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tv   Capturing Carbon  Al Jazeera  May 6, 2018 12:32pm-1:00pm +03

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says the u.s. will regret quitting the nuclear deal like never before. a rod is prepared to respond if such a decision is taken british foreign minister boris johnson is traveling to the u.s. to try and convince president donald trump to stay in the agreement i got oh as hard as. if the u.s. opts to pull out of the nuclear deal it will soon realize that this decision will become a historic regret for them no change will occur in our lives next week we have devised plans for any possible decision to make and will resist it the u.s. is beefing up its naval presence in the north atlantic to deal with what it calls a rising threat from russia its reviving its second fleet which was disbanded seven years ago to save money israeli media reports suggest president donald trump could ask israel to withdraw from four neighborhoods in the occupied east jerusalem speculation it could be part of the u.s. peace plan for the region becomes a week before the american embassy officially booth from tel aviv to jerusalem in
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hawaii more people have been forced to leave their homes by a volcanic eruption lava steam toxic gas and powerful earthquakes are threatening residential areas. russian opposition leader has been released after he was arrested as an anti-government rally in moscow he said to go on trial on friday more than a thousand people were detained across the country after demonstrations against president vladimir putin. says i had lines more news on al-jazeera after techno if . we understand the differences and the similarities of cultures across the world. so no matter where you call home al-jazeera international bringing the news and current affairs that matter to. al-jazeera. green bacteria in the tree.
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because how council climate change. explores the science of capturing. this. change. we're going to explore the intersection of humanity and we're doing it in a unique way this is a show about science by scientists. fossil fuels powering the modern industrial economy with global economic growth. in. greenhouse. since the one nine hundred fifty s. the u.s. space agency has been monitoring carbon dioxide levels. in two thousand and
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thirteen climate history is made at the moment. in hawaii. in the month of may we measured c o two. you know why go over four hundred. which is a mile you could say. we think this is a significant milestone it reminds us of the fact that. is higher. in the last at least two million years. was also significant is the rate of increase is rapid. this computer generated image shows. across the globe the intense red indicate increased burning of fossil fuels during the fourth of two thousand and six which in turn generates. america europe and asia scientists around the world have evidence indicating
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increased levels of fear in. a behind rising temperatures extreme droughts and extreme storms associated with warming and climate change the prime scientists say carbon dioxide c o two. nature can provide a path. through photosynthesis treason. to production as the growth of the forests global temperatures continue to climb higher. ever. one way to stop rising sea levels is to reduce dangerous emissions research is the taking in. science to come up with methods to capture. innovation one experiment to plan would
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inject carbon emissions underground could be turned into and stored indefinitely welcome to techno i got to say the same thing and the theme for and i think. i think is beauty isn't just on the surface there's a lot more happening. and one of the most geologically active areas on. according to iceland's national energy authority the tiny island nation is packed with more than two hundred active volcanoes. but even when they aren't in iceland's many volcanic molten magnifies just. that results in a landscape covered with hot spots and open gas. in the middle of one of these hot spots. fueled entirely by the energy from the ground below the
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geothermal power generated here provides more than enough energy tonight. capital city of mecca bit so we're right on the edge of a volcanic area aren't we how important is that for the fight. located here if it weren't for the world where the world that's where we have. electricity. is a chemical engineer and the search for energy. she took us to the top of the ball to get a close up view station. this is the geothermal version of an oil rig. the flow of. more than two hundred degrees off of. the real.
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three hundred degree. so. across from the ground. yeah basically with their limbs or crux of the ground rhetoric. war third or you know just regular work that's circulating through. our congress bring the thing that you can really imagine what's very. yeah yeah i mean it's much more than that this is just you know a couple guys for. that says incredible but what's happening here is actually as a result of what's going on thousands of inmates have been a fly think the locust so porous when engine is through a little so as they release safely he said getting. a very family gases including the i would say the scientists here all sorts of things especially . the set of beliefs into the atmosphere. as it turns out.
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is also a giant tree home to one of the world's most innovative plans to capture carbon dioxide c good business there is a research professor at the ice and he's part of the team behind comp thinks the company capture program reckon big energy even though this is a green energy point five percent of what comes out of the ground is made up of gases cup and dioxide and hunch and some fight. the idea is to take home the missions and inject them back into the ground a theoretical you could take all your through that's going to be released in the future you know from burning all of no fossil fuel on earth you could capture it and you can store it in the ocean egregious you know with all of it all of it you know about this five tons of carbon that's kind of the estimated you know emission
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of most of if we if we a myth of the current rate increase causing climate change causing acidification of the ocean etc unless we captured with you that's incredible that this carbon capture method could be the solution to. eliminating our carbon footprint well it's not a silver bullet i mean it's not the solution is one of the solutions the can't fix program was conceived in the labs here in two thousand and six by two thousand and twelve it was fully implemented in the field it takes advantage of something else i since tectonic heritage provides the sun take a look at the landscape has is highly dramatic and it's covered in this dark and jagged edge long right above and below the surface it's called. volcanic lava cools and it's perfect for catching carbon because it's highly reactive with. this is the key ingredient to this whole innovative process isn't
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there this is a chunk of course after looking up but it's the black material that's the most off and then you can see white spots sort of in between this absolutely calcium carbonate that we're forming that's the c o two. so these white spots is actually this isn't just a chunk of it this is a very nice calcium carbonate crystal cultured christo. but this is not really representative of what you want reform with in the ground during our injection that's more like the spots you can see the possibly this process is happening here in iceland naturally for example in order to ferment areas where we have what can they sue to interacting with our soft turning this into into carbon minerals so then we thought why not test this interesting idea out here in west london when we have our geothermal power plant providing
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a source of c o two that come in then become. injected back into the ground and see if we can utilize accelerate this not sure process so the process is happening naturally here it's happening at a much faster speed did you predict that yeah so i actually in the beginning i was involved with the project in my in as a part of my ph the bush the multiple projects that mineralization to occur within five years time but. it proved out that the processes in foss them out to protect it the c o two was turned into stone within only two years two and once the c o two is turned into stone we don't have to worry about that it's not going anywhere it's just but it in the ground as raw the process begins at the production while. steam is sent down these pipes and into the main power plant. is used to turn the plants giant terrifying which produced electricity. the same person for binds them
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at the end of. the water if they can work here extent or whether. the pipes on their readers are sour and heating up. once the steam is usually back into the atmosphere for the car fix project the gas is about point five percent of steam going to be special. that's when the company capture process. so the guesses get a shower what does that mean yeah but they actually flow through a column where we have what the drop was falling falling down because three rows in the opposite direction i guess meets a liquid yeah and during that sort of interaction the c o two one had some sort of fight they this all into the water droplets that were sent back down the pipe to this injection hot several hundred meters from the main plant that's how this is
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really the heart of innovation in this for what happens so here we are actually interacting water containment this on c o two into the ground into the boss of the coal store where the chemical reactions place and turn it into rock so the gas has been dissolved in water that was coming up through the pipe here in the pipe we have or are about thirty meters per second of compounds theme actually containing this salt c o two and it's through us flowing through here because if you look through the window you can see that there are actually i mean bubbles are visible even though we have a lot of fluid flow flowing through it and that's because all the costs of the salt it's hard to believe that there's actually thousands of these is the second. of water content of gas flowing through here and just that scientists yeah it looks it looks empty but if you look closely you can see so what is more profit off moving around a little bit so it is actually happening and you can see it's on the pressure nine
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point five hours the final step in the process is where the chemical reaction happens the water is pumped down this notch pipe to a depth of one point five kilometer that's where it hits bedrock and that's where the chemical reaction takes place as they like to say. gas is turned to rock. so what happens after we inject this year two was that this year two was is the salt and water which is then acidic. the acidic water dissolves the process of the coaster releasing calcium magnesium and iron into the water fluid where it can react with the c o two that's already there and form these carbonate minerals basile to react fast. formed the rocks. where we surprised we have done some experiments we have done transport modeling where we predicted that this would take over the order of five to ten years no one really believed. you know
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you really have to do it for ben we injected. him two years from prostate news the plant already green has reduced its carbon footprint by one more importantly a team of ph d. students at the university of rice and is conducting a new round of testing to figure out why cupcakes is so well and whether it has global application for this machine here is very much like more hearts on your family found months i guess where it's mixing together so i'm very inactive not sure. what are you trying to find from all this experimentation so the main aim is to figure out where the kick off is when is the c o two reacting with the salt to form carbonate why is the carbon in season so fast and i mean in other carbon storage methods it takes tens of thousands of years or is this a procedure that could be. copied around the world that is the hope i mean right
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now it has been done in iceland and they are doing studies united states in the columbia river area we have to try and link up with other companies and universities and other countries in the world in order to bring this method to them but also alter it what type of industry they have and what type of rocks they have and then in a way looking at the different industries seeing what. what they do on a daily basis and seeing how you can alter it in such a way that they can also store their gas emissions in the ground. so it's working very well. but one of the other applications of this technology will be over up because of course we want to get the coal fired power plants you know where the much of the mission is done also we want to get this to two smelters you know we need to in the future even if we abandon fossil fuels i don't. relate
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scientists here say they have a long way to go but they would begin testing the complex process of power plants and smelted situated in coastal regions. so far tests at the energy plant chainmail negative impact on water supplies downstream from the injection site other methods of carbon storage. in geological formations or injecting c o two into depleted or wells the car fixed process. the process actually turns the gas into rock so how can this be expanded globally. well. the most. and when we have it we have big planes of rocks and in the states in siberia but also the whole ocean explorer well that's
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a lot of surface and one of the downsides of this method that is that beneath a lot of what that is because we wanted to solve the c o two completely before we inject if we use to see what that path but then to the ocean explorer somehow we have endless supply of what you know us what we could imagine so but the question remains how much of this would be practical to use. with not really the only way to capture and store you know we this is the first experiments we do you know one on that is no applied to the interest groups. good conventional way of capturing c o two and compressing it on injecting into so that a base that they've been doing since ninety six so there's a lot of know. what this. is that we need to put a price on the carpet it has to be an incentive for him to do it and it should be included in the price of fossil fuels the price of capturing and storing the car we
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have done then i'm very optimistic we know of course we always have to work on ways to actually lower the price but it is doable with the present knowledge we have but it's costly in two thousand and fifteen the u.s. national academy of science issued a report on geo engineering the science of using technology to counter the impact of climate change the panel's contrition the benefits of carbon dioxide high risk costs a challenge they called for more studies to determine if storage of c o two could be safe and effective scientists at the university of rice and harder and they studied. capturing c o two is just one possible solution but scientists have another plan and not burying carbon dioxide but they are finding a way to use it the technique.
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scientists in amsterdam are studying another solution to help reduce global c o two levels they're innovating green manufacturing techniques of some common products like plastics that actually remove instead of add carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during production currently the plastic manufacturing process emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the environment adding to the problem of climate change. but what if the new technology could produce the type of biodegradable plastic that could actually help reverse the greenhouse effect the possibility of this lies inside bacteria and ancient organism the first of three point five billion years ago which turns carbon dioxide into valuable organic compounds from which plastics can be made as a whole variety of organisms. but there is a wrong particular. microorganisms that we call this so you have to work very. this
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is an example of the blue green algae. here in amsterdam science park a young startup has grand plans harnessing the photosynthetic power of cyanobacteria not only to reduce c o two in the atmosphere but also to produce earth friendly consumer products the science behind this begins with an understanding of photosynthesis plants and some bacteria use energy from the sun along with carbon dioxide and water from the atmosphere to produce oxygen and organic compounds the oxygen is put back into earth's atmosphere and the cycle continues. scientists have found that cyano bacteria one of the oldest organisms known to man can be engineered in the lab to excrete commercially valuable molecules. although there are differences in climate between various places on earth we also find many different sand bacteria and in principle you could find for any sport where you would want to apply to your technique you could find a certain fan of bacterium that is optimally adapted to carry out the process that
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you have to find. in this lab living cyanobacteria conduct photosynthesis under artificial conditions and are engineered to excrete a number of specific compounds used in products ranging from plastics to fragrances to pharmaceuticals. the cyanobacteria excluded compound used in the manufacturing of bioplastics is lactic acid. dr class telling which is a microbiologist spearheading the cyanobacteria research and here is an example of a product that can be made by the scientific theory in very large amounts and this case this is one of the. early pure forms of lactic acid and then if you have a culture a liquid culture that has been modified to produce the electric effort and you let it produce for a for a while for this electric bomb or can then be used to make consumer products of
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plastic and there's also a very important product. that will become much more important in the years to come and this is the electric us to use in three d. printing and my expectation is that the amount of products that we that we will be using that have been produced in the three d. printer will enormously trees in the coming years. growing cyanobacteria to make lactic acid for use in plastic manufacturing requires a detailed scientific recipe. researcher dr sabrina explains how the cyanobacteria is grown in the lab. here we grow the three cultures that when the news is to not too late. large bottles that will be again used to inoculate our pilot facility which is from three four hundred liters of two thousand liters so you're growing a small amount in here and then you'll dump it and went to looks like an empty clear yet liquid and then it grows to be the screen yes exactly yeah what's in here
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right now what are these are we had was a bit electric i said producing bacteria but we do is the monitor as close as possible all different part of this from ph to temperature to nutrient concentration in order to find the best recipe for the medium. the lactic acid producing psion of bacteria is engineered here it will be moved to other labs with larger bio reactors just scale up production increasing the amount of bioplastics that can be manufactured later normally you don't think about plastic is necessarily being good for the environment but these are generally there is a problem with plastics that if they are very recalcitrant that means that once they are deposited in the environment they will stay in the environment and they will not degrade or degrade only very very slowly and the nice thing of this plastic is the thing of this type of polymer is that you can make blends of these polymers that have a range of degradation that you can set when you make the polymer tunable it is
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tunable so you have brought this this be good to be degraded and then the material in this to be printing so you're proposing an almost entirely closed loop you start with in the atmosphere you use the modified cyanobacteria to create a plastic polymer that humans use goes to landfill is broken down and turns back into. this very important and we call it the carbon cycle on earth and now the last two hundred years mankind has. she been attracted to burn all that for. however if we continue to do that create this problem of increased c o two and global warming and that's why it is very important to change the carbon cycle into a cycle where all the carbon that is fixed by photosynthesis by the plans for food or the scientific theory to make materials all this fixed carbon is used and after
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you ideally it is. wanted to see who is going to end of a cycle a new and with an energy of sunlight new products can be made. using nature and science to combat climate change in mind just have to. protect our armed opposition he said mara in iceland the next time. this is a boon for point people right now in technology there is so much going to help people it's phenomenal thanks for calling i read this is there and what are you looking for today we get to assist the client with their day to day tasks and give them more independence and freedom this feels like it's a little sure is a tomato exploration process was amazing and we have that technology available to
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us no. the nature of news as it breaks this is one of the areas where protestants had blocked the road through thing finding higher than anything else they could find with detailed coverage because now there's an extremely hard to sob story that everyone striving for the good of the state from around the world this museum aims to be a repository of our regions history and its perfected war that has divided tribes here for generations. of all my friends and coworkers who were detained i am the only one who survived they were all waiting for news of their menfolk was only one word on limits bill maher struggled a saw a boy killed in his father's all but saw so much that. i have only once in my life see men who are scared to death a bit to civil wars darkest secret bosnia to come on al-jazeera.
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with the most they could be and people in the world food production is under increasing strain to keep the pace with a growing global population al-jazeera is environmental solutions program discovers new ways of feeding the world sustainably folks online eighty thousand just from this bit of liquid it's unbelievable to see there's the vegetable of the scene right there. for thoughts on al jazeera.

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