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tv   Witness  BBC News  February 3, 2018 1:30pm-2:01pm GMT

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'that ‘that it ' that it was 'that it was short track. she after that it was short track. she is one of those kids, you can show has something and she picked it up. she had a natural ability. she is a very special athlete, but four years ago she nearly walked away from the sport she loves. i have had a lot of abuse on the internet. it has meant tough. what is like to get a death threat. i don't think most of us will tha nkfully don't think most of us will thankfully experience that. don't think most of us will thankfully experience thatm happens to you, you believe that person and those people are genuinely threatening your life. it becomes very scary. i spent six months after feeling scared of being in my house on my own are going out on my own, just because so many at once made it feel so real, even though realistically it was coming
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from most of the koreans. so they we re from most of the koreans. so they were not going to be in england. yeah, it was very difficult as a time. what do they signify for you? they want to see redemption. it is the dream. every athlete, to be an olympic medallist. where do you keep them? is there room for an olympic one? three big smackers here. the dream is to go out and sit in second place and the dream is to go out and try and win the gold. and that what. .. i try and win the gold. and that what... lam not try and win the gold. and that what... i am not scared of doing that, in terms of what —— i have worked so hard. i deserve to win and it does not matter what anyone else has to say about it. the speed skater elise christie speaking to david mcdaid. let's ta ke
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let's take a look at the weather prospects. i wonder if we'll all be skating on thin ice by the end of next week. it's staying cold. it's cold and producing some sleet and snow in parts of the uk this afternoon. it really is quite green miserable out there, there's no other way to dress it up. some brighter skies in south—west england, but that are heavy showers around. the vast majority under this cloud giving patchy light rain, sleet and snow mostly for the hills of northern england and scotland. a patchy frost can develop if you icy patches. ice criss cross parts of eastern england going into tomorrow morning, wintry showers moving in. mostly rain,
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sleet, maybe sohail. elsewhere, a drier, brighter picture across the uk. temperatures li—7d, but it will feel closer to freezing. this is bbc news, our latest headlines. senior democrats have warned donald trump not to use a controversial memo as a pretext to fire the special counsel investigating alleged russian involvement in the presidential election. i think it's a disgrace what's happening in our country. when you look at that and you see that and some of the other things what's going on, lot of people should be ashamed of themselves. after getting caught in a scuffle with protesters last night, jacob rees—mogg mp has stepped up his attack on the treasury accusing civil servants of "fiddling the figures" on brexit. six migrants have been injured
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after a gunman opened fire from a car in the central italian city of macerata. the gunman has now been arrested. a conservative—led council in northamptonshire, which has imposed emergency spending controls, has said it's been “3 co m pa ny as: company so “3 company so far. rebecca jones will be here at the top of the hour with the latest news. now on bbc news, it's time for witness. hello, welcome to witness with me, tanya beckett. i'm here at the british library to guide you through another five
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extraordinary moments from the recent past. we'll meet the man who discovered whale song, the daughter of one of the most prolific land and sea speed record breakers of the 20th century, and the chemist who went to live in a city built for scientists. but first, in january 1958, godtfred kirk christiansen patented the lego brick, which took the world by storm. lego was special as the bricks were designed in such a way that they could be stacked and linked with each other in countless combinations. godtfred's then ten—year—old son, kjeld, regularly helped his father to test out the new toys in the family workshop. the village carpenter invented them after turning his hand to toymaking when there wasn't enough work for him. now, that spare time toymaking has developed into a huge danish export. my grandfather, ole kirk christiansen, was a...
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a very happy person. he made a lot of different kinds of wooden toys. for him, it was really making quality toys that were good for children. that is why he came up with the name, lego. lego means "play well" in danish. "lego godt" is the abbreviation to "play well". after the second world war, where so many houses had been torn down and so on, there was this urge again for people to build up. so, i think the idea of the basic bricks was really to build houses. my father and my grandfather also, they were both quite fascinated with the opportunities of making something out of plastic. it was more considered as a novel material... with which you suddenly got possibilities to make many other things that you couldn't do with wood. in 1958, i was ten years old, and that was the year where my father patented the lego
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brick with the tubes. the original bricks were just hollow and they could stay together if you put them on top of each other, but they couldnpt position other, but they couldn't position in many odd ways, so to say. by having the tubes, now you could put them together like this. they were so proud of having created this system. when i came home from school, i often went to our model shop, where we had a few designers already from the early '60s. i think i — in a positive way — probably criticised quite a lot what they did, and tried to suggest other things for them to build. i never practised lessons for the school, basically. so i probably spent three, four hours a day, at least, and i was also used very much as a model for the boxes.
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the local photographer came and took pictures of me and my sisters for the boxes. a little plastic world is finished and open to the public. they call it legoland. my father thought that there would probably, if he was optimistic, be about 250,000 guests a year. we are having about 1.9 million guests to the legoland park every year. then the idea was to create a smaller figure that could fit into cars and houses and so on. the first mini figure was just a static figure, with no arms and no legs, and i pushed for that it has to be a figure that is more lively also. and always with a yellow, happy face. yellow was also very sensible in that it didn't conflict with any colours of races, and so on. we have made this lego house, it is what we call
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the home of the brick. the concept, the lego brick is timeless. physical play is always something that will be there, and i think especially play where it stimulates the child's imagination. children have this natural urge to learn and to try out new things. if something works, it's fine. if it doesn't work, they will try again. those are some skill sets we actually think should be carried on into — lifelong. i mean, we are growing older all the time, but we don't need to grow up. we can still be childish inside and decide when to be serious and when to have fun. kjeld kirk christiansen, whose father invented and patented the lego brick. injanuary 1972, 13 people were shot dead by british troops
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during a civil rights march in northern ireland. events that day marked a turning point in the conflict between catholic nationalists and protestant unionists, and changed many people's lives forever. tony doherty‘s father was among those killed. those few hours of shooting and killing marked my life in a very particular way. normally, i don't speak about it, normally, i don't think about it, because it is very, very painful. the events of that day became known as bloody sunday. my father was patrick joseph doherty. he was 31 years of age when he was shot dead. i was nine years old at the time. newsreel: the marchers numbered between 15 and 20,000.
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it was a massive display of solidarity, expressing the almost total alienation of the people of this part of derry. our family was from the catholic nationalist community from the brandywell in derry. my parents went to the march on the day of bloody sunday because by 1972, many young men from our community had been imprisoned without trial. the catholic nationalist population's preference was to be part of a united ireland, without any role for britain in the affairs of ireland. the unionist or protestant community in the north of ireland wished to remain part of the united kingdom. and the civil protests came about because catholics or nationalists were treated as second—class citizens. newsreel: it was after the procession got up to the army barricade at the top of william street, that violence erupted. finally, the troops took
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the offensive as men of the first battalion, the parachute regiment, went pouring into the bogside... i wasn't on the march... because i was too young. my only memories of the day was playing in the street, and a boy who would have been a friend of mine came up and started playing with us and after a while, he just happened to say that "your father's been shot." within about 20 minutes, there were 13 people dead. i think my father was trying to get to a place of safety, behind a wall, and as he was heading towards the wall, he was shot in the back — and he died right away. he was totally unarmed, and when he was killed, he was posing no threat to anyone. i remember my mother coming into the house.
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she said, "you all listen" in the sitting room, and she said — told us that "your father's been shot dead by the british army", and i will always remember, you know, her... her being very, very brave. in the aftermath of bloody sunday, i think a whole generation of people were politicised. so at 16, ijoined the ira in derry, an illegal organisation which was heavily armed and which was established to overthrow british rule in ireland. me joining up was an act of revenge. in 1981, i took part in a bombing raid in a premises in derry city centre, and shortly afterwards, i was arrested and imprisoned. it wasn't until almost a0 years later that the british government finally accepted their responsibility for what
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happened on bloody sunday. there is no doubt, there is nothing equivocal, there are no ambiguities — what happened on bloody sunday was both unjustified and unjustifiable. it was wrong. for us, that was an absolutely outstanding achievement, because we had turned the whole of the wrong of bloody sunday on its head, and we had rewritten history. tony doherty still lives close to where the events of bloody sunday took place. injanuary 1967, the record—breaking driver donald campbell died in a fatal speedboat crash on coniston water, in the north of england. he crashed trying to beat his own water speed record. our next witness is donald campbell's daughter, gina. my dad was donald campbell, and in the 30s, 405, 50s and 60s,
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my father and my grandfather were both the most prolific land and water speed record breakers of the era. newsreel: every inch of the bluebird's body is streamlined to avoid wind resistance. they were pioneers. you know, when you thought that a car could then do a maximum speed of 50 miles an hour, suddenly someone pushes that to over 100 and then to 200, then to 300. i think it's a rollercoaster, you know, you break a record and you — everyone comes gushing up and said "fantastic, you've broken the record. what's your next one going to be?" so it's like the mouse in the wheel, you know, you keep wanting to move forward. it was my dad's job, it's what he did. so, i was not really aware of the magnitude of his achievements and the dangers. i only knew him in a child's eye. i wish i'd known him obviously a little bit longer because i think
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he was a fascinating character, with tremendous drive and personality. so i was working in a hotel, doing the ironing, i was summoned to a phone call early in the morning in january, the fourth of january, ‘67. you know that feeling in your stomach, disappears somewhere down to your knees or your feet, i knew with some foreboding that this was not good news. donald campbell, the man who lived for speed, is dead. 0n the cold still waters of lake coniston, 45—year—old donald campbell was making an attempt on the world water speed record, which he held. one of the last true adventurers left. no one can fail to mourn the loss of this brave man. that iconic footage, you know, of the bluebird, just very gracefully taking off from the lake and going several hundred feet up in the air before doing this enormous backward flip. and, you know, i've seen it many
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times, and so nearly did the full 360, but then crashing into the depths of coniston and my father obviously being killed instantly. i remember going to geneva airport the following day and sitting in the departure lounge on my own, you know, and i could see the newsstand over there, that had british newspapers, and there was pictures of bluebird sort of up in the air like this and "campbell dead", and you look at them. but it seemed surreal, i couldn't associate those pictures and that moment with my father. he got his wish, he died a hero. he somehow, in those few moments, immortalised himself.
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and him talking on his comms all the way through, you know, of what was going on. donald campbell: i'm going, i'm going, i'm going. and, you know, "i'm going, i'm going, i'm going". i"m donald campbell: i'm gone. gina campbell, remembering her legendary father, donald. remember, you can watch witness every month on the bbc news channel, or you can catch up on all of our films, along more than 1,000 radio programmes on our online archive. just go to: in1967, an american biologist began listening to sounds from the ocean that he found both
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spectacular and beautiful. they were the sounds of whales. he released an album called songs of the humpback whale in 1970. it went on to become the most successful nature recording ever made. dr roger payne spoke to witness about the discovery that caught the imagination of the world. the first time i ever went swimming with a whale that was singing, it's an incredible experience! it's completely shattering. it feels like, when you get close to one, that something has put its hands on your chest and is shaking you until your teeth rattle. my first thought was, i wonder if i can stand this? i wonder if this is actually going to kill me somehow?
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newsreel: there she blows! the harpoon grenade is fired. back in the 19505 and ‘60s, nobody, as far as i could tell, knew much of anything about whales. there was no whale watch industry, no save the wales movement. usually the first shot means death to the whale. in the old moby dick days, harpoons were hand—held at the monsters. the modern way is far more humane. a few people knew that whales were being over—hunted and, frankly, whales were going extinct. it was just a big moneymaking proposition. newsreel: the entire whaling industry is worth £100 million a year. russia and japan are the two big whaling nations and some of it goes to those two countries for food. it was back in 1967 about that i met a fellow called frank watlington, who became a great friend, and he played a sound to me of humpback whales. it was the most beautiful thing i had ever heard from nature. you might get a sound, for example, that goes...
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mimics deep whale sounds. i was out in san diego one—time visiting a friend of mine and i played him whale sounds and he was fascinated by them and i said, i've always wanted to make a record of these, and he said, we'll make it! and so we sat down and made a record and we then wrote a booklet that went with it and talked all about whales and their plight mimics deep whale sounds. i was out in san diego one—time visiting a friend of mine and i played him whale sounds and he was fascinated by them and i said, i've always wanted to make a record of these, and he said, we'll make it! and so we sat down and made a record and we then wrote a booklet that went with it and talked all about whales and their plight and what was going on and so forth. i think it remains the most successful natural history
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recording ever made. then whole bunches of people in several countries began making organisations to save the whales and the save the whales movement was born and in many ways that was sort of the beginning of the conservation movement. the whales gave the whole idea of conservation wonderful exposure. dr roger payne is founder and president of ocean alliance, a whale conservation organisation. and, finally, in 1957, a huge science city was built in the middle of the siberian forest. dozens of research institutes were built and top scientists were enticed to come and work in the region. victor va rand was one of the first research chemists to move to academic city. a town of 25,000 inhabitants.
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a town where nearly everyone's a scientist or hoping to become one. a new town called akademgorodok, or academic city. translation: my first impression was that of bewilderment, to be honest. everything was different here. the houses were right in the middle of the forest. it was so quiet and the air seemed so fresh. what used to be thought of as a wasteland has turned out to be the soviet union's greatest treasure house, a land unbelievably rich in minerals. geologists thought there was no oil here. now the whole place seems to be floating on it. there are diamond fields which could be as rich as the south african ones and gold and platinum too. translation: i worked in academic city for
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a0 years, since 1962. i was a research chemist at the institute of inorganic chemistry and from 1963 i taught my beloved subject, analytical chemistry, at the university there. and from 1963 i taught my beloved subject, analytical chemistry, at the university there. since the times of the tzar, people were exiled to siberia. and from 1963 i taught my beloved subject, analytical chemistry, at the university there. since the times of the tzar, people were exiled to siberia. would you exile anyone to a good place? that was the image of siberia, that wolves ate people there. our salary was only 10% more than the others, the so—called siberian supplement. but they did give us apartments immediately. separate apartments. at that time, in the ussr, there was an acute shortage of housing. they didn't attract us with money, they attracted us with available accommodation and interesting work. no other research laboratories are so lavishly equipped and no
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where else are the students so carefully selected or so ruthlessly examined. this is what's called the colliding beam accelerator, the only one of its kind in the world, designed to hurl particles of matter and particles of antimatter. translation: our institute of nuclear physics is a globally recognised research centre. its scientists have collaborated in the construction of the large hadron collider in switzerland, but many of the inventions and breakthroughs happened in secret research projects for the ministry of defence. excellent sports facilities were constructed. the house of scientists was built and it had a great theatre and concert venue. of course the creation of academic city was a great achievement. a new generation of scientist has been nurtured here. most people who work in academic city now are graduates of university and what does russia live on today?
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gas and oil, of course. and who found and explored those resources? our siberian scientists. victor varand, who still lives in academic city. and that's all from this edition of witness, here at the british library. we'll be back here next month to bring you more extraordinary moments of history and the remarkable people who witnessed them. but for now, from me and the rest of the witness team, goodbye. hello, it's a great picture out there for many. some people have seen snow in higher parts in scotland. the higher you are, you may see something more wintry today. it is cold, grey, damp. some parts
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brightening up this afternoon with a few showers and overnight, patchy rain, sleet and snow beginning to peter out to allow some clear spells he's in there. patchy frost and ice. the ice threatening increasing tomorrow morning as wintry showers moving. it is an improving picture across much of the uk tomorrow. the grampians, parts of eastern scotland into the central belt, cloud around, patchy light rain and sleet and snow. northern ireland has sunshine to begin with and across large parts of england and wales, brighter skies greet the day. note the wind direction here, you north—easterly wind will be 18 and cold wind across east anglia and south—east england particularly. mainly rain, perhaps sleet and snow as many other places continue to be dry throughout the day. the thermometer will show 4—7d
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tomorrow, but the wind will make it feel closer to freezing. we need to watch things on sunday night, particularly into south—east england went showers will turn things increasingly to snow. elsewhere in widespread frost. away from south—east england and those snow showers, many on monday will have a fine winter day, but he cold one. this weather system on monday night into tuesday being store and sleet across the uk. many of us will see snow inland. another wintry weather system to watch as we go through this week. the week starts with the widespread frost. some of the sleet and snow showers in south—west england and then we will see further spells of rain, sleet and snow.
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staying cold in the week ahead. there are met offers weather warnings in place for snow and ice. keep up—to—date online. we will have further updates every half hour. marku this is bbc news. i'm rebecca jones. the headlines at 2.00pm. the head of the fbi has defended its work after a classified memo was released accusing it of bias against president trump, and abuse of power. i think it's terrible — you want to know the truth, i think it's a disgrace what's going on in this country,
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i think it's a disgrace. after getting caught in a scuffle with protesters last night, conservative mpjacob rees—mogg accuses the treasury of ‘fiddling' it's figures on brexit. six migrants have been injured after a gunman opened fire from a car in the central italian city of macerata. the gunman has been arrested. the government has announced a package of financial support for small companies affected by the collapse of the of the outsourcing firm, carillion. bad news for fans and papa—papa—razzi as illness forces lady gaga to cancel the last ten dates of the european
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