tv Inside Story Al Jazeera July 3, 2022 2:30pm-3:01pm AST
most people including health care workers are paid in the local currency, the lebanese pound that's devalued. and the health system, once the best in the region is crumbling. awesome as you'd kelly mother she, we can't secure enough medicine for cancer and kidney. dialysis patient was we can't give them the 3 sessions they need, every waking doctor say the accelerating crisis has reached a point where patients' lives are at risk than other elders. either tripoli, northern lebanon. ah, hello, are you watching out 0. these are our top stories. this al, am russia says it's taking control of the city of lucy chance. it's ukraine's last major stronghold in the lou hands region in the east russians. defense minister reportedly told the president vladimir putin, the province has been destroyed. allan fisher has more from keith. the
russians say that they have no entirely encircled the city. that would be strategically important because that means they've no started to move forces into the city where they see they are fighting in the streets as for the ukrainians. they see that is simply not the case that the city has not yet been encircled. the russians have not been able to cross an important river in the north of the city to give them that access. i'll just, you can independently a confirm either claim, but what we do know is that if the russians were to take this a chance, that would essentially give them inter control of the transcription. and in the 6 major cities, there are no add that to the gains that they've already made in the nest. that means the whole of the dorm bus would essentially be under russian control. palestinian ladies have handed over the bullet that killed out as they were jealous, sharona, abu, or clay c. u. s. forensic experts. however, there are conflicting reports about who will do the tests on it is rally military says it is carrying at ballistic test with us over sash. west african late is
amazing and gone is capital for regional summit. they are expected to review sanctions that have been imposed on 3 military ruled member states. the bank is looking at how to restore civilian rule in molly guinea advocate and foster. the head of genius is constitution committee has condemned to proposed constitution put forward by the president chi siad said oak belated says he doesn't resemble the draft agreed to by the committee protested. have marched through our cro in the us state of ohio, demanding justice for jaylen walker. the black man was killed after police stopped him for a traffic violation last monday. and thousands of people in sydney have been told to leave their homes. his astronomy as largest city braces for widespread flooding . some areas have already been inundated by water. those are the headlines. i'm emily angland. the news continues here on al jazeera after inside story, stay with us.
ah. a new address constitution. 14 is yeah, it will further expand the president's power as what reducing parliament. but with it and the political deadlock, and why do somebody, there's use constitutions to strengthen their powers. this is inside story. ah hello, welcome to the program. i am hashim, i had butler says he has president ice i yet has released
a new draft constitution that will give him what critic score royal powers it will be voted on in a referendum on july the 25th. if past the president will be given ultimate authority over the government and judiciary and parliament's powers will be significantly weakened, president sayed would be able to present draft laws and has sole responsibility for treaties, budgets, and appointing and sacking. ministers and judges. and the government will have to answer to him. the president was served 2 terms of 5 years. each of those terms could be extended if there's an immediate danger to the state. from tennis alysia walkman has more on the most controversial parts of the proposed constitution. oh, school side, which refers to chinese years being culture, the nation of islam and the state to sort of bang to for upholding in the values
and objectives of its lam. a. previously, it was thought that the reference to religion would be takes now with the preamble . so there's a lot of hot debate going on about this several giving trying to find a lot more power and also diminishing the judges. so one of the things that's been included is about striking for judges as well as military and other dates. that's quite a big restructure in terms of how the parliament operates. they'll be a national council as the regions and district. and then that would be quite a different structure, but ultimately the power resides in the hands of the president. i think the one of the things that would be my primary is fine. what's the last 10 years to say there's been
a debate about some killers who is lamb. this is something that has over the stops along the device from social media. and they've been more and more calls for a boy crossing over the referendum. we'll bring in, i guess in a moment. first, let's take a look at the few countries that have changed back institutions to allow leaders to remain in office and strengthen the powers in 2019 in parliament approved changes that will lead president out of at the c c to govern until at least 2034. that same year togo's parliament allowed president for nothing be to rule until 2030 in 2015 voters in the one that chose to lift term limits for president polk army was come rules. parliament extended president paul b as term in 2008 and in 2005 again, the parliament backed the removal of presidential term davis altogether.
ah, let's bring in a guess in tennis here. they, they'll, i, li, constitutional law specialists and all thought of constitutionalism, the common revolution in london, annex vines, director of africa program cheetham house, also into this year. i mean, sanusi, political anna is specializing in tennessee and north africa as welcome to the program. zayed. the 2011, our offspring was inspired by the need to put an end to high per presidential system where the very few decide the fate of the majority. but don't you see that what is happening right now is the exactly the very opposite of what people fought for. well, to go back to the 2011 uprising. there were several calls that were taking place at the time. amongst others, the call for social justice is to remember that what the underlying factors that
led to the arb spring in the 1st place were mainly suzy comic factors. and people understood either intuitively or explicitly that it was the system of government that was preventing the realization of social of social justice. but if the source economic conditions back and that at that time, at the end of 2010, we're propitious. we're, we're, we're part. ready than the uprisings would probably not have to. ready compare at least not taking place in the same form or in the same and same size. so intuitively or explicitly people asked for. ready an amendment or change and major change to the constitutional systems that existed in prior to 2010 and brought the ended up happening is that there was a either a. ready very significant or marginal moved away from the rental ism and hiker privileges. the problem that ended up taking or is that those,
the systems are established by the post 2000 constitutions. posted on 11 the constitutions were, didn't function very well for a variety of reasons. amongst others, for example, very weak political party culture. if you establish a system where parliament needs to play a more significant role than inevitably what you're doing is. ready calling for. ready political parties to play a much more significant role, and if your political part are weak by design incapable of forming policies, so and so forth. and you see that basically everywhere in the region in iraq and lebanon and to the other places. and all these countries were problems are supposed to plays good rules. and polish patient becomes extremely difficult because you're relying on parties at themselves cannot form policies. so the big mistake at the time. busy was just to create a system based on the assumption ok that the design of self would be sufficient
without thinking about a practical problems with that were likely to arise eventually in practice. our next president case, i had said that the reason why his introducing this reform basically to put an end to way described as dysfunction and endemic corruption in the system. but when you bring about a massive change, where you are the ultimate authority in a country of the expense of the judiciary and the parliament, where are you leaving your ration at question one of the african union of the continental body. that should i have a c on of this is struggling. bear in mind, there is the african shots, are on democracy, elections and governance. that states a legal means of accessing maintaining power constitute an unconstitutional change . what we are seeing and to news here is something we've seen elsewhere on the african continent. in concentrations as, as you mentioned in your introduction, i mean just think back to 2020 with the change of constitute in guinea. similar
arguments were being asked or were being made that during the referendum campaign by former president alpha condi. unfortunately, the change of the constitution greatly protested across the country, resulted in a cood last year in september by the military. and there's not a military jumper in control of guinea. so this is by no means necessarily a pathway to enhancing stability and prosperity. i mean, to museums are divided, the nation is ball. why it's you have those who say here is considered dating democratic gains. you have the others who say this is someone who is driving the nation tours or talk chrissy whether whether they leave the debate, the political debate as we speak now in tennis year about the future. well, the political debate had shifted the the, the years. because before, before we knew the constitution,
people were still hoping and expecting that this will lead to a democratic system. and a progression from the 2014 fusion. this is 2 days ago. we have seen shifts in the opinion because people are now, as you said in the, in the, in the us reduction people are know. so talking about about the events for the friends. and what is interesting is that a part of the upper class are discovery, and you know that by side project is grabbing more power. well, it was obvious for you, but to use this final isn't this idea that he's fighting corruption by any means necessary. ju ju, just defy his action, but it was from the, from an exterior point of view,
it was obvious that you were trying to, to grab more power when he expects the, the fall, him and when he gets sex. joe's will just this when he, when he, when he attacks the, the media, those were read fine. that should have the wonder about is a part of the upper class and the, and the higher is that the what? because extend that in order to get rid of corruptions or political as ok. zayed in 2014 the technicians have the 1st constitution constitution. and the, i have to say that the general sentiment prevailing those countries that were engulfed by the pro democracy movement back then was that we need the parliamentary democracy where the voice of the people decides the ultimate goal of the nation. but we saw that one of the outcomes of that movement was basically the wise of
political islam. nope, i say it has a totally different interpretation, which is basically we have to go back to the time where the president has the final say, is this something which is more because of his big, biggest concern about the rise of political islam or this is just simply a return to autocracy in tennessee, but i'm ok so to be clear that the constitution by itself doesn't establish law to protect system. what it does is it establishes a hyper presidential system, which would make it easy for anyone who happened to be president, to establish a lot of practice done by providing all the level of state and all major powers hands of the senior person. so if that individual happens to be particularly enlightened and decides not to cool off the state and capture all state institutions, then they can remain democratic. but the thing is that after 6070 years of experience in posting to post colonial period in the, our region with africa in the middle east. what we know is that these systems where a single individual or very small groups of individuals who are given huge amounts
of authority tend to retain that authority. ready as long as possible. so whether it's this president or any subsequent question, what the constitution and does, is it per se, establish not just them. what it does is it gives. busy the keys to the kingdom, to that particular individual, and therefore makes it make it creates a high, the poor, a state where a single individual can co op if he so chooses on and capture institutions. if that's what want to do it on the issue of political islam, an article 5 and so forth. i realize that this is always an issue that gets a lot of attention in the media on social media. so it's worth but in practical terms, whether it's. ready article one, originally article to the iraqi or the different constitution or the 5 and the teaching constitution in practical terms, whether or not chinese you will be inspired by religion and laws will be in spite of a reasonable depend on who happens in charge. ok, really matter what it says,
one way, the other alex, the chairman of the and national consultative commission, sat delayed, charged a task with drafting of the new constitution said that the, the reason why we decide to remove any refers to islam is that we don't want we want to prevent political extremism from taking over other se different. they say that this was meant in particular to prevent another which has been the biggest political organization in tennessee, since 2011, from staging and a political come back in the future. yeah, look this morning about political pluralism and us your previous speaker, correct? he said, what this is, is in a real danger of is a pathway to autocracy. we've, we've seen this time and time again, not just i'm no expert on the middle east, but in the rest of the african continent. it's exactly the same pathway that we've seen the arguments and the cameras, shod republic of congo, randa cho,
uganda. so there's plenty of evidence of the concerns of this, including also the closing down of pluralistic space. and so it is deeply alarming . i think about the potential for trajectory of option is you particularly given that shin is here, was it the vanguard of reform? in the so called arab spring. so it's, it is an alarming moments i think, for, for, for those of us who care about democracy and political pluralism on the african continent. i mean, do you citizens are coming out in huge numbers on the 25th of july to vote for in the referendum? i don't think so. i think there is, there is that's why he did this as a minimum to, to, to do it for them. i think there will be 500000 people just like in the online consultation that he did that i know goodness most go.
but i think that there is this problem with the opposition. that there is a division between go in and go to know or by cutting. that's the main main main issue. while the yes yes part are they decided and they did because i like it or not is he's the supporters. how the people that won't even question the constitution and it will go both. yes, i is not just to the constitution. and what was interesting in the previous intervention is really a question that the company read because fusion is were what i did with this 2014, which was the very bottom of the fusion, preventing the president from the term where he couldn't do anything.
now, what i side has done with this constitution with this 2014 constitution was beyond imagination. and i'm just questioning myself and hoping that the my imagination isn't, isn't bringing me to suffer possible separately. but what, what can i do with this constitution? we do show that he is high for presidential who, where there is a lot of loopholes that can lead us to not, of course, that in okay, they in e m, l, libya, iraq in india, egypt, and many other countries. the political parties that took over or were came under the hope of trying to stay away from the mindset that prevailed in the 60 seventy's eighty's all the way towards the ninety's and bring about an inclusive
government with new ideas that would put an end to a corruption, embezzlement of public funds and dysfunctional governments, where they failed to do basically was reaching out to the people has thought of the arab spring. do you think this could be the main reason why we're having these new phases in this part of the world where we're seeing a toque si reinstated back? first of all, i would dispute the, the premise of the question. i mean, the premise of the question is that political parties in countries like iraq came to power with a view to promoting democracy and encouraging pluralism that, that's certainly not my impression of iraq. and it's like entry. so i can speak about it with a little bit more freely, but in the country like iraq political parties were interested in plundering the state. and certainly not in the we're not interested in promoting democracy, the rule of law, social justice and so forth. i mean, if they wanted to do that, they would have been very easy for them. they had children mounts of resources at their disposal to achieve those things. but any evidence that the country like iraq
and their, i say this is like law by political parties. how that is their objective? i mean, so, i mean, part of the problem that we have in the original countries and speaking very generally is that political party lice, political pluralism, was really decimated over a period of around about half a century by extremely autocratic countries, regimes where they made it almost impossible, in some cases, completely impossible to engage in any meaningful political debate, political party activity, and so on, so forth. and then when suddenly there was a big change in the country like iraq in 2003. and floodgates are open and political parties can suddenly move in until the space that the autocrat has left for whatever reason. then you find that level of the past that either level of forming their capacity to foreign policies and then are 1st of all long distance. and then even they have no intention of doing so that everyone with any type of integrity has either left the country or has been executed. and that's really
a problem for designing operations. ok, what you need to do. but you certainly want to avoid hyper provincialism. but you can't just assume that political parties can do what it takes to create a functioning democratic system. you need corrected measures and that was never done alex in the past, i mean, the general, the general environment was they someone who is really frustrated with a political establishment would stage a coup. what is happening now is what people are coining legal autocrats. like in different parts of the world, hungary, of russia, in venezuela, in different parts of the african continent. they use the constitution and democracy to just end up undermining both the constitution and democracy. yeah, i mean, we do have that, that the are that taishan of constitutions to concentrate power all to extend. so some of it is about setting the term limits back to, to,
to the clock back to 0 and having another 2 terms. some of it is indefinite rule. i'm so that number different things happening, but it is a complicated pattern, so you're absolutely right. they are all socratic advances, but there are also setbacks and movements forward of democracy. so it's not one pattern in the african continent, for example, is very complicated. there were 2 democratic advances last year, including through successful elections, which many people didn't expect incumbents to lose. and that was because the opposition organized themselves very effectively united and were able to remove those incumbents. having said that, there are other countries where that, that hasn't been possible. my worry about what's happening in shanicea is that we've seen this before. opposition parties might bo caught the roof, the referendum may get more frustrated, and then support other means that they are such such pathways as cruise non student,
on constitutional changes of government. that was exactly what happened down on the west african coast last year in guinea, where frustrated politics, a referendum, resulted in opposition parties encouraging the military to get involved. so this is very warranting. i mean, are we likely to see a confrontation, imminent confrontation between crisis? i had and his opponents after july 25th. well, it's complicated to answer the question because we need to identify his oppose because there is different oppositions. there is appointment. i do disagree on the person not on the project. the authoritarian project is in the reform of the constitution. the higher the presidential system is supported by some of the actual like, arguing with you to party, the former advocate for the 90 and, and there is another form for there's other forms of physicians who are defending
the 2014 constitution and they return to apartment room parliamentary and i think there is, there is, there is a bustle in the opposition to, to, to feeling the turn it into. and that's what is going to be the key to understanding what, what do what is going to happen. that you're going to be my last question. i'd appreciate if you can give me answers in less than 15 seconds. i'll be asking the 3 of you. i will start with you as they do think that it's about time to, to ask for something like more, more authorial on the constitutional reforms, to put an end to this being manipulated by the dictators and the auto cross to change the states. no, i don't think so because you can't functioning democratic system without a well design constitution. it's not the only doctor that you need to function, but you really do need a functioning constitution. well,
goes on constitution onyx moratorium and instead of just in one sentence that moratorium what i would would, i would encourage his deep analysis of why things have gone. well, alex, i think that needs to be leadership from the continental body, african american, but reform constitutions can be progressive. reform conversation and gone are at the moment which will strengthen that constitution. make it more democratic. i mean, i think the more important is to focus on the political culture. i think what we are like the idea with body like to kind of go over as efficiently as the presidential says. thank you very much. indeed. yelman's a de la li, alex pines. i mean, some of the, i really appreciate your insight looking forward to talking to you in the near future. we see what happens in tennis. yeah. and many other parts of the world. and thank you for watching. you can see the program again any time by visiting our website. i'll just, you know, dot com for further discussion. go to our facebook page. that's facebook dot com, forward slash ha inside. so you can also join the conversation on twitter. i'll 100
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