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tv   Talk to Al Jazeera James Swan  Al Jazeera  November 30, 2020 5:30pm-6:01pm +03

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it is chapter in the often controversial life of diego, armando maradona, but it seems another is only just begun a new show on the road to 01 osiris. and one of germany's traditional christmas markets has been transformed as a result of the country's 2nd partial lockdown. a restaurant owner in broome in the south of the country is open to drive through version of the festivities. mound wine and hot scrapes are among the treats on offer. about $160000000.00 visits is usually descend on germany's pockets every year. and let's take you through some of our top stories now. u.s. drug maker, modern is asking american and european regulators for emergency use of its covert 19 vaccine. final results confirmed it's more than 94 percent effective evidence will be debated in mid december white house correspondent,
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kimberly how it has more this will all be pending a determination by the food and drug administration that will be taking place in mid december just to give you a sense of how this works. this very accelerated timeline that we've seen for fire and mature enough is in part because of the request for emergency authorization under the public health service act. and the reason that these drug companies are able to do this is because there was declared a public health emergency with regard to cope at 19 back in january 20, twentieth's or earlier this year. so what does this mean? this means that there can be a rapid approval pending that determination of the public health hearings. if the o.p.'s prime minister told parliament federal forces have not killed a single civilian during the 3 week long conflict in the grey region figure its forces dispute the claim. i funeral service for top iranian nuclear scientists
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must mohsen factories are there has been held in the capital. he was assassinated on friday. iran's leaders are blaming israel and they say they'll retaliate. china's foreign ministry has rejected calls from the astray and prime minister to apologize for an inflammatory tweet over war crimes allegations. the tweet sent by a foreign ministry spokesman depicts a fake image of an australian soldier, slashing the throat of an afghan child follows a recent report into the conduct of australian special forces. soldiers, indian farmers, blocking roads in a protest against new laws are refusing to move to a government designated venue. thousands have been camping on major highways near the capital. for farmers say they'll open, they're open to talks with the government as long as there are no preconditions. it's talk to al jazeera, now we know what's happening. i read and we know how to get
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a date if that others and off i was doing it only the other guy find it pretty unfair. but if i was, and then i'm going, i'm going to give you my mind and the way that you tell that story isn't what and make it to friends. well, that is where all the women who would say it's a land rich in history, that dates back more than 5000 years. an ancient sophisticated civilization that's cried into so much an issue. a wall of conflict, tough played a major part in these regions. history. it was ok pied by egypt from us, britain and italy in the 1800s. an oddball the disputes with kenya and ethiopia, in the 1900. then there was independence, polish for girls and wars. the united nations has played
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a central role in efforts for peace in somalia since the downfall of presidency out, but in january 100-9001 prompted political chaos and threats, instability across the horn of africa region. but almost 30 years on the somali people still live in turmoil. hundreds of thousands have been killed and millions displaced and as multiple parties continue to fight over control of the country, many could see the somalia to be the un's greatest diplomatic failure. so how much longer before we can say peace has finally been achieved and some of the special representative of the u.n. secretary general and head of the assistance mission of somebody. james swan talks on a special representative of the united nations secretary-general false madia. mr. james swan thank you for talking to and to say thanks for inviting me. i missed this one. this is the,
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the 2nd time this is not the 1st time. it's a 2nd time you are deployed to somalia as a special representative. the 1st time was a few years ago for the u.s., government and now for the u.n. what made you return to somalia? and you know, what can you tell us about, you know, the experience of go to somalia and trying to solve that most difficult problem in africa. thank you very much. thanks for having me. as we come to the end of 2028, this is a timely opportunity to talk about somalia, because 2021 will be a critical year for somalia. we are expecting an electoral process that will lead to a parliamentary election as well as a presidential election. we are also anticipating that 2021 will be the year of security transition. as the somali government and security authorities take the lead responsibility for the security of the country. also in 2021 that will be
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important for somalia to continue with its economic reforms particularly so that it can realize the full benefits of the debt relief process which it started on successfully in 2020. and then finally, 2021 is going to be an important year in terms of remaining vigilant about the humanitarian situation. $5200000.00, people in somalia, about a 3rd of the country's population remain in need of humanitarian support. and we need to keep them in mind as well. but as i returned to somalia, after really some 25 years of working on somalia in different capacities, beginning in the 1990 s. and then through the 2 thousands and into the 2010, somalia remains a compelling assignment for anyone interested in diplomacy in development or in the
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security sector, it is rebuilding from 2 decades of tragedy really as a collapsed state. and all of us want to work for it to achieve further progress in the coming years. one doesn't know where to start in this respect because you know what you said. we're talking about future prospects for somalia next year. what's going to next year, but we have been working on somalia. the un has been working in somalia for 30 years. why the only thing that is bright in somalia now is something that is going to happen next year and not something that happened during the last 30 years. what milestones has the u.n. actually achieved during the last 30 years? i think there has been considerable progress. certainly over the past decade to 12 years, beginning in the late 2 thousands, we saw significant progress through the african union mission in somalia, which is a un financed operation. un supported operation,
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mandated by the security council. and certainly between 20092013, there were very substantial military gains against al shabaab, which created space for the political process also to advance. so the previous transitional, federal government of somalia, which controlled only some portions of the capital city mogadishu as late as early 2011 by the end of 2012 with the help of amazon, the newly elected federal government of somalia was able to establish a presence in most of the federal member states and other important population centers. then through roughly 2012 through 201617, we saw stablish mind of institutions in the federal member states with these
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regional administrations taking shape and beginning to establish a presence and become more functional. we've also seen over the last several years, an increased focus on institutional capacity and delivery. so important reforms that lead to somalia achieving decision point under the heavily indebted poor countries initiative in march. but we've seen important progress on security sector reforms such as biometric registration of military and police, such as direct payment of salaries to the security services to reduce risks of corruption. so there are many areas of progress that have been achieved during this time, but much more needs to be done. and again, somalia is recovering from a very little base that it descended to very sadly for its population in the
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1990 s. and early 2000. so in 1993,, a prominent u.n., official described somalia as the greatest yuan fadia up to the time you don't give the kitchen to somebody and say you and project you have to look at the united nations in as many facets within somalia. i mean, we have more than 20 u.n. agencies, funds and programs that are providing both humanitarian assistance and development support to the somalis. so the un remains very much engaged in responding to the needs of the people. and in fact, u.n. assistance reached almost 2000000, somalis in need of humanitarian assistance, lifesaving assistance during the past year. in addition to those agencies, funds and programs. there is also a u.n.
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mission mandated by the security council called the united nations support office for somalia that provides the logistical support for the african union mission in somalia. the african union mission now has about $20000.00, military and police, and it is supported financially, both through the un contribution and from bilateral contributions, notably from the european union, but also from others. so this is another component of un support to somalia. and then finally, we have the united nations assistance mission in somalia, which is a special political mission focused on coordination among the wider array of international partners in somalia. it's focused also on institutional support to the government and to the federal member states. and it's focused on so-called good offices trying to improve relations among somali political actors and other
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entities so that the country can continue to stabilize. so i think if we look back to the 1990 s. as a rather difficult period for somalia and for international partners trying to help, i think the record is much improved on both accounts since then. well, arguably, you know, i mean some people say yes the only the different, the biggest difference between now and 1995 is that the u.n. is now capable of operating in somalia. you know, back back in the ninety's. it was not able because it had to pull out of somalia, totally. and that was considered by the somalis as the you know, as like, abandonment by the u.n. . i mean, and that's why many in somalia look at the u.n. unfavorably until now. but now we have this presence of the u.n. and other organizations, but still have the same problems. you know, we, i did got is gone. madam has gone, but now we have a shabab. we have, we had refugees, then we have refugees now by the millions,
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humanitarian assistance was needed, then it is still needed now by the millions. so i, even though there is this huge presence on these, you know, scores of organizations you talked about. the problem is still there, it's a country that indeed does still have many significant problems. many of them are going to take time to address and to resolve like another 30 years. i certainly hope it will be sooner than that. and as i noted earlier, i think if we look at the record over the last 10 years, there has been significant progress, frankly, on the institution building side on the economic development and resource generation side. and certainly, compared to the situation a dozen years ago when the recognised authorities were present only in a few neighborhoods of the capital city. that situation has changed, but there is no doubt. there is a long way to go and more progress that's required. i think central to this will be
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continued stability and increased inclusiveness in the political system. that's why these elections that are scheduled in the coming 4 to 5 months will be particularly important to medley. these will mot regrettably be for one person, one vote elections, but they will be indirect elections in a process that has secured broad consensus among political leaders in somalia. and that consensus has included the federal president, federal member, state leaders, the upper house of parliament, the lower house of parliament, and main political figures, including 2 former presidents. so there is a strong consensus around the model for the electoral process to be followed. that said, it will be very important that that consensus be nurtured, preserved, and advanced as this electoral model is implemented. this process as he talks about
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many describing the stick. because when you can't travel between mogadishu and many other cities, when you can't tough this biometric process being completed, when you, when you, when that he does, don't, don't trust each other. when the country's in that situation, how can a one person one vote be achieved? many people think it will never happen, at least it will not happen any time soon. so you're talking about it, but at the same time you seem to defer to the possibility that it may not happen. well indeed, this somali leaders have decided that it will not be a one person one vote election in this cycle. they have agreed on use of an indirect model in which, like, like in the past, like the similar to in the past with some refinements and improvements that we hope can be used to make it yet more inclusive and more transparent than has been seen in the past, how do you describe the relationship between the un and the somali government will
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remember that last year the u.n. special representative, and that's why he, you replaced him. so i mean, who has the upper hand in? i mean, you will talk about national sovereignty, like, you know, somebody government talks about national sovereignty but you know, how do you qualify that relationship? and how can you work in somalia, when the government is not co-operative all of the time? and the look at the situation in a different light. well, we have a strong relationship with the somali authorities and we also try to ensure that we have a strong relationship with other key actors in somalia, from civil society groups to advocacy organizations to federal member state leaders even to local authorities in multiple cases. so there is an effort to work with the national authorities, but also we understand that ultimately the beneficiaries of our activities are the
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somali people. and so we try to maintain a wide array of relationships and contacts in somalia and the african union mission in somalia. the military mission and to have the, the u.s. or someone to tell you mission in somalia, what kind of oversight do you have over these missions? do they coordinate with you? remembering that, you know, every time we have news from somalia talking about it or strikes and civilians being killed the top and twice by offer come. and the u.n. is standing by. i mean, what is the u.n. doing to prevent that type of situation? do you really have some oversight and coordination with these, his armies operating in somalia? well, 1st of all, i think as we look at the situation, we need to recognize that the longer term vision for somalia i'm confident, is not consistent with what somalis themselves want. and we see we current terrorist attacks. we see military operations that are harming the population,
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the youth, but in many ways al shabaab has attacked the youth even in 2010. there was a tragic case of young somalis who had completed their medical training under extraordinarily challenging. my question is about the u.s. army and the african union armies, killings of civilians does the un huff and the oversight on that. does the un condemn those? i say that does the un investigate those incidents? can you give me just a case where the u.n. investigated an incident in which civilians have been killed by u.s. army or the african union troops? yes, we in fact have a group that convenes co-chaired by myself and by the head of unicef in somalia, looking at the impact of conflict on the civilian population. so indeed, we have a team that records all of these incidents,
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which just of course we see do investigate. we're talking about condemnation, we're talking about trying to prevent it from being repeated. we're talking about the u.n. imposing order or a mood, a savant's of understanding between you and the american troops and the african troops, so that you prevent further killing of civilians in your country. well, 1st of all with respect to the african union mission in somalia as it is the u.n. security council mandated mission. indeed, the african union mission is subject to the u.n. human rights due diligence, all due diligence policy. and in fact, amazon has on its staff, human rights experts that indeed look into these cases. and we also examine them when we receive information indicating that there have been incidents . we advise amazon of that and seek their response on it.
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in the case of the united states and other bilateral partners, they are in somalia, bilaterally. they are not in somalia under a specific group, but the u.n. under the u.n. is in somalia. under chapter 7 means the one is a sponsible for the protection of somali civilians, even if there is another party that is the on a bilateral level. the u.n. is responsible for the protection of the billions because it is there under chapter 7 of the united nations charter is so these are also investigated and when there are cases related to bilateral partners, we also communicate that information to the bilateral partners so that they have an opportunity to look into the case further and to respond on these matters. could you tell us of any case where civilians have been compensated civilians who, whose relatives have been killed? has the u.n. actually gone into the details of trying to address any situation of collateral damage as they call it, you know,
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the killing of civilians. you have notified the parties, but that's not enough. in terms of their sponsibility of the u.n. . there is in fact an existing grid of compensation based on the nature of the, of what happened, whether it's a death or a severe injury. and there is a basis on which then those who can establish that they have been victims of these cases are then compensated. you also supports the government in mogadishu. and we know that the government in mogadishu has been committing violations against him or rights. and the rest arbitrarily, they work against the freedom of expression, sometimes not only sometimes, but frequently, and that happened in somaliland. it happens also in mogadishu. did try to convince the somali government or to impose any kind of punishment. you know, if we can say that if, when they, when they violate human rights, do they try to prevent cases further cases of violations of human rights?
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by the, by the somali government, well again, we have a human rights due diligence policy involving any of our activities in regard to the somali authorities, or indeed other partners organizations with, with which we're working. and so that tales validation, that there are not human rights violations being committed. if there are cases in which we understand that such violations are occurring, then we have to take measures to ensure that u.n. support is not benefiting those who are involved in the violation. and then we look to find ways to ensure that the people can still benefit from the support that we're seeking to provide. but those in the chain who may have been involved or plausibly believed to have been involved in human rights violations, do not participate in those decisions or in those programs. the case of child soldiers in particular, these very problematic and many people are upset about it's outside in the national,
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you know, the misty international. none of those organizations. they talk about the dynamite in which child soldiers find themselves, they are forcibly recruited by al-shabaab. and when they are captured by the government, they are tied to prison and sometimes, you know, killed or punished in the name, then this is the amount of so that in the own both sides, they are being, you know, hurt. what is the u.n. doing in this evolved to protect those child soldiers? yes. well, 1st of all, again, we have a team that meets regularly co-chaired by myself and the head of unicef that look specifically at issues of children in armed conflict. we've also benefited from higher level attention out of new york with the special representative for children armed conflict visited last year, particularly to highlight. this is
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a requirement for further attention by the somali authorities also working through some of the agencies, funds and programs. we are supporting rehabilitation programs for child soldiers who are or children who are able to escape from defect from armed groups, whether al-shabaab or others who can benefit from some reentry support, rehabilitation support both boys and girls. so there is both an advocacy component to this in terms of engaging the somali authorities, but also there is a program addict component terms of helping those along with other partners to to who are able to emerge as they reenter society. i do think this takes us back to our concerns over al-shabaab, and of course they do account still for most of the human rights
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violations that we see there. most of the civilian deaths continue to be as a consequence of al-shabaab, another. another point of contention between the u.s. and the and the somali government in the you support this government and it is related to the human rights record of this government. this is a legislature about the sexual violations. i understand that the units on happy with the what is the criticism that you have against it? why is the government's not co-operative in this respect? it's important to go back a few years in, in 2018. the government's cabinet adopted a draft bill called the sexual offenses bill, which was widely consulted with human rights actors within the un and among others
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. and it was widely hailed by somali human rights activists as well as a progressive bill that would help to ensure maximum protection for women facing risks of sexual violence. or the refence says this was called the sexual offenses bill. over the summer, a new draft bill called the law on sexual intercourse and related crimes, was discussed, was mooted, was, was considered if not formally introduced in parliament. and that bill appeared to be a significant step backward, including making it possible in some cases for forced marriage to proceed. and it clearly represented a significant retrogression from the bill that had been introduced previously. we engaged with the speaker of parliament and with other parliamentarians that bill
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the new law on sexual intercourse and related crimes, has not been introduced. we continue to believe it is not suitable and would not respond well to the needs of the somali women. and indeed, the somali population in general, but at the moment it is not under active consideration in parliament. so the government house, some in the government has its own deadlines. it's, it seems to me places where there was no discussion with the un. there was no compromise. does that make you think that probably this government is not going to be very helpful in terms of achieving all the goals that the yuan is planning in somalia. first, in regard to these laws on the one on sexual offenses bill that was indeed introduced by the executive where it was turned back was in parliament by the leadership of parliament. so it's not a, an issue specifically related to the executive branch,
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but rather to the parliamentary leadership. in terms of the collaboration, again, with the somali authorities, our effort is to be aligned in terms of the institution building. with the somali government, of course, it will be up to the somalis to determine how their leaders are selected and what policies they pursue in the future. special representative of the united nations secretary general, mr. james swan. thank you very much for talking on the set. thanks for having december on al-jazeera, it's 10 years since a revolution in tunisia ignited the arab spring. al-jazeera looks back at the uprising and asks what really changed across the middle east. this stream is where al jazeera has global audience becomes a global community. i give up to the 1st coronavirus case in china. we'll examine
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the devastation caused by the virus and the efforts made to eliminate covert 19 people in power is back with more investigative documentaries and in-depth stories . climate leaders will gather online to press ahead with a new stage of the paris climate agreement and examine the possible global solutions december on al-jazeera. on counting the past president, xi extends his grip across china and hong kong. could taiwan be next to a failed decades old policy of unfettered, free market economics and the people of chile redefine capitalism plus taxing the rich to pay for the pandemic in argentina? probably because i'll just be about we've never had a president who has literally for years repeatedly attacked our democracy. loosely related to a complaint. i don't have a narrative, i have
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a question. you're getting there where you're treated and just feel sure, even further. join me richelle carey and up front as my guest from around the world take a hot seat and we debate the week's top stories and pressing issues here on our just near 0 how about his, you know, with the al-jazeera these are coming to you live from doha, coming up in the next 60 minutes on the back of it. successful trials, biotech firm adarna seeks emergency approval from the u.s. and e.u. regulators for its coronavirus vaccine. ethiopia's prime minister says
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troops have not killed a single civilian in their offensive against the forces.

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