tv BBC World News BBC America April 6, 2015 10:00am-11:01am EDT
hello. you're watching bbc world news. the first aid workers should get into yemen today. the red cross says it's been given permission by the saudi-led coalition, which is carrying out air strikes against houthi rebels. kenya's first response from the university attack that killed at least 148. its aircraft bombed two areas in somalia, targeting the militant group, al shabaab. and prince harry lays a
wreath for australia's unknown soldier as he begins a short secondment to the country's military. also in the program, alice is here with all the business. you're looking at greece first of all? >> that's right. we've heard from yanis varoufakis the greece finance minister, saying his government will honor all of their obligations and his own words, reform greece deeply. and of course the head of the international monetary fund says she's happy to hear it. hello to you. it is midday in london. 7:00 a.m. in washington. and 2:00 in yemen. for 12 nights the coalition of gulf states led by saudi arabia backed by the u.s. have been targeting the houthi rebels who ousted yemen's president. well, that leaves thousands of
people desperately short of food water, and medical splice. the u.n. estimates, 500 have been killed. and as katarina mow reports, the is situation is getting worse. >> reporter: it's a desperate situation for those who can't escape yemen. in the city of aden people risk their lives journeying to this distribution well. there isn't enough water. two major districts are without power, and many shops are running low on food. this boy says they've been without water for five days. the international red cross says now they're now glad. the united nations says that over the past two weeks, fighting in yemen has left more than 500 people dead and about 1,700 wounded. saudi-led air strikes against houthi rebels continued for a 12th night on sunday but houthi
rebels are continuing to attack the southern city of aden. they pushed through to the heart of the port city engaging in fierce fighting with troops royal noto the president. >> the russian delegation circulated a draft resolution to the counsel members regarding humanitarian programs in yemen and expressed concerns over the humanitarian situation. >> reporter: foreign citizens are being evacuated as the humanitarian situation gets worse. countries including france china, pakistan sudan, algeria, and egypt have stepped up efforts to pull their citizens out of yemen. as fighting continues, the houthi rebels remain steadfast in their aim to replace president habi's government. >> let's speak to the editor of
the post. yemen already the poorest country in the arab world, showing all the signs of a place descending into chaos. what signs are you seeing? >> unbelievable right now. hundreds of thousands are evacuating the main cities. and the problem is they have nowhere else to go because these air strikes are in most of the provinces of the country. and the problem is that most of the casualties have been civilians. very few of the saudi air strikes have targeted the houthis and their fighters. they're targeting the houthi military and weapon depots but not the houthi fighters. so hundreds almost 90% of those who were killed estimated at around 800, have been civilians. also as well the saudi air strikes have targeted the food storage of the country. this was enough for months for an entire country. these were all targeted.
that's why the country is living today, this very powerful humanitarian crisis. we fear that yemenis would be forced to seek in somalia. this is a twist of what happens over the years. over 1 million somalis came to yemen, seeking help or seeking shelter. now it was the opposite. hundreds of yemenis have already evacuated yemen for fear and now in somalia, the opposite of what happened years ago. >> so i'm sorry, i mispronounced your name earlier, if the red cross does manage to get in for the first time since these bombing raids began, what chance of its aid workers actually being table to reach people with the supplies they so badly need. >> they will reach people but only limited amounts of people. the crisis in yemen cannot be solved by the red cross alone. we're talking about these
countries and to have this food crisis above it it does not help. you need more support. and this cannot happen only with the dialogue in the political parties in yemen. if there is dialogue then that oppose the door for a cease-fire, opens a door for more international aid. open the door for more foreign aid as well. but without a cease-fire yemen will continue going downwards, it does not matter how much the red cross does in yemen, they will only be able to reach 5 to maybe 7% of those who are affected, and they will focus on the main cities and now the rural areas, who are always left behind. >> hakim, we tend to see this in the outside world, characterized as a kind of proxy war between the saudis on the one hand the iranians on the other. but it's clearly much more complicated than that isn't it? you had the presence of al qaeda and that massive jailbreak the other day and the former president. very active behind the houthi
rebels. >> everything that happens right now will lead into the same iranian saudi war. the al qaeda fleeing the the prison hundreds of al qaeda fighters. they did that or were able to do that because they could defense from the howattuthi interests. everything that's happening leads to the same war. the houthis need to be fought and those who oppose the houthis need to have to believe. and only al qaeda had those kind of beliefs to kill other people. that's why all these prison breaks happened right now in yemen, where hundreds of al qaeda fighters fled their prison s in aden. the idea was that these fighters are the ones who should fight the houthis instead of having foreign fighters on the ground in yemen, because it was more
complicated to convince pakistan or aden to allow to fight on the ground. >> hakim of the "yemen post," thank you so much. now the kenyan air force has carried out bombing raids across the border in somalia, a response to last thursday's attack by the militants of al shabaab on garissa university. nearly 150 people were killed. planes bombed two al shabaab camps on sunday on in the gedo region, close to the border. in the past few minutes, community leaders in the northeast of kenya have condemned the massacre at the university. >> we are confident of the fact that murderous criminals, purporting to profess our faith of islam have committed this hideous act. we want to disassociate
ourselves with and our islamic faith with the actions of these demented muslims. they are not muslims and do not represent us. we will do everything in our power to expose and eliminate them from our midsts. >> let's speak to the bbc's maud julien. maud, there is no surprise that there is condemnation of course of that raid. not clear how effective bombing runs are going to be against these militants. >> well, there's always been criticism of these raids, actually. you can see on social networks people are saying it took 150 dead for kenya to finally start these air strikes in somalia. now, what we're hearing is that the militant's bases, the shabab bases in somalia were destroyed by these strikes that started last night and that went on
until this morning. i spoke to a kenyan army spokesman earlier today, and he told me that several people had been injured in this strike and that these bases were strategic for the shabab militants, especially those planning attacks inside kenya. he said that it was actually easy for militants to leave from there and to then enter kenya, because this was a zone where there were no african union troops. he also told me that one of the gunmen behind the garissa attacks could have used that route, because he's from man der mandera, which is near the somali border and it's thought that he could have been into those bases to train and to then plan the attack that took place on thursday in which nearly 150 people died. >> maud you'd have to think that supplies and weapons stores may well have been destroyed in these raids, but surely al shabaab, the people themselves, the fighters themselves would
have been expecting exactly this kind of response. they would have scattered. >> well presumably, there are also many al shabaab spaces across somalia, around the border area. these are just two bases. and it's not clear from the kenyan army will al shabaab militant were killed. they weren't able to give any casualties regarding death of militants. it's not clear what impacts these air strikes have had. >> and just in case people aren't aware of the situation, i guess there's little hope of anyone in somalia taking action against al shabaab? >> sorry, can you repeat that question? >> i guess there's very little chance, given the situation there, of anyone in somalia taking action against al shabaab? >> well the kenyan army that i was speaking to earlier were actually complaining about how little other african countries who are taking part in the african union force, were doing to neuralize al shabaab, saying
that actually those bases that they destroyed were meant to be in a zone controlled by other african union troops who weren't doing their jobs of destroying these bases. >> maud, thank you very much, indeed. thanks to you for being with us. stay with us on bbc world news if you can. much more to come including this. an indonesian court has rejected a legal court by two australian drug smugglers, who both face execution. we'll have the latest on that, coming up. ♪ you'll never look at iced coffee the same way again. say hello to new skinny cow creamy iced coffee in three indulgent flavors: mocha latte, vanilla, and creamy cappuccino. skinny cow. so impossible, so good. nestle. good food, good life.
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pleas. andrew chan and myuran sukumaran were convicted in 2006 for leading the so-called balli nine group of heroin smugglers. the two australians are among ten foreign drug convicts now facing execution by firing squad. from jakarta krishna baswani. >> reporter: andrew chan and myuran sukumaran. two australians who have shown a global spotlight on indonesia's death penalty policy for drug traffickers. they spent the last decade in a balinese prison, after being sentenced to death for attempting to smuggle 8.3 kilograms of heroin to australia. they say they're now changed men and have reformed in prison. and that they deserve a second chance. but an indonesian court upheld the rejection of their clemency
application. dashing their hopes of being saved from the firing squad. but their lawyers aren't giving up. they say the indonesian president's decision to ban all clemencies from drug traffickers is unconstitutional and that they're taking their fight to the next level. >> we are about to file an constitutional issue to a constitutional court, asking the court to emphasize, what is the precedence in relation with the clemency. >> reporter: indonesia has become the target of international outrage, as a result of the its policy to ban all clemency applications from drug traffickers. critics say this is without reviewing each case individually. but the external pressure some appears to be firming indonesia's resolve and its
position on the death penalty. some the other main news for you, briefly. the supreme court in bangladesh has rejected a final appeal by senior islamist leader against his death sentence for atrocities committed during the 1971 war of independence from pakistan. bangladeshi's attorney general says there's now no reason why he should not be executed for crimes against humanity. president abbas has planned to receive tax revenues. they have deducted a third of the money to palestinian debts to utility companies. they say either israel should pay the money in full or he'll take the issue to the international criminal court. the governor of zimbabwe is facing growing pressure to halt the export baby elephants to cyan and dubai. the practice is separating babies from their mothers and
inhumane and cruel. the government says the sales are essential, because zimbabwe can sustain only a fraction of the elephants colonel ss currently living in its national parks. a "rolling stone" magazine has apologized and officially retracted an article published in november last year which famously described a gang rape at a university of virginia for a fraternity house. this is a story you'll remember it prompted widespread discussions about sexual assaults on american college campuses. but a four-month police investigation has found no evidence that the incident even happened. on the request of the magazine itself, the columbia school of journalism looked into the article and it found that "rolling stone" had failed to use basic journalistic practice to verify the details of the story they published. let's get more on this with me is steven elling our london bureau chief with "the new york times." welcome and thank you for coming in to see us. everyone i know who has looked
at this story says how could "rolling stone" have done this? why not even the basic? >> well the great risk in journalism is credulity. is wanting to believe something that you think ought to be true. in this case the author was planning to write a story about rape on campus. she was looking for a good example. she was led to the person who turned out to be a great liar and fabricator by an interest group representing abused women on campus. and wanted to believe it so badly that she never checked. and her editors failed to push her to check. that, in some ways, was the most extraordinary thing. >> and yet we've all made mistakes, god knows, but american fact checking is famous. >> well, it is famous. the "rolling stone" isn't "the new yorker," which is famous for its fact checking. part of the problem, i think, is that the "rolling stone" has -- you know, when i was young, it was a great alternative source. it's become really part of the
mainstream media. and it is looking like all media for the hits the interesting story, the story that creates discussion and that's particularly true when you come out quarterly. i think we're all subject to this. and this was a topic that as you said in the beginning, creating a big fuss. the problem is it simply wasn't true. it's not that rape doesn't happen on campus it's that this particular rape didn't happen on this particular campus. and the most shocking thing was that the author did not even check to see if the fraternity had a party on the night that her source claimed she was raped. >> whatever the truth here it has to be said horror stories are tumbling out of american campuses at the moment. our american audience will be well aware how for araternityies work, but for the rest of the world, outline what this situation is. it's something quite particular for a fraternity on a campus. >> it is. and i never was in one, but the
fact is they started really as eating clubs. i mean clubs for like-minded people to have meals on campus and then there's this whole structure with greek letters and national chapters and there are women's sorority and male fraternities, and particularly big state campuses tend of big chapters. and what tends to happen is that male fraternities have parties and they invite women and then you know, things happen. now, things have always happened, but i think the whole society is much her sensitive now to what happens. and there's also you know, with a lot of drinking much more than when i was young and date rape drugs and then you have incidences of football sports teams doing gang rapes to girls who are insensate with drugs or drink. it happens in this country too. but it's quite shocking. >> we've also seen these
instances of horrifically racist songs being sung on buses. it didn't appear to be coming from just a few races on the bus or within that frat it turns out that these were songs that were well known across the entire fraternity. >> well you know i, again, young men do a lot of stupid things. and you hope they grow out of them. and they have a lot of prejudices. if you look on twitter and take ten seconds, you can see the ugliness of humankind when it's unfiltered. but roll g"rolling stone" is supposed to be edited and filtered. that's the whole point of editors. but you had basically men editing an article about women being raped, written by a woman journalist who was very plausible. and i think for lots of reasons, and possibly they admit, this is what the columbia journalism school said her political correctness didn't push very hard to poke holes in a story
they wanted to be true. >> there are plenty of american on women college campuses who will stay there is still a serious problem with sexual abuse. if this is going to be addressed, who is going to address it? the campuses? the fraternities at a national level? >> i think college administrators, first of all have to do it. parents have to do it. parents have to bring up their children properly. but i think, you know we're a very federal place. and universities tend to have their own police forces and tend to bring in local police forces only rarely when they have to. so i think it really is up to administrators to crack down on fraternities and also to encourage women to come forward. >> we'll follow it with interest. thank you, very much, indeed. queen elizabeth's grandson prince harry, as arrived in australia for a months-long military attachment. he was greeted by a crowd of several hundred people at the australian war memorial in
canberra. prince will spend time with special commando forces in perth and an indigenous surveillance unit in the northern territory. it will be the final mission of captain harry wales' decade-long military career before he leaves the army in june. >> reporter: it was a somber start to prince harry's trip to australia, where he remembered the nation's war dead in canberra. he laid a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier. the prince's trip will be briefly interrupted later this month, when he heads to turkey for commemorations to mark the disastrous allied campaign of glitly in 1915. among the victims were thousands of troops from australia and new zealand. it's their sacrifice that has forged the legend. outside, there was an enthusiastic welcome for british royal. this is prince harry's only scheduled public appearance during hismon month-long attachment
with the australian military. he'll spend time with regiments in sydney, perth, and darwin. a crowd of several hundred people that braved the rain here at the national war memorial in canberra to greet him. among the dignitaries is sir peter congrove. australia is a monarchy and the queen is the head of state. there remains a great respect for the royal family hoar. >> he's lovely. very friendly. shook our hands. very excited. >> very genuine. >> very genuine guy. >> the australian royal family as well as england, so it's very fis to see them coming to australia. >> reporter: this is prince harry's third visit to australia, but it will be no holiday, as he approaches the end of his army career back home. the prince will spend time with special forces commandos in perth, and with an indigenous surveillance unit in the northern territory.
phil mercer brk bc news canberra. coming up for you in the next half hour "gmt" claims that millions of children are at risk of abuse at boarding schools in china. we have a special report. stay with us if you can. how do i get hotel deals nobody else gets? trust me i'm a great negotiator. price-line ne-go-ti-a-tor! 60% off! 40! 60! 40! 60! 40! 40! 60! trust me, they can't say 'no' to me. i've
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hello and welcome to "gmt."".." this is bbc world news. claims of millions of children at chinese boarding schools are at risk of abuse with no government oversight to protect them. we speak to the parents of one boy who was sexually assaulted. >> our son used to cry and refuse to return to school. at first, i do not understand why. my husband became so angry. but now we know. also ahead, what's in a chin. scientists think they discovered that humans are the only mammals to have them.
we will reveal all. and alice looks at the issue of so-called health tourism. >> a top topic here in the uk because the finance minister is saying that it needs cracking down. that the government promising to hike these and chase the bills of noneu citizens when use the national health system. in china, boarding schools are not exclusively for the wealthy. they are commonly attended by the sons and daughters of farmers and migrant workers. the lack of government oversight, though of those schools, is a major cause for concern. cases of abuse by teachers often making the headlines in china. the charity save the children says a lack of proper safeguards means that millions of children are at risk. our correspondent, ceila hatton reports now on one family's battle to get justice for their son.
>> reporter: farmers working the fields in china's northern province are used to a hard life. but it's not one they want for their families. so they send their children to rural boarding schools, like this one, in this village. it was known as one of the best in the area. that was before this teacher was convicted of confining students inside his home. there, teenage boys were bound and gagged, tortured, and raped. this went on for years. >> translator: our son used to cry and refuse to return to school. at first, we did not understand why. my husband became so angry. but now we know. our son was suffering. >> reporter: this couple's then 16-year-old son was the first to break the silence. >> the situation was getting
worse, so i told my parents. but the memories still haunt me. >> reporter: the teacher was sentenced to two years and ten months in prison. he admitted to sexually assaulting his students, but china has no law banning male rape over the age of 14. so in court, he was only found guilty of detaining the boys. his victims want a harsher punishment. >> so we just finished interviewing the family and it's hard not to be affected by the intense sadness felt by every member of this household, to see how the actions of one person can hurt so many. but these parents are also very angry. they feel let down by the system, or the lack of a system, in place to protect their son. we visited the police station where the family first reported the crime. >> translator: that creep is
doing it again. so they knew about this before, but didn't do anything to stop it. >> reporter: the police ignored repeated interview requests and school officials refused to answer similar allegations. they also turned a blind eye to the abuse. advocates from save the children warn there's a high risk of abuse at chinese boarding schools without proper safeguards in place. 30 million children in china attend such schools far away from home. schools with no teacher background checks or a means to report sexual or physical violence. china's education ministry is working to change that. but that's no consolation to some. this family is moving away with their son to start a new life. tired of a system that didn't keep that you are children safe and can't deliver justice now. ceila hatten for bbc news.
it is a year since the presidential election in afghanistan. and they are still trying to agree on cabinet appointments if two-thirds of ministers proposed by president ghani were rejected earlier this year. all provincial positions have been frozen. david long reports now on an increasing sense of political stagnation in afghanistan. >> reporter: it is proving easier to build a new afghan parliament complex than it is a new government. the indian government paid for this building which should open later this year. but a year after the presidential election two-thirds of cabinet posts remain unfilled. in their existing parliament building, mps will vote on a new slate of ministers proposed by the president after rejacketing ingrejacketing most of his first nominations. each have two deputies.
>> mr. ghani is not just one person who makes a decision. he is not the only decision maker. there are two leaders with two deputies and in total, there are six people. so they talk a lot on everything. two different mentalities. how can they work under one umbrella? >> reporter: this has had an impact beyond parliament. provincial governors have all been told they're only acting in their posts until their new appointments. here in jalalabad, elders med to try to encourage their governor not to stand down. one said that he was one of the only people who was taking on the criminal mafia. but the ex-governor said he could not remain acting. he was powerless. >> we request the president to end the system of people acting as soon as possible. the longer it goes on the
damage will go on. the country will slide towards instability. people will lose faith in government and corruption will increase. building a democracy that works after more than three decades of war has proved hard to do and enormous challenges of poverty and conflict and international donors whose patience cannot last forever. >> it will take more than a new building to build a new democracy in afghanistan, a country without any of the normal institutions of a functioning democracy. in particular taxation. and until afghan politicians are responsible to their electorates for the money they spend, they afford to indulge in politics irresponsibly. the country deserves better. david loyn bbc news kabul. >> we'll let you know how that goes. alice is here now with the business and more on greece today. >> absolutely right. it just rumbles on doesn't it? and it's back in our headlines
today, mike because the country has given an assurance that it does now intend to re-pay its debt. speaking at the start of a potentially crucial week for his country, the greek finance minister yanis varoufakis says its government does plan to honor all of its obligations and reform greek's. here's what he had to say after that meeting. >> extremely productive discussion about reform proposals. our government is a reformist government. we are intent upon reforming grease greek deeply. this is our promise to the greek people. having an opportunity to discuss it here at the imf is an excellent step towards that direction. we also discussed ways of improving the efficacy of the
negotiations that are happening both in the brussels group and in greece. greece has been -- it is a founding member of the international monetary fund and maintaining and improving lines of communication, as we are doing. and as we also do today. it is essential for us. it's very important. and especially the fact that the imf is a partner in greece's attempt to expedite the crisis of the last five years. thank you. >> yanis varoufakis there. well the director of the independent think tank good to see you. so yanis varoufakis there saying he's pleased with what's happened. christine lagarde saying she's pleased with what's happened. what actually happened? how much of a breakthrough is this? >> it's not really a breakthrough. if anything this is the least possible one needs to do to keep the show on the road. what would have been shocking
and surprising is if they actually had negative and they would have been a delay in the payment to the imf, that is expected later this week. this is simply right now a matter of keeping the show on the road while the politics plays out, while the brinkmanship drives us right to the edge of the cliff. and hopefully, eventually, a deal is agreed. >> that's a surprise to some people. because the greek economy is in dire straits. >> well, the greek economy is a 200 billion plus economy in terms of gdp. and frankly, government in most countries, functioning governments, even one not well- well-functioning as greece, are almost always in a position to scrape together amounts on the order of about $450 million euros, that were actually
necessary. now, this is sort of borrowing from the future. this means delaying some obligation to the state. and it's only a stopgap measure, a band-aid if you make. and the money will eventually need to be found and the agreement will be needed to get money from the european partners. >> indeed because i-mf leaders together with the european union have frozen their aid to greece until the government comes to some sort of agreement on another reform package. is that the next step? we've not yet got there with what's happened with the latest talks. >> no we haven't. the main legislation is not actually happening in d.c. but actually in brussels. and that's mostly political, but there is a strong technocratic element. and one hopes that over time trust is being built. the meeting between mrs. merkel and prime minister about a week back was a good step but
eventually, i think this will go down to the wire. it has already lasted the posturing, longer than most people expected. but a deal is still the much more likely outcome than a deficit or a default. >> so we're remaining positive on all fronts. always good to get your views on this, director of redefine. many thanks. now the rules are changing for non-eu citizens who use britain's national health service. from today, patients from outside the eu will be charged 150% of the cost of treatment in which the british government's described as a crackdown on so-called health tourism. the department of health estimates that this move will save up to 500 million pounds a year. that's almost $750 million. and prevent the so-called abuse of the system by visitors. but as phillip hampshire reports, there are questions whether this could now put some important people off visiting the uk.
>> reporter: britain's national health service was a revolutionary experiment when founded in 1948. public service films were released to explain what it provided. >> on july 5th, the new national health service starts. >> reporter: comprehensive health care, which was free at point of use for anyone legally resident in the uk. since threaten, it's grown enormously. from 2015 to '16, funds have doubled. millions of people visit britain from abroad and when they fall hill ill, they use hospitals. up until now, only a fraction of the almost $700 million a year that the nhs potentially could have recovered from patients was being done so. the reason nor that being mainly the difficulty and cost of chasing down patients after they'd already received
treatment. >> reporter: since some of the funds, students from outside the european union will have to pay an annual surcharge of about $225. non-eu migrants must pay 300 a year. but will it put off people from coming to britain? >> for stilled workers coming from abroad it will mean an extra charge on their visas, and at the margin you might think that makes it slightly less attractive for people to come here. >> reporter: this may not close much of the $700 million gap the system is said to be missing out on. many visitors are exempt. >> people who come in for a short time less than six months, won't have to pay the surcharge. and also people who are coming in through intercompany transfers, like they're working for one company in the u.s. and they come here to work for a branch in the uk for a month or two months won't have to pay the surcharge. >> the intention is that the new rules will raise $300 million a year but their narrow
applicantability may may that number hard to reach. >> phillip, this all sounds like a relatively sensible idea. has there been much resistance to it? >> across the political spectrum, there's been broad agreements. if you're coming into the united kingdom and here for an extended period of time and for whatever reason, you therefore haven't built up a tax base that you've sort of paid into the system that you should be charged on some level to the access to the services you might used. however, there is some -- there are questions and issues that surround it. number one the number of loopholes that there are available in this particular law. so you were just hearing there in the report for instance that if you're in the uk for under six months so a tourist, say an american tourist, they come to the uk hit by a car while you're here, you wouldn't have to pay for emergency care. say in addition to that you're here on a transfer you wouldn't
have to pay then either. nor would you have to pay if you're from iceland, luxembourg or any of the european economic countries, australia, new zealand, and a whole host of other loopholes. >> so lots of tourist have said left out of the definition of those who are not going to be health tourists anymore. interesting. why were foreigners being charged to use the nhs before this? >> technically, they were. however, the nhs by its very nature, for people who haven't been to the united kingdom, effect effectively, if you have something wrong with you you go to a hospital you say, i am unwell, they put you in the system, you go through it and you leave again. there is no point in that system where somebody comes up with you a visa you know stick your card in here, let's check to make sure you're actually british, for instance. so that makes it quite difficult to know where to insert into the system chasing people up for
payment. obviously, if you have -- if you were here as a tourist, you would normally carry with you health insurance for your limited stay the same as anyone would if they went to the u.s. or to france or some other country around the world. but because there was no point in the british system where somebody came up to you with that terminal and asked you to pay, the nhs physically wasn't tracking down the money. it wasn't necessarily that it wasn't out there, it simply wasn't clashasing. >> and just very briefly, who are the affected groups then? >> the affects groups generally happen to be those who are coming in to work in the uk before six months and five years before they maybe get permanent residency and students in particular could be affected. >> and we're going to hear more and more on this issue. phillip hampshire, many thanks for talking to us. that's the business for this hour. back to you, mike.
>> alice, many thanks. stay with us if you can on bbc world news. much more to come including this. scientists unveil why humans are the only mammals that have chins. find out why, next. 19 years ago we thought, "wow, how is there no way to tell the good from the bad?" so we gave people the power of the review. and now angie's list... is revolutionizing local service again. you can easily buy and schedule... ...services from top-rated providers. conveniently stay up to date on progress. and effortlessly turn your photos into finished projects with our angies list app. visit angieslist.com today. we snap it. we stack it. we smoosh it. we love it. hershey's makes it a s'more... you make it special. hershey's is mine, yours our chocolate.
our top stories this hour. red cross aid is delayed getting into yemen, because of lack of landing space in the war-torn country, this is despite the saudi-led coalition, currently carrying out air strikes, giving a landing permission. kenya's first response to the university attack that killed at least 148. its aircraft have bombed two areas in somalia, targeting the military group, al shabaab. the jihadists who call
themself islamic state have released a video destroying artifacts. this video has already been distributed on social media. it shows them using harms and guns to vandalize statues. the ruins on this site were listed as a unesco world heritage site dating back to the first century bc and the second century ad. now to a question which has got people scratching their heads for centuries. why humans appear to be the only mammals with chins. now researchers think that i have come up with the answer. it may be down to the fact that we started cooking food. he explains to me a little earlier what this study means. >> chins are a by-product of other things that have been going on in our evolution for the last 2 million years.
and so what we see first is the beginnings of the use of tools by our ancestors. and what that allows us to do is to process the foods we eat outside of our mouth, unlike other primaries that have to use mainly their teeth and jaws to process the hard foods that they eat. and because we can use, for example, stone tools to do this it means that we can -- it's much easier for us to eat some of the tough foods that enabled us to evolve in our evolutionary history. and what that means is that you see a reduction in the size of our teeth and jaws through time. and it's certainly the case that among our ancestors, humans have some of the smallest teeth and jaws around. and i think that the chin is actually a by-product of that. >> and a by-product in some way of us cooking our food? >> yes, it certainly could be. by cooking our food you make it much easier to process, you don't have to chew it as much. you imagine if you had to chew
on raw potatoes all the time how much hard work that would be and how it would really require you to have strong teeth and jaws, whereas if you cooked those potatoes they become much softer and it allows us to have smaller teeth and jaws which aren't as strong. >> and our are chins still developing in any way? because you do see many kinds of chin around don't you? >> you certainly do. and i think it would be very interesting to expand on this particular study and look at variations within males and within females and how much -- hold up differences we see in the types of chins that we have. but it is the case that all humans do have a chin and that that that is a uniquely human trait that differentiates us from not only our closest ancestors and also all primates. >> and do the different chins we see on different humans tell us anything about individual kinds of humans? >> i don't think they do.
well, more research need to be done to determine what can influence the shape of our chins. that could be due to particular cultures. maybe they are chewing a lot of hard foods or using their mouths, even as tools in the work that they do processing different objects, and that that results in very high forces being experienced by the teeth and jaws. and that might cause the jaw and mandibles to remodel over time and change its shape. so i think it's an open question, what the under lying cause is for the difference in chin shape that we see in all modern humans. >> and briefly pathieumatthew, in your studies of evolution, are there mammals likely to end up with chins, something like ours eventually? >> i don't think so.
the big difference and the thing that makes humans unique is that our faces don't stick out from underneath our brains and our skulls. and i think part of the reason we have a chin is that our faces have gotten a lot smaller and they've sort of retracted and become much flatter. and you end up with this bony chin as a by-product of that process. >> if that had been worrying you, now you know. matthew skinner there. finally, weddings should be a day to remember and it was, certainly the greatest day for one bride in southeast england. danielle jones got the surprise of her life after just the first dance, gary bollo appeared. he announced he would sing at three weddings this year. he told her he couldn't make it so it was quite something when he did turn up. the singer said he received thousands of requests to sing at weddings. ed sheerian and roger daltry have recent done something
rather similar, not at the same wedding. that would have made for an unseemly queue. as the saudi-led coalition keeps up with its attacks on yem yemen yemen, they hope to make two flights into the country's capital very soon that's it for now. thanks for watching. ♪ ♪ if you want a paint with no harsh fumes. if you want a paint without harmful chemicals. if you want a paint that's safer for your family, and the environment... only this can. natura from benjamin moore. paint like no other.
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picard: captain's log, stardate 47410.2. the atrean government has requested assistance in averting a natural disaster. two of their geologists have come aboard one of whom is a human who has been living on atrea iv. captain, the situation has worsened since my husband and i first contacted you. the molten core of our planet isn't just cooling it's begun to solidify. man: our gravitational field has been affected. seismic activity has increased by a factor of three. if the cooling continues at this rate atrea will become uninhabitable in 13 months. la forge: we could minimize seismic activity by creating isobaric fissures and relieving some of
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