegedly used them to influence the u.s. election catalonians the post president says he's staying in brussels for safety in spain starts processing rebellion charges against him plus. a new movie alone. kenyan opposition leader right loading up calls for the presidential rerun vote he boycotted to be unknown. and in sports a knockout rounds of the european champions league are in sight and p.s.g. and neymar could seal their place in the last sixteen later this hour.


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