to serve and fight for your country and necessary die to protect a way of life one that you believe in i am an american soldier i'm a warrior and a member of a team. that will never accept defeat. me i will never quit i'll never leave a fallen comrade it's the complete opposite of private military world you look at the budget 1st the loyalty of these companies and these businessmen's change depending on market forces. we operate in the world's challenging complex emerging markets the middle east is absolutely cool for other business today. the sooner we can are in pal and we perform in tina right on. this industry is not just what you see is what you get. when you see a company you don't know exactly who's working for them they hire and they sometimes
create what we call subs sub contractors. there's been commanders in afghanistan who just simply say we don't know who the subs of the subs subs are. so you have all these like layers of a contract. a level 40 control starts to fade quickly the deeper you go from the top to the bottom. united states army and the military in general is so reliant. on the private sector i would call the
dependency by we don't know who is the on the ground presence of these companies overseas we just don't know. it's crazy and actually it's really crazy in iraq. because since the feds the i step my fits in iraq every day there was a bombing they bombed the village there is a rockets. every day we have rockets fired. every day i heard gunshots every day a bomb in income in income in all my good it bomb went you know what soups and it's damage for all of our guards 4 of the civil union guys well trained guys
assumed i say original rock i called my mom i said mom i'm in iraq she said oh what's i said i'm in iraq no no you're kidding i said no moment i'm in iraq i said mom just watch the number what's the number and she watched the number. she was she was just she was yelling oh daddy yeah i said no mom there is no problem here we are saved we are not using a weapon we are you here is does our views my mom i said we are doing just domestic walk in iraq she told all the neighbors their own son my son he's in iraq you know he's doing a cooking job not with webb on. just after the war in syria you know i couldn't make it up because there was no job i didn't. and my friend calls me it's told me that's
a. very civic and see they were recruiting guys so-called so it's not so iraq if you just use weapons and who are well trained in it come for comply on. the 1st time i arrive to to this training camp can plan i have together with that to 2 white men found from the security company. went driving out in this small track and what's towards the camp through this
forest a landscape not so far away from from the airports and when we enter the camp and get out of the car the 1st thing we see is this a gun an instructor was and shouts of the training out there making sure we could sit lined up in order to receive these guys from the past security company. their work my care for iraq was. written i came from iraq you said that he needed. he was a shallow fighter who supposed to go to iraq not on ice you know more basic weapon issues only people that you can't be fighting between iraq. from his young government perspective the iraqi crude and was considered a quite good deal in the sense that they could actually take you know good troublemakers something away to back for a couple of years. and then returning them after 2 years with money and from the
overseas deployment this could surf to stabilize security in ca on. in the beginning of the training course the one other real weapons presence so they using the wooden sticks. it was fast after a couple of days and so the training that the weapons and arrived and their well being lined up at this wooden sables within in the middle of the big camp.
it was this tension and excitement those attention mainly because now it's actually getting into something very real ok. for many of the crew this is the 1st time holding a weapon since the ending of the civil war. many were starting to shake and some were even starting to cry when the when the su got the weapons and not being able to to handle them. that day any day i will provide a compliant backing for iraq revenge on our. memories come back from the past as the weeping. and of the know when i'm seeing this when i'm talking. most
need to. show you my fish if not about every day remember. returned our human father to my word out next idea that i would keep. this it's little i'm going to. go. i said no i don't want a tree so i asked that's how good it is that's a used. starts you put it in my boat. my boat is that bond and i burn it in order and drop. this in yes to cry for water but the gun makes you forget about you or your motor so i start says. call my
house. when i was young. at a lot of things that i've been scindia. a lot of. which is not good for human beings. or when they do so because. of the job you have your command of ministry go the people you have to go to bed then you don't go dutch you're to have been killed. when we think of war and the war your group. we have this image and are mine now of
a man in uniform. in uniform means they're fighting as part of a military serving a nation because if they fight for their force political patriotism. and yet when you look at the wars of the 21st century they don't match those assumptions anymore now we have outsourced a lot of our war fare to private military companies. the background of this changing nature of war and fights that dates back to the very start of the private military industry itself as. it was until the early ninety's the private security industry is a doctor murky industry. outright
mercenaries who were bringing down governments for the cash can you explain what exactly sound fine internationally is and what you do in a. certain line. is a company that provides military consultancy services for governments. at the time the idea was to get very posh english officers on top of these private military companies and tim spicer was an officer in the military the british military. got out and was asked to come help with a company called sandline. to spices a rival gave an almost instant sense of respectability to what had previously been a mess in the world and i don't personally have any difficulty would mostly i just don't like the image that comes out in most people's mind the 1st time it seems
feisty i was interviewing him for a newspaper he's charming public school educated goal itself and that medievals an s.u.v. a feature of the construe before and it changed the agenda of the global agenda almost a problem that your company was. tim spicer was considered the respectable head of a mercenary organization but at 1st his business affairs didn't go too well he was dogged by failure for example he got a phone call from a fellow indian with a thai passport who was under house arrest for a financial scandal and he contacted tim spicer and wanted him to restore the president of sierra leone. once the president sherrilyn was back in power this guy would then get his contracts for diamonds and be able to make money
. but it didn't work out that way the companies run by chip spicer's focus on a couple 150 patients by customs and excise and he's accused of smuggling weapons illegally. when a private firm gets involved in foreign politics for the benefit of a criminal you have to stop and ask ok this really happened or is this a fictitious you know james bond type story but it was a true story. these things tended to happen very often times that he'd always somehow managed to get signed the recently retired british gonna do that a band of ministers is safely back in this country so has this put him up his new career as a hired gun going to continue with this new new business of heroes sandline international well i think we've got a number of lessons to learn from this particular. episode i think that we will continue to try on the business as long as we can do it in
a. so what. sandline eventually collapsed under the weight of bad publicity. was that if idea in the short term you could say that was also a successful company in terms of delivering an enormous amount of money to rituals and so forth to firstly it launched to spice on a career where he was able to found what would then become one of the most significant problem of your company's in the world. he just. was playing.
in just 20. 1 from been some. almost bought it as if it sold for one dalton. many to bill films and such a sunset was it a visit somebody comes to displace this all this money on something like that changes topic in the lives of people who do. want it that's all and. this is a really fabulous news from one of the best i've ever worked in there is a unique sense of bonding where everybody teams in but something i feel every time i get on the chair every time i interview someone we're often working round the clock to make sure that we bring the events as i currently as possible to the viewer that's what people expect of us and that's what i think we really do well. an ethiopian was determined to tell the world a new story about
a country our source our humanity is the most beautiful thing we've got i wish we can just realize that in just the footbaths despite the challenges she became c.e.o. of tourism and head of ethiopia's land development project my ethiopia on al-jazeera. hello there i fell asleep in london with the top stories on al-jazeera the un has turned up the heat on world leaders ahead of its climate summit in new york with a new report warning that the impacts of global warming all speeding up the world meteorological organization says the average global temperature for 2015 to 2019 is on track to be the hottest of any 5 year period on record is this global sea levels
of rising death aust is right and carbon emissions of hit new highs what the w. o. are saying publicly is what climate scientists have been saying privately for some time which is that climate is turning out to be more sensitive to them puts of greenhouse gases than we previously thought and that means the urgency of dealing with the problem is growing faster iran's president has told western powers to leave the security of the persian gulf to regional nations led by seron has been rouhani made the comment while watching parades showcasing his country's military arsenal you also promised to unveil a regional peace plan at the united nations next week to secure the gulf region without the need for foreign intervention the u.s. says it wants to avoid war with iran. hong kong police have clashed with protesters outside a shopping mall which was vandalized along with
a metro station the demonstrators trampled on a chinese flag and lit fires as they targeted stores links to china it is the 16th straight weekend of anti government protests. israel's prize president says the country's next government should include both prime minister benjamin netanyahu party and benny gantz is blue and white alliance with in return is leaving 2 days of talks to choose a leader for a coalition government last week's election which was israel's 2nd in 5 months failed to produce a clear winner. and tens of thousands of indian americans are packed into a texas stadium for an unusual joint rally by the indian prime minister narendra modi and u.s. president donald trump he vents in houston dubs how the modi is a rare mass show of support for a foreign leader on u.s. soil with presidential elections due in 14 months trumps appearance at the rally could help improve his image one of america's most multi ethnic cities and those
are the latest headlines stay with us child soldiers we loaded continues next. when 911 occurred everything changed. the contractor content of the armed forces went up astronomically at this hour american and coalition forces are in the early stages of military operations to disarm iraq. ideologically republicans my party wanted every single public function to be scrutinized analyzed evaluated and if possible privatized general shinseki the head of the us army at the time testified
to congress and said if we're going to do iraq it's going to take several 100000 u.s. troops and very quickly the rest of the bush administration reacted negatively he's absurd that's crazy it's not going to require those amount of troops and they actually simply dropped him out of the military it turned out he was right we did deploy several 100000 forces it was just through private military. so in the early days of iraq it was a gold rush you had companies coming out of nowhere including blackwater who was really like a tomboy but nobody had any control anybody doing anything with firearms in this
country to say they're private military company. was an a.t.m. for these companies the basic idea of a contractor versus recruiting. training in supporting military vets is that there is room hiring a prostitute or getting married. so instead of a soldier who has an x. cost of a year now being a contractor who's being paid $8.00 times 10. well what has happened is that america has basically married a prostitute and has been active in them for a very long period of time is almost sure to be a. good example of. it's not invade a country and it would be a. good. thing but none of the russians are searching around ok i'm with you. on this now we will get a real movies where it's very. contractors offer some grey
area benefits to politicians everybody's concerned like we have a 1000 boots the ground nobody ever asks how many contractors there is don't like our goods on the ground. so if the us military wanted to put 1000 boots on the ground and there's 4000 contractors it's a way of you know having a force of 5000 but without politically risk. to be done without trying to meet. your shooting at you it just you yes yeah yeah but other. than that bang bang so did did you get a skirt shoot 1st of a bad shot and run up in a river shaking his car. and that's exactly. right
this is only right. if. the security companies had the sensitivity of something as civilians would often if not always. get caught in the crossfire. what governments have always done is they would do 2 things at once. you fight and you win hawks and mines. private and she took it didn't do that. on the ground opening fire they were very very noticeable they would play rock music that in this was not there was no subtlety 6 this was not a even the military will most discreet in the private security companies so they were as they were very very public slap in the face for the average iraqi on a daily basis.
to a real problem for the military so we sell the contractor presence in iraq in particular but afghanistan too was becoming contrary to what the mission was for the armed forces therefore their presence was more danger than it was help. knowing. who. every turn around the traffic circle. there probably trying to get. the problem was that we had all of these different private military companies running around we outsourced too quickly and they weren't coordinated both in contract terms but also in on the ground operational terms so what is your answer to a problem of outsourcing. outsource more we outsourced it to
a private military company to coordinate. diseases contracts in iraq and was to oversee the communication and coordination for all of the privacy of your companies on the ground. and been effective meant that they were the general in charge of all of the private contractors. now that point the us military was the largest machine presence in iraq but if you added together all of the private military contractors spies was effectively in charge of the 2nd largest on force in iraq. the prisons in iraq was relatively scandal free as one. video which was posted on
youtube from the contract so who is. following that gun while playing rock music. being. released. but no legal actions were taken. very rapidly each is such a machine huge company. and it made to spy certain extremely healthy man a. majority of americans now think it was a mistake to go to war in iraq public support for the war is falling war americans want the troops to come home. in
a brief ceremony on a base on the edge of baghdad the united states took down the flag of its command here to mark the end of the military mission. the u.s. money was starting to be pulled out of the iraqi. field operations and the industry had to go through a very complicated reset. those companies had to realize that they weren't going to get that level of money again and so they had to offer different. deals. that meant they would have to hire a chief a soldier is. a move. that won't work. for a woman will not go to law.
all work undertaken by the judge is carried out to high standards of fresh will competence and integrity when we 1st started into theater we were briefed on peruvian and colombian guards and the natural question you ask is so what do you pay for these folks and you know at the time and i'm playing off memory cells but i'm pretty good at that that was about a $1000.00 to $1200.00 and them oh i don't know 6 months a year ago it became. a gun and guards at about $800.00 a month and we don't ask the question of security companies because of those lowest
price technically acceptable rushed to the bottom that's what some call. white while gone it's now versus proving some columbia i'm sorry so we don't have a chance to get the award unless we use a garden's because there are $2.00 to $400.00 less and now in this most recent trip the company that is winning all the awards that had this was 1st started heard of well we've got a good strategy we're using sierra leonean so you asked the question so so what are we paying form just $250.00 a month. you know i guess rhetorically i don't expect to be answered you know to come and go a lower go we find someone it's like we'll do it for boardroom you know. that is such a terrible country that maybe they'll just go out of the country and be a free security guard i mean that's pretty inexpensive if i say that it sounds facetious but it's real. you know what will you get what you pay for.
the original goal was not to bring soldiers or exogenous from the poorest countries on earth but the u.s. system requires that you pick the lowest bidder so that became the status quo in iraq to have multiple layers of foreigners as long as you're in the army and you meet certain criteria and sometimes you don't have to be in the army to meet this criteria. companies self interest is different than national self interest companies are profit maximizes what they do that's natural. or not it may not get you right now. what do you do if you know
you have somebody from the philippines working for an american private all try company in afghanistan to tell somebody what jurisdiction does that person fall under we don't know. 'd in about 15 countries i've been involved in programs to reintegrate children who have served in armed forces. it's a contradiction in terms on the one hand western countries have pumped large sums of money into the reintegration of former child soldiers but now we have
governments like us supporting these so-called security companies that recruit people and continue their exposure to violence and their identities as perpetrators of violence as soldiers but make it impossible to ever reintegrate into civilian life. at one time when the markets came into account to kill a lot of. hours on top of the time. looking down we had to exploit. i think when people are dying on the street. the explosion is all over the city and off any time had a gunshot had a bomb or watch a very explosion i think about my colleagues who was happens. when
you brought you back. to the 1st team what. full force. should be member. still dish to walk and this is what's happened and she knew she. would go. right off. if you're running a con you can't get good. at fighting for what they want to have you fight you for you've got. a feeling is that you don't use it you know it's not going. well because
a lot of. this i don't have a job. it may seem like an act of free well it is not young people in sierra leone have no jobs they're desperate to feed themselves and their families and result is that it becomes harder and harder to ever find their way back into civilian life and they may plant seeds of violence wherever they go. it is well known that young people who have extensive histories of violence and being fed drugs and manipulated over time they develop problems of impulsivity high levels of aggression. you know we pride ourselves on being a moral people trying to do the right thing when we're doing as we're exploiting people using young people who've been child soldiers deliberately sending them into the jaws of combat and further violence nothing could be worse for these young
people care a lot a dead soldier or dead marine shows up in this country and we start asking ourselves why did they die why what were they fighting for nobody bothers to ask about their contractors. every american who serves joins an unbroken line of heroes i am awed by their sacrifice. men in good time and not allowing i'm going to lie have not i'm not i'm not you when you bag you in kind of wood our men have family
coming in the family unit will many who t.v. got it on to me what the media got. there's no one going to go out and protest in the streets of a contractor's kill. country still exercises its foreign policy the use of force and violence in these 4 regions but is using proxies contractors 3rd country nationals and in obscurity their role. you say how do they do given that in the opening iraq and his family from sierra leone in the left instead it's really your money and your tax money. doing it but
range and you'll notice the picture rather strange with a motion that's all gone by the breeze is not as quite as strong as it was but still from the southwest it's not very warm so the 40 in melbourne 20 instead there admittedly 22 in perth and this rather where evidence of cloud building in the interior shara to somewhere around alice springs show to evening victoria there's nothing substantial i have to say and you can see that active frontal system crossing the townsmen see here very well defined on its way to the south island of new zealand where it will bring i think mostly rain because there may be and some of that cloud northwards to give the west coast at least in the north island wet time late on monday and on tuesday as things clear up slowly for the south rain too is the story at the moment or for a few hours yet for south korea and a good posture upon the remains of what was nearly a typhoon certainly still windy. to
strengthen the good you have to shoulder good all the more with your gum still fight against corruption. destroy new cheer which heroes like know who are above who refuse to $15000000.00 brian the achievement of heroes like him to showcase by the international ace award it shines a light on these heroes because the best way to fly dark used to shine the light let's make a rule to bid to please nominate your anti corruption nero now. because you can't. just.
in a world where journalism as an industry is changing. fortunate to be able to continue to expand to continue to have that passenger drive and present the stories in a way that is important to worthless. everyone has a story worth hearing. and cover those that are often ignored we don't weigh our coverage towards one particular region or continent that's why i joined al jazeera . this is al-jazeera. hello everyone i've listed and welcome to this news hour live from london coming up in the next 60 minutes the u.n. turns up the heat on world leaders with
a damning report or me that the last 5 years are set to be the warmest on record iran's president promises a regional peace plan to secure the gulf wars foreign forces to stay out. protests in hong kong take a violent turn again with a shopping mall and subway station banned allies. and the dissent in doha with all of sports about some very well as one the singapore grand prix of the rugby world cup it's a bonus point win for ireland in the key pool match against scotland. follow the un has turned up the heat on world leaders ahead of its climate summit or monday in new york in a new report it was that the impacts of global warming are speeding up the un's world meteorological organization says the average global temperature for 2015 to
2019 is on track to be the hottest of any 5 year period on record that's because carbon emissions of his new high the amount of the gas going into the atmosphere in that time it creates fight 20 percent compared with the previous 5 years and sea levels have risen by 5 millimeters a year that's due to the increased rate of ocean warming and melting of the greenland and west antarctica ice sheets or terry tireless is secretary general of the world meter log and mr logical organization and he joins me via skype from new . york right now thanks for being with us on the program i mean they were the past 5 years that seen a massive increase in awareness about global warming about climate change about the need to reduce carbon emissions so why are we seeing these increases in well temperatures the rise in sea water as so things have been proceeding
assess as we estimated henri several years. of these syrian seas are very much settling into the fact that you have. been using growing amount of force the route to do research coal oil and gas and and the folks ample last year there mr despair all shouldn't rising at 2 point one percent and that led to again the record high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is the main gas that has been warming on the planet and also it has been warming the oceans and i mean that's been also causing the melting of grazier send sea ice and that's also contributing to the sea level rise that we have observed it's an alarming reports if more action isn't taken soon what will happen. so we are if you if we don't do anything evil creeps 3 to 5 degrees warmer planet by the end of the century and
to avoid that because there are good terrorists you're such decided to hold a private summit that you have here in new york to morrow and the basic idea is to raise the recent level in crime with the indication that we would treat the limits of paris agreement which is from 1.5 to 2 degrees warming and that would be much better for the welfare of the mankind than facing this $3.00 to $5.00 weekly swarming with which the graph and if people didn't do anything so you're talking about more ambitious targets are we going to hear plans though do you think the concrete action by those nations attending the summit on monday will not be enough so we will have more than 60 countries will have some new initiatives how to how to how to raise the absent level and and this event is going to be an opening event for the for the coming one and
a half years we will have climate meeting in santiago in early december and yeah there are several climate meeting in new day and at the u.k. meeting one should agree what's called where we are going to do with the parties agreement and and especially how to how to raise them be so level of damage mitigation 16 nation 2nd policy in the summit but one country that's missing is the united states like. that's right but they're also here in the usa plenty of positive things have been happening the country has already been fulfilling 50 percent of it's very split series stand and and there's there's growing amount of investments so all around the internet see they have they made their pioneers in electric cars there's a car a car and and several states like california florida michigan and several cities like new york where we are today they have fairly ambitious goals and the
u.s. private sector is so interested in investing in climate friendly overseas we recently saw of course that massive turnout for the climate change strike last week in spied essentially by young people does that give you cause for hope do you think that sort of action by ordinary people particularly the younger generation is having an impact on the countries that means take action i hope show and and i think there are 2 sides the other hand it's important that the young people express their views and they are the ones who will see the consequences of climate science especially in the latter part the sensory and of course there are their children and on the other hand i would like like to avoid certain panic some of the more young people are quite be brushed and we still have hope so the
hope is not there than and we're not going to face the end of the world and and there are still good opportunities to alleviate the warming warming to the limits of marriage agreement or i get to talk to a sarah thomas joining us via skype from new york thank you thank you bye bye. well those taking part in monday's un climate summit are being given the chance to immerse themselves in the polluted air of some of the world's biggest cities and installation of 6 domes reproduces the toxic atmosphere experienced by people in south paolo new delhi beijing and london every day the pollution pots mimic the air quality smell and temperature of the large cities the artist hopes the dame's will inspire action. i mean i think when you've had damned les me and come from cities you kind of fall asleep and having an experience like this really wakes you up it's
not really about wards it's about how you're bored the response to the issue directly so it's a visceral experience i think in a way that cuts into people's emotions a lot more quickly than lots of huge tanks and speeches. the u.n. secretary general antonio the terrorist has told world leaders they need to come to the podium with concrete and transformative plans to hold rising global temperature has achieved carbon neutrality and cut carbon emissions the climate summit of course is part of the annual united nations general assembly all diplomatic as a james bass has more from new york on what to expect for the week ahead. it's the biggest diplomatic gathering in the world with delegations from all the countries that are members of the united nations in 2 and a half years heading the u.n. secretary general antonio good terrorists has made great efforts to resolve the world's most deadly conflicts but with little progress in an interview for
al-jazeera as planet as so as he told me he wants the focus of this year's high level week on an issue he says is even more important climate the sets of each of these conflicts is to a certain extent localized and climate change became a global so that for humankind and the global south for the planet and seems that evolving in such a way that climate change became an excellent it of conflict with tension growing between the u.s. saudi arabia and iran the situation in the gulf will be high on the agenda and one of the un's most experienced diplomats told me with so many key players in the same place at the same time there could be important developments and things can move very fast and it would be foolish to rule something out on grounds of ideology when it's he said you've got all these world leaders and foreign ministers together it does mean that we actions can be very swift and initiatives can be taken privately
without having to have the full pep listy every leader fly in or go somewhere every year the general assembly week gets busier and busier today the count is 90 once heads of state 6 vice presidents 45 heads of government 5 deputy prime ministers the number of meetings requested is now climb to $630.00 this part of the u.n. the visitors lobby is normally open to the public bridging the high level week it's one of the most secure places on earth all around the u.n. temporary rooms are being set up these are what are known as bilateral booth you can see the leather chairs the table there's room here for 2 or more delegations to meet a short notice if necessary. in some privacy. organizing this event is a mammoth operation insiders have told me just getting the motorcades of presidents prime ministers and foreign ministers here so they can speak back to back on the podium is an operation akin to air traffic control james pays out of the united
nations iran's president has told western powers to leave the security of the persian gulf to regional nations led by terror on has a rouhani made the comments while watching parades showcasing his country's military arsenal he also promised to unveil a regional peace plan at the u.n. next week to secure the gulf region without the need for foreign intervention tensions are high after a series of attacks including a missile and drone strike on saudi oil facilities he has more now from tehran. against the backdrop of a military parade iran's president proposed a new security plan for gulf waterways show your job we're going to present a plan at the u.n. so that iran in collaboration with regional states is able to maintain security in the persian gulf the strait of hormuz and the sea of oman to the world that the presence of foreign forces can cause insecurity for international waterways
maritime movements and energy security our approach will create solidarity unity and coordination with the countries of the region. iran's peace plan comes at a critical time pushing a message of peace and hope in her moves at the u.n. general assembly in new york rouhani will be trying to sink the latest american backed international coalition being formed in the middle east this time to patrol international shipping lanes in the gulf. the u.s. floated the idea of a maritime coalition after attacks on oil tankers earlier this year america and gulf allies blamed iran for the explosions investigators said they found no conclusive evidence to say who carried out the attacks countries that have joined the maritime patrol missions so far britain bahrain saudi arabia more recently australia and the united arab emirates following attacks on saudi oil plants last week also blamed on iran without definitive proof iran said.