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tv   Inside Story  Al Jazeera  August 16, 2022 2:30pm-3:01pm AST

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f for me to mila ultra 0. janice berg, the u. k. could be rolling out a new covey 19 vaccine target thing. the original virus and the on the com variant as soon as next month. it's the 1st country to approve use of the so called the i very lent that was made by the u. s. strong. firm madana. the us government says, well, the government rather says it's confident uptake will be high. british regulators have approved it as a boost for adults. ah, let's take you through some of the headlines here now just here. now kenya's new president. he likes he's calling for unity off. the protest broke out when he was named the winner of a timely contested election. the countries facing a potential legal battle over the results. william brito beat, former prime minister ryan the dinner by a margin of less than 2 percent. welcome by bays, waiting for right now didn't get to speak to the media. the big questions are, is,
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is he going to dispute the result that was announced on monday at the supreme court? and of course, what irregularity is these, any correlation alleging, as we just heard that from the election observe as group sample of a 1000 polling stations data collected, they're largely matched the data published by the electoral commission. and this election was more transparent than those that came before it. you delegates have visited garza to sign the $249000000.00 deal with you and relief agency for palestinian refugees. the group also told the hospital to assess the condition of health care facilities. united nations high commissioner for human rights me child bachelor is visiting one of the world's biggest refugee camp by july is in cox's bazaar in bangladesh, which is home to about a 1000000 running refugees. moscow is blaming sabotaged for
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a fire at and i'm in mission depot. and russian control crimea, 2000 people were evacuated from the area. the defense ministry says no one was seriously injured, but civilian infrastructure was damaged. russian president vladimir foods in says western countries wants to build a security line similar to nato in the asia pacific region. 14 was speaking as a security conference in moscow. a shipment of ukrainian grain bound for africa has left the black sea pulled up to den you. it's the 1st the head to the continent since russia's invasion in february, about 18000000 people in the whole of africa suffering extreme hunger. a chinese research vessel is dark tinge for land because several days late after india res security concerns the ship is expected to be at ham, been told for a week. it's inside story now,
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stay with us with a global treaty for the high seas. un member states trying to agree a deal to protect fragile ecosystems and international waters. why is it important and what has prevented an agreement until now? this is inside story. ah hello and welcome to the program. i'm laura kyle. countries have tried for years to reach a global agreement on protecting the high seas. is the areas of the world's oceans
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that fall beyond the jurisdiction of any one nation. each country has exclusive use of its territorial waters which one up to 370 kilometers from the shorelines. those territorial areas are highlighted in light blue on this map. beyond that, in dark blue on the high seas, international waters that make up most of all planets, oceans, scientists say existing laws aren't strong enough to protect those areas. the high seas are crucial for supporting marine life, as well as absorbing carbon dioxide and heat caused by global warming. un member states meeting in new york to try to agree on a legally binding treaty been negotiating to the past 10 years. let's look at why it's so relevant. 2 thirds of the world's ocean are considered international waters . that means all countries have a right to fish ship and carry out research in them. but only 1.2 percent of these
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high seas are protected. this means most of the walls marine life is exposed to growing threats from climate change over fishing and shipping. if countries commit to the treaty, 30 percent of the world's oceans would be considered conservative conservation areas by 2013. that means that environmental impact assessments will have to be carried out before any commercial activities such as deep sea mining are allowed. when i see you and oceans conference in june, secretary general antenna, good terrorists had some governments were deliberately stalling progress on a treaty egoism. we are dealing with the protection of firm borrow over city in international waters, but some people still sing that they are powerful enough to sink militants. russell walker's should be this. i think it's important to work. everybody understands that
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international or waters are hours of all countries and all peoples with let's bring in our gas now in new york, we have jessica battle senior experts on global ocean policy at the world wildlife fund in london, danesh mustafah for professor of critical geography at kings college london and also in new york. well, mccollum had of ocean's green piece. you came when there's also had a green pieces delegation to the un in new york. i will welcome to all of you. first, i think it's important to address the facts that we're talking about. half of our planet left currently unprotected. it's an incredible amount. well, why is it so important to change that? it's so important to change the status quo because when we're seeing the threats, the ocean not only increasing what seems like over fishing, like a legal thing,
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like deep sea mining, all continue to increase some very little extra, actually protect the bio diversity out there on the oceans, and i suppose for people sitting back on lamps, they might wonder why, why does ocean protection matter to me and, and i'd say, well, all of us depend on a healthy ocean to help regulate climate, to absorb carbon, to keep us more resilient, the impacts of climate change, but also more than 3000000000 people around the world depends on the ocean to their primary source of food. so risking that food security through political inaction simply isn't good enough and that's why we're here at the united nation, this week campaign for a strong, agree or 30 talk more about that treaty. and just a moment don is just before we do, i mean this is a part of the world, but not many of us get to see. let's be honest. who does go out? what sort of activities do we see out on these high seas? well,
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they are very few countries in the world that actually have the capability to undertake the mining it used to be the united states was the only country out of the $990.00 the capacity to walk in the high season that the mining maybe japan, right now has developed that sort of ability, maybe a couple of other countries, but united states continues to be the largest player in the game when it comes to mining. in fact, bradley, the only place that is out there. so when you're really talking about regulation of the high seas, what you're really talking about is a handful, not extremely powerful dick invited by countries united states being at the forefront. so the question of regulating deep sea mining is probably intricately connected to domestic politics with united states where it becomes politically feasible for an administration to forego an almost exclusive capability that they have to undertake the kind of activity that is trying to regulate. i mean, was
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a beak or south africa, or pakistan, or under the will happily signed the treaty because don't have the ability to go out there. and i see, and i did take the kind of mining activities when it comes to deep c fisheries. again, they have a handful of countries that actually have the factory boats which have that sort of arranged to undertake deep sea blue waters fishing chief amongst them would be again, united states, canada, norway, iceland, japan, taiwan, korea, and then maybe a few others that participants are gonna be mindful of for and know off. so again, this treaty really is about a handful of countries better can actually do something in the high seats. so you see there was a, there was a reference in the, in the, in the chip that you ran earlier at the countries, things from enough where you bought the risk. well, well, let's name the part for once, right? you don't think that it belongs to the rest of the work and since they're the only
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want to get to it, i'm going to bring you in at this point because quite quickly we done is hones a thin from a global tracy to just a handful of perpetrators, so why don't we just make this a domestic issue and, and hone in on these, these few powerful countries. why does it have to involve the whole whole world? well, because they united nation, the law of this, the treaty, which is the one on the which this treat the thing negotiated, actually has 165 parties. i think it's a, it's a pretty global treaty. and you said in your introduction, the highest it belongs to everyone. we cannot allow only a few countries to exploit these last areas that have so many benefits for so many people are so many countries economy as well. so that it's very, very important that almost all these countries become,
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if not all become parties. members, to this treat that when they finalize, so that everybody is covered by an all activities covered by it. we believe, and this is also what the good paris said, the 2nd. so general, the united nations in the clear in the beginning that the ocean beyond national jurisdiction is really the lodge, the law tragedy of the commons. i say it really is somewhere where those who can have been exploiting it to the benefit for them, but really at the detriment of all of us and all of our children's future as well. so even though it's, of course, only a few companies that they have the ability to go out there. and what they do is that they subsidize, for example, of their high sufficiently, tremendously expensive to operate on the high seas. and, and they, they catch too much fish, they destroy him than
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a habitat living space for many main creatures. and they will capture a lot of important spacious in bycatch. iconic spaces that we have to be cultural or other values to like large waves, for example, for turtles. so really yes, the, it's a few country who have activities back, but it's all of ours interest and responsibility. and well, we know that countries like australia, new zealand, but for the e, u. r, in favor of this treaty was about places like america, japan, a veil on board with it. over the last random negotiations took place in march. we saw that many, if not most countries were in favor of concluding a treaty. the question is really, how strong will that treaty be in for us, the 3 pieces environmental campaign as an i'm sure i share this with others on the call for the success of this treaty and its strength will be determined on whether
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or not it has the power to protect areas of the high seas can actually put areas on the high seas, off limits to some of these destructive industries we be mentioning. if it can do that, then we'll consider a strong treaty and it remains to be seen how hard the e u m. particular, are willing to push for this really worried at the moment i'm entering into these negotiations in quite it attends play is wondering how will countries that previous to being supportive, be willing to compromise because we desperately need a strong treat to treat you can actually deliver ocean protection, the u. k. government, for example, along many of the been traveling around the well campaign for at least 30 percent of the world's oceans to be protected by 2030. that's what scientists say is needed to restore populations key promotions more resilient climate change. now that target is simply impossible without a strong treaty. we won't get it on that scale. and if we don't agree and treaty this year, it also is impossible to protect the central ocean by 2030. so the agile see is
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what we really need to see these negotiations, the urgency willingness and don us also we, we need to know how we can protect these oceans. we're talking about places that are very hospitable, that are very inaccessible. how do we actually police these high seas again, just to just to get back to my earlier point of very few countries in the world have the capability to enforce, right? the same countries that have the capability to go out there and undertake dc mining or subsidized they're fishing fleets. otherwise we'll have the capability to actually believe those. so it's a, it's a, it's an interesting situation. but traders are also the ones which we are also asking to release their behavior. so you can get your creepy and if the united states doesn't sign it does, it's not what the people that it's written on. you can get your,
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i mean it's kind of like climate change as well. right. i'm trying to change a lot. busy more political attraction in the european union, even, you know, to an extent, you could argue in the states. it's and i, but high seas is something that that's very far away from buckets consciousness. very few people go out there. but if people get excited about it, and i think that that's, that's the sort of paradox, the problem that you have at your hands. so you, when can do what it wants and you know, 16564 going to be fine. it doesn't sign it. what do you have a treaty? but so what i mean the, the main country that can actually do something about it or is in fact, the problem doesn't find it. so that's end of discussion that's fixing. let's have a climate change treaty, but not to have dry now or us part of it. well, that becomes meaningless. ok, i can think of what's your response to that? i mean, as he was saying there, you can get everybody signing it, but how we actually going to the polices and will the us be willing to police
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itself? i mean, it's valid points, isn't it? and what the response to that. i don't wish to focus too much of the united states . united states actually not a part of the law of the sea convention under still behaves according to the law convention. i think what is really important here is if we heard that the state to a court is to this treaty, they are, they are obliged to also make sure that the flag, the vessels that they flag and all activities on the high seas, but taking place on some vessels on vessels off to the fishing potential. they've been mining shipping, of course, k belaying. don't forget, other potential and current use of the ocean or taking place from, from vessel from boats. and these both have a flag and if that is the flag stay that is responsible for the behavior and all these vessels and the hood need to police this. so if the read is this treat the
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we're hoping can for the best, the collaboration between these flags they and who are signatories to a whole host of other agreements. but they also have to implement when they're, when they're invest sosa vessels, and they flag, or racing on the highest is let's not forget to forget other treat this, such as the commercial market to a species that was set up to protect animals that, that's migrates across jurisdiction from the highest is to a national voice as a cetera. and we have a lot of fish or some fish spacious in there. first of the sector, that is one of those that this the, the, the flex, there's also have to make sure are followed. and what we're hoping with is tracy is to establish this strong collaborative mechanism. and also a sounds of, of duty to report what is going on, how are they doing when they're implementing this tree? so for example, when we're saying if this is suspected area that has been established on this,
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tracy, that these flag states are controlling the vessels of they flag instruction. a of that does not break that law. well, still it's going to run up against some big, powerful interest, isn't it? let's look at deep sea mining. for example, no license, it doesn't happen as yet. but explain exploratory licenses. have been released. how much concern does this raise for you? because people are going to want to explore the deep sea as resources on land run thin. and as we want to develop renewable energy, we're already finding sources, minerals under the sea that can contribute to that. so there's a conundrum there in itself. how, how does this argument play out? quickly on deep sea mining, i think frankly, there's absolutely no need for deep sea mining. the big tech companies, the big companies who might need these minerals. they're not calling for the money
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. they're actually looking at alternative materials. mining is being pushed forward by a tiny number of telephone companies who desperately want to to find a new frontier to expose. so it is a concern for us absolutely. that it's, you know, being talked about seriously but, but really, i think the other obstacles is treat faces. and so how to mystic i am no one said deciding that the fatal half of our planet is going to be a simple task is wrong with complexity and difficulty. but it's also the most enormous opportunity. and i have a lot of hope going into the next 2 weeks because the science is so clear that when you protect the oceans properly, when you, when you put areas of limits to human activities, when you limit the more destructive industries out that you have this remarkable ability to bounce back to restore, likes, sort of scale that you just don't see on land. and that vision of that i did that,
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that, that protecting it will, will all read the rewards of property. protecting it, i hope is what will drive some governments to really push to the most ambitious treaty? well, i love your optimism and i want to share it, but it's been 10 years of negotiations. what makes you think that this is the year it's going to be agreed. so some very powerful countries in the room right now are saying this year. we see within that he, you come out of the last thing. we have to see a treaty. we're seeing other negotiating groups like the pacific small island developing states. i'm also saying this year, the ultimate, the governments don't want to be sending delegation to new york year in year out to the future of our planet. they want, they want to see a result. but it is very disappointing to see ministers for most companies here that would really send the signal is a political priority. so if the in the 1st few days we're seeing these talks of replicating the same cumbersome, bureaucratic processes as before,
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then absolutely we're going to be writing to minutes as well. so you have to get him out. you have to come here and make your voice. had to make delegations know that this is a political priority. to conclude, it isn't easy. of course, it's not easy. $165.00 countries agreeing and the thing is easy, but we do believe that we play an all of this for many years. and governments here are really ready to agree they want this. i'm just wondering, well whether you find that it's already been watered down because we have a graphic we can show you. the green piece from the university of york released a study in 2019 on how the oceans could be protected by 2013. the areas in orange show the high seas that protected now and as we said earlier, it's about one percent. and this is what 30 percent would look like that fee amount, but we're focusing on if it is possible to safeguard a full spectrum of marine life without disrupting fishing and commercial activities
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. now that 30 percent it was brought down from 15 percent danesh. do you think 30 percent is always never enough? is it but is it ok? is it viable? is it possible at this stage of the game i'm? i'm no technical expert on fisheries, and i can't really argue whether 30 percent of 35 percent or 25 percent. what is a good number for that important problem i'm trying to and i'm not against the treaty or refugees, a wonderful happens. and i hope that optimism is well placed and it does country my view is, for example, as it was just mentioned by one of the participants to give me up. i'm not remembering names that flag ships are the country the flagship are responsible for the behavior of those vessels. now the idea of us maturity and i'm happy to be connected in time, misinformed them to some last majority of the high seas,
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official fleets. i'd actually like when i be the panama and the small countries out there, which are basically fact convenience. which basically means that there are videos not going to go up there and the police aged fishing trotter in the pacific and modified behavior. the other important point that has just been raised is that the law of the seas not subscribed to by the united states again. well, darren is your answer of countries that have the capability to actually have high seas fishing trauma fishing please. the countries that have dc mining may very well be a very minor part of the picture at the moment in the future. what happens? i don't know those that again, problems of these major countries. and i think that i can, i can understand the go how, why colleagues are hesitant to name names or to focus on any one country or the other country. but that's not going to change the reality of the incredible power
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that a few countries have to create a problem and then to control the problem without those, i mean, no one said that synagogue is a problem. no one said that south africa is the problem. that, i mean, what does that mean? what is high, see there's a very small for characters. and unless we focus on those, you know, bias declarations that belongs to on a 5. ok. i just wanted to jump and jump in. yeah, i was just going to say, yes, it is a small number of countries that are creating the problems, but it is more companies who are feeling the impacts. and that is why we need these multinational processes is to help those countries who might not have a diplomatic power as a single entity by creating these multi cities that really deliver a common good. so, well, that might not be some individual countries creating problems on the united states
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street. but countries like spain who have one of the largest high seas fishing fleets who have been lobbying the european union for a week position on issues they will be. and they will fix the same goes or from also have a very large international to flee. they will be bound by and so there are many countries that are active on the high seas who will be bound by this treaty. and also the huge trading block type europe in union can in fact through trade agreements, cheap, other countries to the kinds of these treaties to the rules of these treaties. so whether or not a country ratified that there are so other mechanisms by which countries one things joining jump in as well. yes, thank you. thank you will for that. i think what, what we have to remember here. so this tree is not being negotiated in isolation. there are as well pointed out there are other trees and lots of agreements that governments have signed onto because they have understood that we have a planet,
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but it's ailing. and we need to do something about the way we treat this planet. these are the sustainable development goals, for example. now this is not legally binding, but they are aspiration of the international community to make sure that all states either reduce the consumption because they consume too much or are able to partake in a sustainable development in, in, in that is sustainably getting the resources we have to our disposal without further, if they're seeing the marina marina and the natural environment launch, i think we must remember that these are commitments that these countries have also signed up to. and we have to hold them accountable, which is why we need to make sure we're saying that there's more political ways more political attention to the st. the at this time. jessica, they, they've got a deadline at the end of this year to reach an agreement on this treaty. what happens if it's not reached?
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if it is not rich, they will have to, they will have to have another go station session, but it's not, not an impossibility. but of course, during this time the ocean is continues to deteriorate. so we do not want to see a whole slew of, of more sessions, and we would like them to conclude this treaty at this time. but if there are a few small issues still to resolve, then yes, another session might be needed. but if, if that we can't wait the ocean conway, absolutely ok. we will have to leave at that for the moment, watching the next few days of this convention very closely in the thanks very much for taking the time to join us. jessica battle tonisha and stuff, and we'll mccallum and thank you to for watching. you can see the program again anytime by visiting our website, this algebra dot com. and if i discussion to go to a facebook page at facebook dot com forward slash a j inside story, it was a joint conversation on twitter, a j inside story from me,
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nora kyle and the whole team here in the news. ah, a the well companies coming to cattle in just 3 months as the main event gets closer, we get every step of the way. hello, i'm john. i guess you're also with updates from teams and fans across the glove. things can expect some strong support here in customer with a spotlight now on europe. can france claim back to back? well, come,
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