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tv   Up Front  Al Jazeera  January 2, 2022 7:30am-8:01am AST

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1st, what the exhibitions literature says is that when a country's artifacts are lost, it erodes part the nation's memory, and thus wide the beak hunt to find that these are like little bits of mexico's memory that are scattered around the globe. the return of some of them is celebrated by this display, which marks 200 years since met could gained independence from spain. john hallman al jazeera mexico city. ah, this is al jazeera, these are the top stories. a funeral has been held for south african. archbishop desmond tutu is been described as a crusader and the struggle for freedom, justice, equality and peace. the anti apartheid hero died last sunday at the age of 90. archbishop desmond du du has been our moral compass. but he's also been our national crunches,
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even after the advent of democracy. he did not hesitate to draw attention, often harshly to our shortcomings as lead us. of the democratic state. buses of paper marched in cities across a rock to voice their anger at the u. s. 2 years after a top iranian general was assassinated. hum, sullen money was killed in the u. s. john strike near baghdad airport. uganda is reopening after one of the strictest locked downs in the world. schools will start up again after being closed for nearly 2 years. and i time curfews expected to be lifted on january, the 10th, or than a 1000 people are now in hospital with coven 19 in the australian states, with the largest number of people. that's the highest number of cases since october, the warnings that pressure on the new south wales hospital system could become critical set of clarks get more from noosa and queensland victoria,
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which is the 2nd a 2nd largest state. it also recorded quite big numbers, 7172 new cases and 3 days. and, but this is the 1st decrease in dallas case numbers since christmas. having said that, the testing numbers have also coincide with that drop. we had most testing centers across a victoria shots. yes, they simply do the high temperatures. we have extreme heat. we had 38 degree. and that also was a case of where we had some testing centers closed and therefore it was a drop in the south wells numbers the previous days. we've had 2223000 cases. it's not legal to use plastic to package most fruit and vegetables in france. president manuel macro has called the been a revolution. he says it shows the country's commitment to physical single use, plastics. point 2040. those are the headlines coming up next on al jazeera itself. once good boy al jazeera sets the stage, lots of women carrying very young children. this one, for example,
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is only among kind of half global experts and discussion color. something about the impact on the climate change is having on the fall is that you work with voices from different corners. when the whales are empty, people fight for programs that open your eyes to him. oh, tentative. you either have collaging. i haven't my point on now to sierra is it time to stop eating meat and dairy? our food system is driving a 3rd of all human cause greenhouse gas emissions. and meanwhile, governments continue to provide billions and subsidies to the meeting, dairy industries, or cows. the new coal is some argue i speak with documentary filmmaker kip anderson, but 1st, we're running out of time to stop an environmental catastrophe in the amazon home to 1000000 indigenous peoples and 3000000 different plant animal species. before our station is on the rise of criticism, as mounting of brazilian president julia and both scenario, who did not attend the recent you in climate conference in glasgow,
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scotland. is there still hope that the rain forest can be saved? i'll ask the executive director an amazon watch layla, salazar lopez, an agronomist, and senior fellow shocker. louise fernando. get his pin to the left. alice r lopez and louise fernando give a pink bill. thank you so much for joining me on upfront lead. i'm going to start with you in november, deforestation in the amazon hit the highest annual level in 15 years. the the rain forest lost 13235 square kilometers from august of 2020, through july of 2021. that's an area of 17 times the size of new york city. and yet only 9 years ago, brazil had achieved what was a remarkable feat. it reduced deforestation by 84 percent from a historical peak back in 2004. so what happened? yes. unfortunately, the amazon rain forest is,
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is facing and incredible amount of threats, including deforestation. ah, according to our friends at greenpeace, the amazon brazilian amazon lost the equivalent of 3 soccer fields every minute. and it's, it's because of the increasing threats to the amazon rain forest and its peoples and threats including industrial activity, industrial agger, prisoners mining and land grabbing. ah, and this is as a result of the government policies that incentivize the destruction of the amazon rain forest. the world's largest and most bio culturally diverse tropical rainforest on our planet. ah, does this deforestation and degradation both legal and illegal
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is causing an emergency in the amazon and therefore an emergency in our global climate. lewis started rondo in october activists, submitted a petition to the international criminal court to hold brazilian president jr. bolton auto criminally responsible for the quote ruthless assault on the amazon, that included deforestation and ongoing crimes against humanity. do you agree with that petition? yes, unfortunately, i agree. the fact is that our president doesn't see any value in the forest in the people of the forest are in nature itself that this administration is skeptical off science. is this capital of climate change? so they're supporting policies that actually trapped life threat forests throughout and usually people threats our economy not only in the local and national level, but also internationally because of brazil is
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a key country. interior was off climate change but also. busy in terms of protecting co serving freshwater and bio diversity. so all these positions, the species n, ah, decisions from mobile. so model really back to life and in the global level. and they just, he deserves to be judged by that. most an hour has been called a quote, the amazon's worst enemy, by environmental and social groups. but deforestation certainly didn't begin under him. luis fernando brazil's progress has been stalling for years, including under former president, russo, since 2000 rainfall has declined by 69 percent across the amazon and world wide fun for nature. the w. b. f. estimates that 27 percent of the biome will be without trees by the year 2030. if the current rate of deforestation continues. how hopefully are you about brazil's chances of saving the rain forest?
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well, we are very hopeful because we know it's possible to control the 1st facial, not only to amazon buddy, the forest for pantano, see how the, our other rusito nicholas is even given amazing if you're hopeful because it's possible. even given all the circumstances, all the political leanings, all the realities that precede even both the not are you still hope form it that's encouraging, but surprising a bit. not in the very short term, it's impossible with our current resident. did you ever happen? so i'm hopeful for the future. we're both solo. very luckily, remarked jonas, to be re elected from 2022. you're going to have a new president. i'm hopeful because we have science. we have knowledge, and we learned how to control the 1st issue. and let's say it's simple and not say it's easy, but it's possible if you have the political view, the commitment from our government, from companies, from our senior society,
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and not only from brazil, but either nationally. if you have the resources, we can really dramatically and sharply decrease deforestation for the benefit of resilience and the planet as a whole lay look according to your organization, amazon. watch the big money drivers behind a deforestation are black rock b in p. j. p. morgan chase, hsbc in santa there. while the middle men are cargo soy a g b s beef and more freaked beef. there are, of course, other retailers that we could mentioned wal mart costco. they're also contributing to the problem according to your research. could you explain exactly how these companies are driving deforestation? yes. if we, if we look at the key drivers of deforestation, ah, we look at the land grabbing. if we look at the logging both legal and illegal, the mining and we look at the agribusiness expansion and we're talking about brazil in particular. ah, we go back to the source, what's, what's driving this,
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what's causing this one? it's government policy that allows this to it's the corporations not are driving this destruction the, the cargo, the 80 m's. bungie is a mar frogs of the world. ah, but they are not alone. they are backed by money. is there anything that i can do or that you can do, or that every day citizens in general can do in response to this? can individual consumer excellent anything about it? of course i'm black rock, for example, on isn't, you know, isn't on every corner like j. p. morgan, she says, but jack black rock invests in almost every company you can think of. so you could look at the companies that are, you are invested in, or you're, you know, your retirement fund is invested in and you can ensure that those companies are not tied to block route. you can ask your,
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your financial manager about. so being mindful of where our other mean to interrupt with being mindful of where our investments are. i'm the relationship between our consumer choices and the companies that are leading the charge against deforestation that, that makes sense to me. lutheran, and i want to pivot for a moment because for decades indigenous peoples from the amazon had been forced from their homes, a report details of genocide, torture, rape, and enslavement of indigenous tribes under brazil's military dictatorship. it's believe that some tribes were entirely wiped out. now to day they continue to face attacks, killings, land, theft, and violent territorial disputes with cattle ranchers and farmers is solving this problem something that can happen from, with in brazil or do we need international attention? well, international thanks. show using park. busy up, of course the decisions need to be made in brazil by brazil. we are talking about brazilian success, which that have their rights. indigenous people have the top, the rights and our constitution. what's going on in brazil?
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now, he's really about our government, not respecting our constitution, the rights of our people, but who we have also the international space is to deal with culture. so as you said in the united nation, some cards, brazilian government isn't, it will be george it for what's the way and has done in the past. so we really need all these international i structures to function well and they don't function well unfortunately. so if there is a bad function of our brazilian democracy in our president waterman internationally, it's not working as well. and we need all these things working well to really and defend and protect our indigenous groups from this very ah, bad interest that i know leading our government layla. amazon watch recently reported that the home of brazilian indigenous leader and human rights defender alessandra corrupt moon dooku,
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was invaded after she returned from this year's climate summit and glasgow. a record number of 227 environmental activists were reported killed last year. round the world with a 121 recorded, killed in brazil alone between 20172020. according to the watchdog group. will witness. what kind of response should we be seeing from the brazilian government? well, 1st and foremost, you know, unfortunately the brazilian government is one of the perpetrators of these attacks . and actually, you know, incentivizes land grabbing incentivizes attacks, threats and attacks on indigenous peoples who are protecting their lands. their rights are livelihoods, their territories, and are, are defending the constitution which guarantees their rights to free prior, an informed consent or right to their territory. what's happening in brazil right now, you know,
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if you speak to any indigenous leader where whether it is on the song, i'm going to do course on your watch, those out our, any of the, you know, the leaders from the indigenous movement or in local communities. they will say that they are facing an ethnic side, an eco side, and a genocide. that's what's happening in brazil right now. and i would be remiss to not mention the reason why are indigenous allies and indigenous peoples in brazil and across the amazon are saying this is an ethnic side, and this is an emergency. it's because of these threats and attacks directly on, on the rights lives and territories of indian people. but it's also because of the cobra crisis. the government allowed the covered 19 very to spread, which makes brazil now the 3rd most highest rate of coven dust in the world. well, louise is what we're seeing right now reversible. what would it take to bring the
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rain forest back? i susan percival. again, i think we're needs to be optimistic. what's needed. we need a strong coordination of coordination among federal, state, and municipal levels across up ministries, across the justice, the congress and our legislative systems. we need to understand that all these strands, if we reverse it, they king, they may become opportunities, opportunities off, economic development for these local community, but also for many other interpret nurse. so we needing centers. so have a green economy to have a force economic not only for large companies, but also for very local can we? so it's, it's, it's complex, but it's such a livable because we have hundreds of experiences ohio. so job,
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take care of the forest to make money from the forest. we can reverse by 1st stopping deforestation might control his conversation, polishing a crime, any legality, and building this very positive agenda of incentives. we have a lot of evidence that stop b, b is predatory activities are necessary to brought back to buy a diverse to the climate and the water and to promote welf for all layla. give you the last word you would. what can you add to that? what else is needed to bring the rain forest back? so the amazon is life. if i leave you with any being, i will, i would love for everyone to recognize that the amazon rain forest, by on the base in is life. and we still have time to turn around the tipping point . the amazon is a tipping point of ecological collapse at this time. but we still have time if we
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is we put all our energy and forces together to call for the permanent protection of the amazon rain forest and the recognition demarcation and titling of indigenous peoples lance and as you must she pi aah! from the shingle region. recently, sad just at cop $26.00 on that it is about gathering funds and supporting indigenous peoples and investing in the protection of the amazon rain forest. but it's not just about money because money is actually one of the reasons why we're in this problem. it is also a bow, basic respect for indigenous peoples for forest people's. it's about respect work for people and we're are plenty in. if we do that, then we can protect the rain forest and we can protect our climate for climate justice for all of us. layla louis fernando,
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thank you both so much for joining me on up front. are we eating our way to extinction? according to the united nations, the world will likely miss its target to limit a rising global temperatures to $1.00 degrees celsius, which would result in more severe environmental disasters. even if we were to stop all fossil fuel emissions immediately, that goal would remain unattainable because of our food system, which is responsible for about a 3rd of all human caused greenhouse gas emissions. some scientists say that avoiding meat and dairy is the single biggest way to reduce an individual's environmental impact on the planet as animal based food create about twice the emissions as plant based foods is changing our diets. the answer to lowering emissions and diminishing fresh water availability. and what obstacles than in the way you wanted me to help answer some of these questions is filmmaker kip anderson . he's a producer of 20 fourteen's cow spears. he and this years see spirits. he kept
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thank you for joining me on up front. they have rather me appreciate it. a recent headline by time magazine claimed cows are the new coal. of course, they were referring to methane emissions, which have a global warming potential of up to 80 times that of carbon dioxide over the short term. oh, that sounds bad enough, but that's only part of the story. could you explain how animal agriculture also contributes to global warming? yeah, you have that issue with a methane, but the biggest issue is really land use. people have no idea to realize how much land is used to of to grow the corn and soil to feed livestock around up to 90 percent of corn. and so in the amazon that's ground, all goes to feed livestock. and so it, all you're doing is you're clearing away all these incredible carbon sings which are trees, nature's best carbon sings trees and just destroying it. and, and so that the biggest issue is the land you said, all the forested land all around the world is getting destroyed. a recent report found that 20 livestock companies are responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions
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than either germany, britain, or france. from 2015 to 2020 global meat and dairy companies received more than $478000000000.00 and backing. which the report says lead to more meat production with government this invested in the industry. is there any way to curb emissions? it's very difficult. it's a long term partnership. so it's very difficult when you have such entrenched lobby groups. but the, but the thing is like with everything is just so you know, the people have to unite into demand that we just really have to, to eliminate or reduce drastically these ridiculous subsidies. well, part of the challenge of resisting that, of course, is the lobbying, which you just talked about. what we know the livestock groups have been lobbying the you in to support more meat and dairy production and u. s. meeting very companies at collectively to oppose climate based policies, which effectively would limit production know some regularly, fine they published, they promote research and content that minimize the link between exactly what
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you're talking about. animal agriculture and climate change, they distort the picture. and as a result, it advances their agenda in your view. how do you strategically and practically stop this level of lobbying? well, it's very difficult. i mean, the biggest thing is start the subsidies where, whereas the, you know, say, fast food, for example, a big mac costs around $2.00 to $3.00 without subsidies as di, around 12 or $13.00. so if we're eliminating these subsidies, people will be li, eating less of these horrible food, specially red meat as we well now is a bad for the health overall. what is the rule is for a 2nd because this is an interesting proposition, right? you're saying we stop the subsidies which effectively prices everyday working people, poor people out of the fast food or bad food market. they now the $12.00 big mack is out of their reach are effectively forcing their hands to eat better in your estimation. but isn't it possible though, that people who are already food insecure would not eat better food?
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they would just eat different bad food. they would eat whatevers accessible to them and we'd be taking away one other option from them. and that's at least one counter argument that people would make yes or a lot of as it's education, you know, and we have in one of our films, what the health we show is called plant based on a budget where you can eat up to a week for a family of 4 for only $25.00. if you're getting bulk, you know, bulk of beans and rice and vegetables from a, from a large produce place, you can eat very cheaply. so it's a misnomer that you'd, that it's expensive to plant base, is actually quite a lot cheaper. studies estimate that it takes about $18000.00 leaders of water to produce a kilogram of beef. and about $25.00 leaders for a single burger. but by comparison, an 8 minute shower uses up about 76 leaders of water in terms of personal efforts with regard to water conservation. are we doing this the right way? that's the thing is in cal spares. so we have
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a great in the film starts out with as a wen went one the equivalent to being one hamburgers equivalent showing for around 2 months. so which is the most absolute inefficient system the you could possibly devise. so we just have to cut that middleman out and eat these healthy whole food plant based things that our body was an intended to. a majority, if not completely, according to the you and the largest share of the world's a water consumption is about 69 percent, is from animal agriculture. documents released by wiki league show that as far back as 2019 nestle was warning us officials that the world was on track to run out of fresh water by the year 2050, in part, due to growing meet consumption. now the o. e. c, the estimates the by the end of this year, the u. s. could consume over 33000000000 kilograms of meat products. when you consider the global impact of eating meat or water supply. should we be talking about this in terms of policy is that is the individual dietary decision
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conversation almost beside the point. yes, we hear about climate wars and climate change all the time. but what we really have to talk about too is, is imagine if water goes out, we're going to have water wars and that is extreme. we can't live without water within 2448 hours, climate change. this gradual thing that we can have these technologies that we can combat them, but we want to run out of fresh water. now we're talking about serious, serious atrocity that that is so scared even talk about the water wars and water change in the the water shortage is a very, very urgent. and again, it all comes back to ya, our choice of eating animals raising, killing animals. so if we want to align ourselves with these missions, the 1st thing we have to do is look in the man. so what can i do? while the 1st thing i can stop eating animals, the eating of animals has been framed as an ethical and moral issue from people who talk about the value and sanctity of the animal's life in the harm comes to the animal. when it is killed, ah, or, or prepared raise for,
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for killing even. but you seem to be also raising and are unethical in moral issue around eating animals because of the environmental impact. is that a political message that would be effective in terms of getting people to stop eating animals? yeah, that's interesting thing about eating animals raising, killing animals. it, it goes on so many different levels. one as we notes, but thousands of studies. it's not good for your health eating a lot of meat and dairy and then you also this environmental impact. but then you also have an emotional us, a social spiritual impact, the something that are aligned with your ethics. you know, when you look at a year old kid, they would never, they would never kill an animal and want to eat it if they know what they're eating, they wouldn't want to kill it. so it's also, there's domino effect of when you line your ethics with what you're doing and all respect with to the environment. and also it's how we treat others. that trickle effects of how we treat animals trigger effects. also domino's into how do we treat each others as human beings? so it's the golden rule. and the golden rule needs to apply and extend to not just
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humans but to animals. and i think that's the biggest thing that's been missing and that will just be radical transformation for everything from social justice issues to environmental issues. the un reported that a 10th of the world's population was undernourished in 2020. at the same time, a significant amount of the crops that are consumed are fed to animals and not people. for example, only 6 percent of soybeans are fed to people was 70 to 75 percent end up in animal feed, our crops going to animals to feed people in wealthy countries at the expense of starving people in poor nations. yeah, there's a study done that if everyone went vegetarian and one of the and there's enough food to feed around 14 plus $14000000000.00 people, almost twice, nearly twice as many people people talk about. we have these population control issues. but as far as food can feed around 14000000000 people, but the way we're consuming mean, dairy,
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we need 3 to 4 more planets. that's how much land use and water use it's. it's needed to, to consume the amount of meat and dairy. so just by eliminating this me, dairy, we're gonna, we able to feed the entire planet, you know, 2 times over when done in the right way. just as a practical matter, is there any way to save the planet without the overwhelming majority of people becoming begun? there, i mean, it sounds pretty say, but there's really not, i mean, you can do anything like you mentioned at the beginning do everything we can with it saying it, no one drove cars and everyone had everything was solar panel. we did nothing that we still have it forested land, especially around the rain forest, completely destroyed. and why culture? our water is depleted, raising just a few animals cows, pigs and chickens take up the majority of everything which is becoming this whole. busy globe land. this is being depleted of its sources being sucked dry because we're e feeding, killing. 70000000000 animals for food,
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and trillions of animals for fish that you seen see, spirit, see. and that's the most important thing. we're talking about climate change. we have to talk about the ocean because that's where the biggest carbon sink is from is for these scalped forests. and we're clearing those out at an astonishing rate. and that's a massive reason for climate change. i keep anderson. thank you so much for joining me on up front. everybody. that is our show and that's it for the season of up front. thank you for watching up front will be back in the new year. ah. the war in afghanistan is now old. will non taliban figures make up a part of with
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that american? you can report within the taliban. i believe that there will be a power to tell about the inside story podcast. i frank, assessment of the days headlines subscribe. now. however, you listen to podcasts and talk to i'll just say, oh are you a. ready while to warm your skin, we listen a zionist are making serious efforts in order to in t and disrupt the trend of association. we meet with global use maintenance. i'm talking about the store, be stuck on how to see dreams, johns and entertainment away the people to rise above the violence around them. so it's my role to give these girls a different idea that they can leave the wards of this community. 3 short films show how performance creates a home and family, and gives hope and opportunity a j select on al jazeera.
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we know what's happening in our region. we know have them get to plate this than others and not a far as i said, i'm going the way that you tell the story is what can make a difference. mm. mm. south africa pays tribute to anti apartheid hero and nobel peace prize winner desmond tutu, recalling what's being described as his persistent fight for justice and freedom. archbishop desmond to do has been our moral compass. but he's also been our mission of crunches. ah, i don't know about this and this is obviously alive from doha also coming up back in business yoga.


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