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tv   Black September  Al Jazeera  June 20, 2018 1:32am-2:01am +03

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you to achieve an e.u. white deal. fierce fighting is raging outside the airport of the yemeni city of data thousands of pro-government fight is backed by a saudi led coalition battling against to think rebels the airport is considered a key resupply base by the saudi and amber otty coalition which is trying to capture the port which has been held by the rebels the past three years. one of two or oil terminals set on fire during clashes in the libyan port of ruslan ouf has now collapsed it's fear the damage could impact the country struggling economy which relies on oil production for its revenue they are up to date with all of the top stories that's it from myself and the team here in london but there is much more news coming up from doha in about twenty five minutes time stay with us the i.m.f. said riyadh's a breakeven or price for twenty eighteen is likely to be around eighty eight dollars a barrel why is argentina again turning to the i.m.f.
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for help now we bring you the stories that are shaping the economic world we live in counting the cost on al-jazeera. one nine hundred forty eight the state of israel was proclaimed. palestine was lost. sixteen years later in one thousand nine hundred sixty four the palestine liberation organization or the p.l.o. was founded. made up of different factions the p.l.o. has been at the heart of the struggle to regain palestine ever since. by the end of the sixties the palestinians had become masters of their own destiny
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. but a bloody showdown was on the horizon. not with israel but with fellow arabs. the palestinian commando movement emerged as a force to be reckoned with in the region following the defeat of the arab states in the one nine hundred sixty seven. the palestinians had taken their first steps towards emancipation from the out of work. and that. would allow us at the arab league all of these factors doesn't look at blow to the arab custodianship of the palestinians and their cause and thus palestinians became the masters of their destiny. the palestinians took full advantage of the state of chaos suffered by the defeated out of regimes palestinian guerrilla factions the most prominent of which
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was fatah consolidated their grip on the refugee camps in the arab world hundreds of fresh recruits and rolled to join these factions the image of young for the even more freedom fighters clad in the traditional palestinian headscarf became an icon of resistance. egyptian president jammeh knob nasr cast aside his initial misgivings and embraced but. at the same time he dissolved his traditional alliance with the arab nationalist movement a rival palestinian faction to further. not that i'm. not a broker of his relationship with the arab nationalist movement and i adopted not only did the adopt but he also took out a fight with him on a trip to moscow of the hammer play him a lot the law said and. i walked in and massive met me across the room and lo and behold the solve your troika got time to work towards me and greeted me. the next
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day they launched an official dialogue with militants in. other arab regimes also vital influence among the palestinians as a way to gain leverage on the regional scene both iraq and syria encourage the establishment of new palestinian factions allied to them at the classified cia document found that fact that independents had influenced serious decision to set up a palestinian faction whose allegiance lay firmly with damascus the syrian government unable to subvert fatah for use as a political weapon recently organized a group known as the vanguard of the people's liberation war but not all arab states help the palestinians in such high esteem king hussein was still reeling from the loss of the west bank in one thousand nine hundred sixty seven well israel of the father to be. is a names occupation of the west bank effectively meant the loss of half the country . imagine a person suddenly having to walk on one leg that's why the one nine hundred sixty
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seven war was such an earthquake for jordan. in jordan one palestinian strolled through the streets enjoying freedom of movement and launching operations from jordanian territory against israel jordan began to view these attacks with increasing alarm nasr was assisting the palestinians in training and arms but he ensured that no operations were launched from egyptian territory without stringent egyptian control and coordination fatah and other palestinian factions acted with much greater freedom within the weaker state of jordan in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine palestinian commandos shot down a lebanese army helicopter during clashes with the lebanese state. and egyptian brokered agreement known as the cairo accord put an end to the clashes. but the accord effectively legitimized the presence of on palestinian factions on lebanese soil something which was to have serious consequences for stability eleven on in the years to come. besides creating waves in arab regimes the palestinian factions
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also revolutionized their own society in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine for the leader yasser arafat was elected chairman of the p.l.o. the election marked a new era the guerrillas were in the ascendant overthrowing the traditional hold of more established palestinian families such was the impact of the p.l.o. on the fedayeen that out of its image had made the cover of time magazine. but it was in jordan the base for most of the palestinian factions were there for the eons growing assertiveness because most probably yes they had set up a state within a state in jordan and the actions they planned and carried out soon began to rock the region. armed gunmen roam the streets of the capital amman and jordan's other main cities like in a bit and suck up palestinian guerrillas no longer restricted themselves to bases in the more inaccessible parts of the country complaints about palestinian excesses quickly about it but i'll be honest about it between one thousand nine hundred
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eighty seven and one nine hundred seventy one and there were more than thirty thousand cases of lawlessness from the throwing of hand grenades to premeditated murder there were even attacks against his majesty the king all of this was tolerated with tremendous patience by his majesty because i think he felt a certain responsibility for the events of nine hundred sixty seven. to his dying days he felt it especially the loss of jerusalem. king hussein may have felt for the loss of jerusalem in the west bank in one thousand nine hundred sixty seven but his patience with the palestinians was beginning to wear thin for their part palestinian figures to this day contend that dark forces were at play determined to bring about a showdown. lend their command be able to be honest we're not saints in jordan we made mistakes but these mistakes were made out to be sent to then in intelligence used to create their own field day in organizations whose role was to wreak havoc in the country we a prevented one such
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organization set up by military intelligence with some seventy members we deported them to syria and we later released them the revolutionary zeal of the palestinians knew no boundaries radical leftist ideology could be seen sprayed on mosque walls private property was considered up for grabs have it. that this left and zeal i call adel a childhood manifested itself in the celebration of lennon's birthday and delivering marxist speeches from puppets of mosques it was an excuse for theft expensive cars would be stolen and the excuse was that they belonged to the bush war classes it was leftist immaturity it had that. they were absent provocation on the democratic front for the liberation of palestine used to paint slogans such as all power to the resistance. what does this mean it means that the democratic front
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was working towards the overthrow of the door doing your gene or that tensions were rising on the streets of on the dominant palestinian faction further attempted to distance itself from such excesses but the artifact could not or would not rein in the different factions and was unable to prevent the situation spiraling out of control groups such as the popular front and the democratic front were independent factions over which arafat exerted little control things began to come to a head in july one nine hundred seventy when palestinian factions in jordan staged massive rallies condemning president nasser for accepting a peace plan submitted by u.s. secretary of state william rogers palestinian demonstrators shouted insults at nasa the egyptian leader was furious for they have. got out of the house nasser's aide haykel said what are you doing the president is upset your swearing at us and using the radio station we're provided you with an egypt to do it then
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nasr received us in alexandria he said he had been pacing up and down for two hours trying to stop himself from saying anything that would hurt us. with tensions increasing in jordan it was a bad time for the palestinians to fall out of favor with nasser to this day some palestinians feel the egyptian leader gave a nod and the wink to king hussein of jordan to punish the palestinians. four of them that's true he told king hussein to twist our ear but he didn't ask him to massacre us. and then nasser went to murder someone threw up so he would not being cairo when things came to a head. but the jordanians were still in two minds about what course of action to pursue against the armed palestinians in their midst prime minister was fear recommended a more conciliatory approach and ignore. i don't know much and of the data to which we i told him the palestinians will not withdraw unless they are faced with
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a superior force so what. are you dissenting i said no this is a recommendation based on the a telegin surveille about us. his majesty then intervene and the doctors in my recommendation. on september sixth one nine hundred seventy the popular front for the liberation of palestine or p f l p force the jordanians hand. it hijacked airliners belonging to swiss air and t.w.a. eight and forced them to land at a disused runway in the jordanian desert known as dawson's field and. a third hijacking of an israeli aircraft was thwarted midair with one hijacker killed and the other captured. the plane landed in london and the hijacker leyla khalid was taken into custody. then at the f.l.b. member in bahrain hijacked
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a british airliner and forced it to fly to dawson's field to join the other two hijacked planes. this spectacular act of air piracy was masterminded by a senior b f l b leader called where the accident. the b.s.l. pin was born from the remnants of the arab nationalist movement and headed right towards us it adopted a revolutionary marxist doctrine when the hundred was one of its co-founders he had become a mastermind of airline hijacking. beginning in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight hundred had put his theories of revolutionary violence into practice by hijacking several israeli and western aircraft but the multiple hijacking in one thousand seven hundred was his most important feed to date it required meticulous even scientific planning at the end of a shut it off during the planning stages when he had sent in g.'s and surveyors to those on field they had returned with a recommendation that their own way could handle modern jets. what you had that has
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shit or atilla mike and yaquis kenya been up but i had to get done what the ad that spoke in charge he was obviously the man in charge he told our chief of staff to pull the jordanian tops back he added that if we didn't comply he would immediately blow up the planes within seconds and he emphasized that in english by saying i mean it. i remember this clearly. on september twelfth the p f l b removed the passengers and blew up the planes. with his hold on power rapidly disintegrating king hussein formed the military cabinet to finally deal with the anarchy in his country. the cabinet included intelligence officer adnan aboard gallatin ficarra letty clearly when the military cabinet was formed on september sixteenth i became minister of information it was told me i would be the principal negotiator with the palestinians he said we would scare them
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into coming to the negotiation table he never said anything about driving them out of door to. prime minister was peter's conciliatory approach did not win the day the jordanian army had other plans and deployed in full force into the streets of amman in jordan to other cities vicious street battle soon erupted between army troops and palestinian groups fighting for their lives the fifth day you put up a stiff resistance in the face of a jordanian army bent on exacting revenge for all the humiliations it had endured at the hands of the us casualties mounted with the palestinians estimating that around four thousand people were killed most of them civilians in iraq where many. civilians bear the brunt of urban warfare we estimate that we lost around nine hundred and fifty fighters in black september and as for the civilians out of five to exaggerate. since there's around ten thousand died but the real figure is around
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forty five thousand civilians killed. in the region out of anger mounted at what was perceived as an attempt at liquidating the palestinian liberation movement promises of military assistance to the palestinians from iraqi forces stationed in jordan failed to materialize in. the iraqi forces stationed in jordan when non-ferrous to assist the palestinians their duty was to aid the defense of jordan against israel they did the lives of palestinians down while iraq kept its forces out of the fighting the rival bathurst government in damascus sought to intervene syria mobilized its armed forces and sent them into jordan to support the p.l.o. fighters however syrian defense minister half of the i said refused to provide air cover to the advancing syrian army king hussein contemplated the unsavory option of requesting israeli air support in a bid to beat back the syrian advance first the israelis agreed to mobilize their
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forces to get the syrians attention. and then and that's all they did actually but they were ready to use the their air force if requested. we managed to get the message back to them that the king doesn't want you to go in on the ground we don't want you to that mobilization is fine don't do anything until we say to that is get ready to to act if necessary but don't do anything and as you probably know this was a dramatic moment. king hussein used his own air force and. stood down the syrian air force and he knew that the israelis might go into action if the syrian air force acted on the ladder here that can fuck up that i am an indication . of how for the us and a lot. i'm not sure what the determining factor was for us. was it his relationship with the jordanian regime or any was internal power struggle within syria but it
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had anything to do with the threats he was getting from the americans and israelis not to intervene he was aware of all of this and he may have used the circumstances to his advantage because shortly afterwards he mounted a coup d'etat and came to power as its position at this time would be a precursor to his future split with yasser arafat the palestinians were now on the run. an arab league delegation headed by sudanese president just an ameri and including kuwait defense minister ship. arrived in the jordanian capital and managed to whisk a besieged just out to cairo. there at eleven of. the arab delegation came to our man they dressed arafat in kuwaiti robes and smuggled him out check sad was a hero on september twenty seventh one thousand seven hundred nasr brokered the cease fire agreement which was signed by artifact and get sick. the following day
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nasser died leaving the palestinians without their. other father hussein signed a further agreement regulating the presence of palestinian fighters in georgia but some palestinians refused to accept the deal. they remained collapsed and in july nine hundred seventy one king hussein continued his attack. the jordanian army overran the remaining p.l.o. bases and positions forcing the palestinians to capitulate. some palestinian fighters chose to give themselves up to israeli forces across the river jordan rather than surrender to what they viewed as a grim fate at the hands of the duties. henceforth the palestinians would term the
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events that led to their expulsion from jordan as black september. the p.l.o. had held sway over large areas of jordan now it was dress formed into a broken movement in search of a sanctuary. one affect us leaders otherwise known as abu iyad was determined that the p.l.o. remain a force to be reckoned with despite the defeat in jordan. and tom and ma'am ma'am i am matt sabo little that apple yet gathered a group of us and said you have to prove to the world that the revolution has survived. but you must show the world the long arm of the revolution. the beyond announced the birth of a new group which came to be known as the black september organization taking its name from the conflict with georgia. in november nine hundred seventy one at an out
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of the finance minister's council in cairo black september struck its first blow. the target was this man the jordanian prime minister was done on palestinians accused of responsibility for their expulsion from. a couple of nastiness about jonathan and if that was one of our group decided to assist and it was by any means possible. there were four of us in the hit team i was under the command of and abbas and seller. they ordered us to go to egypt it was sunday november twenty eighth one thousand nine hundred seventy one the three of us waited for was fit in the lobby of the cato charlatan. as soon as he entered the hotel we opened fire on him we shot him fourteen pounds then we gave ourselves up. that was the plan that we were to kill him and then go to try to gain with the
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export. the role that yasser arafat played in forming black september and planning its operations has always been open to conjecture today al jazeera can finally reveal the truth. of that i like and here are five new everything. he wasn't a guitar player he was the leader of the revolution and the canister. that the film mob. used to act in concert with arafat when we were preparing for an operation in jordan arafat came to our camp that didn't meet with us then i came by helicopter and met with us while arafat was on another room in the camp he didn't want to meet with us but later on he denies it us on. the assassination of tel was just the opening shot of the black september organization. a more dramatic operation was carried out the following year at an event chosen by
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the palestinians because they knew the whole world would be watching. at the one nine hundred seventy two munich olympics black september operatives infiltrated the olympic village killing two israeli athletes and seizing another eleven as hostages. the kidnappers demanded a prisoner swap and the plane to fly them out of western. holding the hostages at gunpoint the kidnappers were transported by bus to an airbase and then flown by helicopter to an airfield where two of them were shot dead by german snipers. when they went to inspect the aircraft. german authorities claimed another of the kidnappers then lobbed a hand grenade into the helicopter killing all of the israeli hostages to this day
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one of the principal planners of the operation remains under can't. control the budget. the larger level where they are the hostages were all army officers we killed only army officers who were dressed in sports track suits the israelis kill unarmed civilians we did not murder children or unarmed civilians but two months before munich the israelis bombed the school killing children so the world must have a more balanced outlook. further acts of violence ensued grabbing the world headlines. in march of one nine hundred seventy three black september gunmen stormed a diplomatic reception at the saudi arabian embassy and. the siege ensued which ended when the gunmen executed the american ambassador to sudan
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his deputy and the belgian chargé d'affaires. at the classified u.s. state department cables stated the operation was carried out with the full knowledge and authority of yasser arafat the report also stated one of the primary goals of the operation was to strike at the united states because of its efforts to achieve a middle east peace settlement which many arabs believe would be inimical to palestinian interests. by the end of one nine hundred seventy three the p.l.o. leaders had decided that the black september organization had outlived its usefulness. in the aftermath of the october one nine hundred seventy three war a new political climate had in which yes an artifact now recognized that there was a limit to what military action could achieve and that the palestinians must present an acceptable political program to the world if their liberation movement was to achieve its goals. defeat in jordan and a series of headline grabbing acts of violence had ensured the survival of the
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palestinian revolution but damaged it in the eyes of the world. decided that from now on the gun would only support but not supplant his political agenda. but the spoon was not shared by other palestinian factions nor did it prove realistic as the p.l.o. must soon drawn into a civil war in a neighboring arab country. on october the sixth one thousand nine hundred seventy three when muslims were observing ramadan and jews were celebrating young people. egypt and syria known to surprise war against israel powders world promoters so to get into this situation of disaster now in the first of the three part series al-jazeera explores what really happened during the first week of the war in october on al-jazeera.
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for nine hundred forty six to nine hundred fifty eight the united states detonated dozens of atomic bombs in the marshall islands when the us was getting ready to clean up and leave in the one nine hundred seventy s. they picked the pit that had been left by one of the smaller atomic explosions and dumped a lot of this who tony and other radioactive waste into the pit the bottom of the. permeable soil there was nowhere for her to wind it and therefore the sea water is is inside the dome when this dome was built there was no factoring in sea level rises caused by climate change every day when the tide rolls out radioactive isotopes from underneath the roll out with it. really they were not just the marshall islands we're talking the whole suite ocean. a land
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on it and did you know people. plundered its resources. in the long held resentments attorney violent with deadly consequences and you cannot use that as an excuse to go over sherman bracts people in power travels to south america to discover the finds of the kuchi on al-jazeera. you stand the differences. and the similarities of cultures across the world. al-jazeera china's one she province has become famous for its large number of elderly many age one hundred or older one when used investigates in the region hold
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the secrets to a long and healthy life. on al-jazeera. this is al-jazeera. hello i'm adrian finnegan this is the news i'll live from doha coming up in the next sixty minutes human rights council is a poor defender of human rights the united states pulls out of the u.n. human rights council saying the organization is not worth its name. as anger grows over the trumpet ministrations immigration policy to separate children from their parents the president meets politicians on capitol hill ahead
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of a crucial vote on the issue. fierce fighting at the airports of the.


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