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tv   Witness  BBC News  February 3, 2018 8:30pm-9:01pm GMT

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you be looking at small print. you mentioned the dell. i wonder how rare it is for the performer to cancel a tour or postpone a series of concerts. —— you mentioned adele. we have had a few examples in recent yea rs. we have had a few examples in recent years. adele was a big name. we notice when it is a world—class artist. somebody like peter kay has cancelled his entire performance, and that made headlines just because of the sheer numbers of people involved and the wealth of disappointment. it is a price that you disappointment. it is a price that y°u pay disappointment. it is a price that you pay for loving these artists so dearly. when you don't get to see them, you take it very personally. caroline frost there. time for a look at the weather with tomasz schafernaker. in most parts of the country today, the weather was dreadful. grey, cold, dark, really awful day with some outbreaks of rain. sunday is looking a lot better.
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not completely dry. this is what it looks like the rest of the night. still a lot of cloud at the above most of the rain be sizzling away. temperatures whether you're in the south of the country are very far north will be more or less the same. a couple of degrees above freezing. tomorrow, it starts off quite bright for many others. touch of frost even bear. but we will see an increase in wind blowing out of the north—east, particularly around the north sea, east anglia and south—east, increasing clouds as well in the afternoon later on and even one or two sweet and snow showers. it will feel cold tomorrow, maybe a couple of degrees above freezing. hla, brightly with occasional showers and snow showers expected into early monday. particularly kent in the coming days, could catch a few flurries of snow. this is bbc news — our latest headlines... a conservative—led council in northamptonshire which has imposed emergency spending controls has said it has been warning ministers for years about its financial problems.
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it has emerged tonight that two more women have reported harvey weinstein to the met police over allegations of sexual assault. six migrants have been injured after a gunman opened fire from a car in the central italian city of macerata. the gunman has been arrested. after getting caught in a scuffle with protesters last night, jacob rees—mogg has stepped up his attack on the treasury, accusing civil servants of "fiddling the figures" on brexit. now on bbc news, it's time for witness. hello, welcome to witness with me, tanya beckett.
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i'm here at the british library to guide you through another five extraordinary moments from the recent past. we'll meet the man who discovered whale song, the daughter of one of the most prolific [and and sea speed record breakers of the 20th century, and the chemist who went to live in a city built for scientists. but first, in january 1958, godtfred kirk christiansen patented the lego brick, which took the world by storm. lego was special as the bricks were designed in such a way that they could be stacked and linked with each other in countless combinations. godtfred's then ten—year—old son, kjeld, regularly helped his father to test out the new toys in the family workshop. the village carpenter invented them after turning his hand to toymaking when there wasn't enough work for him. now, that spare time toymaking has
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developed into a huge danish export. my grandfather, ole kirk christiansen, was a... a very happy person. he made a lot of different kinds of wooden toys. for him, it was really making quality toys that were good for children. that is why he came up with the name, lego. lego means "play well" in danish. "lego godt" is the abbreviation to "play well". after the second world war, where so many houses had been torn down and so on, there was this urge again for people to build up. so, i think the idea of the basic bricks was really to build houses. my father and my grandfather also, they were both quite fascinated with the opportunities of making something out of plastic. it was more considered as a novel material... with which you suddenly got
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possibilities to make many other things that you couldn't do with wood. in 1958, i was ten years old, and that was the year where my father patented the lego brick with the tubes. the original bricks were just hollow and they could stay together if you put them on top of each other, but they couldnpt position in many odd ways, so to say. by having the two tubes, now you could put them together like this. they were so proud of having created this system. when i came home from school, i often went to our model shop, where we had a few designers already from the early 60s. i think i — in a positive way — probably criticised quite a lot what they did, and tried to suggest other things for them to build. i never practised lessons
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for the school, basically. so i probably spent three, four hours a day, at least, and i was also used very much as a model for the boxes. the local photographer came and took pictures of me and my sisters for the boxes. a little plastic world is finished and open to the public. they call it legoland. my father thought that there would probably, if he was optimistic, be about 250,000 guests a year. we are having about 1.9 million guests to the legoland park every year. then the idea was to create a smaller figure that could fit into cars and houses and so on. the first mini figure was just a static figure, with no arms and no legs, and i pushed for that it has to be a figure that is more lively also. and always with a yellow, happy face. yellow was also very sensible
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in that it didn't conflict with any colours of races, and so on. we have made this lego house, it is what we call the home of the brick. the concept, the lego brick is timeless. physical play is always something that will be there, and i think especially play where it stimulates the child's imagination. children have this natural urge to learn and to try out new things. if something works, it's fine. if it doesn't work, they will try again. those are some skill sets we actually think should be carried on into...lifelong. i mean, we are growing older all the time, but we don't need to grow up. we can still be childish inside and decide when to be serious and when to have fun. kjeld kirk christiansen, whose father invented
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and patented the lego brick. injanuary 1972, 13 people were shot dead by british troops during a civil rights march in northern ireland. events that day marked a turning point in the conflict between catholic nationalists and protestant unionists, and changed many people's lives for ever. tony doherty‘s father was among those killed. those few hours of shooting and killing marked my life in a very particular way. normally, i don't speak about it, normally, i don't think about it, because it is very, very painful. the events of that day became known as bloody sunday. my father was patrick joseph doherty. he was 31 years of age when he was shot dead.
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i was nine years old at the time. newsreel: the marchers numbered between 15,000 and 20,000. it was a massive display of solidarity, expressing the almost total alienation of the people of this part of derry. our family was from the catholic nationalist community from the brandywell in derry. my parents went to the match on the day of bloody sunday __ my —— my parents went to the march because by 1972, many young men from our community had been imprisoned without trial. the catholic nationalist population's preference was to be part of a united ireland, without any rule for britain —— without any role for britain in the affairs of ireland. the unionist or protestant community
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in the north of ireland wished to remain part of the united kingdom. and the civil protests came about because catholics or nationalists were treated as second—class citizens. newsreel: it was after the procession got up to the army barricade at the top of william street, that violence erupted. finally, the troops took the offensive as men of the first battalion, the parachute regiment, went pouring into the bogside... i wasn't on the march... because i was too young. my only memories of the day was playing in the street, and a boy who would have been a friend of mine came up and started playing with us and after a while, he just happened to say that "your father's been shot." within about 20 minutes, there were 13 people dead. i think my father was trying to get to a place of safety, behind a wall, and as he was heading towards the wall, he was shot in the back — and he died right away. he was totally unarmed, and when he was killed,
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he was posing no threat to anyone. i remember my mother coming into the house. she said, "you all listen" in the sitting room, and she said — told us that "your father's been shot dead by the british army", and i will always remember, you know, her... her being very, very brave. in the aftermath of bloody sunday, i think a whole generation of people were politicised. so at 16, ijoined the ira in derry, an illegal organisation which was heavily armed and which was established to overthrow british rule in ireland. me joining up was an act of revenge. in 1981, i took part in a bombing raid in a premises in derry city centre, and shortly afterwards, i was arrested and imprisoned.
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it wasn't until almost a0 years later that the british government finally accepted their responsibility for what happened on bloody sunday. there is no doubt, there is nothing equivocal, there are no ambiguities — what happened on bloody sunday was both unjustified and unjustifiable. it was wrong. for us, that was an absolutely outstanding achievement, because we had turned the whole of the wrong of bloody sunday on its head, and we had rewritten history. tony doherty still lives close to where the events of bloody sunday took place. injanuary 1967, the record—breaking driver donald campbell died in a fatal speedboat crash on coniston water, in the north of england. he crashed trying to beat his own water speed record. our next witness is donald
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campbell's daughter, gina. my dad was donald campbell, and in the ‘30s, ‘40s, ‘50s and ‘60s, my father and my grandfather were both the most prolific [and and water speed record breakers of the era. newsreel: every inch of the bluebird's body is streamlined to avoid wind resistance. they were pioneers. newsreel: every inch of the bluebird's body is streamlined to avoid wind resistance. they were pioneers. newsreel: every inch of the bluebird's body is streamlined they were pioneers. you know, when you thought that a car could then do a maximum speed of 50 miles an hour, suddenly someone pushes that to over 100 and then to 200, then to 300. i think it's a roller—coaster, you know, you break a record and you — everyone comes gushing up and said "fantastic, you've broken the record. what's your next one going to be?" so it's like the mouse in the wheel, you know, you keep wanting to move forward.
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it was my dad's job, it's what he did. so, i was not really aware of the magnitude of his achievements and the dangers. i only knew him in a child's eye. i wish i'd known him obviously a little bit longer because i think he was a fascinating character, with tremendous drive and personality. so i was working in a hotel, doing the ironing, i was summoned to a phone call early in the morning in january, the fourth of january, ‘67. you know that feeling in your stomach, disappears somewhere down to your knees or your feet, i knew with some foreboding that this was not good news. donald campbell, the man who lived for speed, is dead. 0n the cold still waters of lake coniston, 45—year—old donald campbell was making an attempt on the world water speed record, which he held. one of the last true adventurers left. no—one can fail to mourn the loss of this brave man. that iconic footage, you know, of the bluebird, just very gracefully taking off
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from the lake and going several hundred feet up in the air before doing this enormous backward flip. and, you know, i've seen it many times, and so nearly did the full 360, but then crashing into the depths of coniston and my father obviously being killed instantly. i remember going to geneva airport the following day and sitting in the departure lounge on my own, you know, and i could see the newsstand over there, that had british newspapers, and there was pictures of bluebird sort of up in the air like this and "campbell dead", and you look at them. but it seemed surreal, i couldn't associate those pictures and that moment with my father. he got his wish, he died a hero.
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he somehow, in those few moments, immortalised himself. and him talking on his comms all the way through, you know, of what was going on. donald campbell: i'm going, i'm going, i'm going. and, you know, "i'm going, i'm going, i'm going". i"m donald campbell: i'm gone. gina campbell, remembering her legendary father, donald. remember, you can watch witness every month on the bbc news channel, or you can catch up on all of our films, along more than 1,000 radio programmes on our online archive. just go to...
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in 1967, an american biologist began listening to sounds from the ocean that he found both spectacular and beautiful. they were the sounds of whales. he released an album called songs of the humpback whale in 1970. it went on to become the most successful nature recording ever made. dr roger payne spoke to witness about the discovery that caught the imagination of the world. the first time i ever went swimming with a whale that was singing, it's an incredible experience! it's completely shattering. it feels like, when you get close to one, that something has put its hands on your chest and is shaking you until your teeth rattle. my first thought was, i wonder if i can stand this? i wonder if this is actually going to kill me somehow? newsreel: there she blows!
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a wail is spotted. the harpoon grenade is fired. back in the 1950s and ‘60s, nobody, as far as i could tell, knew much of anything about whales. there was no whale watch industry, no save the wales movement. usually the first shot means death to the whale. in the old moby dick days, harpoons were hand—held at the monsters. —— harpoons were harmed by hand at the monsters. —— hurled by hand. the modern way is far more humane. a few people knew that whales were being over—hunted and, frankly, whales were going extinct. it was just a big moneymaking proposition. newsreel: the entire whaling industry is worth £100 million a year. russia and japan are the two big whaling nations and some of it goes to those two countries for food.
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it was back in 1967 about that i met a fellow called frank watlington, who became a great friend, and he played a sound to me of humpback whales. it was the most beautiful thing i had ever heard from nature. you might get a sound, for example, that goes... mimics deep whale sounds. i was out in san diego one—time visiting a friend of mine and i played him whale sounds and he was fascinated by them and i said, i've always wanted to make a record of these, and he said, we'll make it! and so we sat down and made a record and we then wrote a booklet that
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went with it and talked all about whales and their plight and what was going on and so forth. i think it remains the most successful natural history recording ever made. then whole bunches of people in several countries began making organisations to save the whales and the save the whales movement was born and in many ways that was sort of the beginning of the conservation movement. the whales gave the whole idea of conservation wonderful exposure. dr roger payne is founder and president of ocean alliance, a whale conservation organisation. and, finally, in 1957, a huge science city was built in the middle of the siberian forest. dozens of research institutes were built and top scientists were enticed to come and work in the region. victor va rand was one
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of the first research chemists to move to academic city. a town of 25,000 inhabitants. a town where nearly everyone's a scientist or hoping to become one. a new town called akademgorodok, or academic city. translation: my first impression was that of bewilderment, to be honest. everything was different here. the houses were right in the middle of the forest. it was so quiet and the air seemed so fresh. what used to be thought of as a wasteland has turned out to be the soviet union's greatest treasure house, a land unbelievably rich in minerals. geologists thought there was no oil here. now the whole place seems to be floating on it.
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there are diamond fields which could be as rich as the south african ones and gold and platinum too. translation: i worked in academic city for a0 years, since 1962. —— 46 years. i was a research chemist at the institute of inorganic chemistry and from 1963 i taught my beloved subject, analytical chemistry, at the university there. since the times of the tzar, people were exiled to siberia. would you exile anyone to a good place? that was the image of siberia, that wolves ate people there. our salary was only 10% more than the others, the so—called siberian supplement. but they did give us apartments immediately. separate apartments. at that time, in the ussr, there was an acute shortage of housing. they didn't attract us with money,
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they attracted us with available accommodation and interesting work. no other research laboratories are so lavishly equipped and no where else are the students so carefully selected or so ruthlessly examined. this is what's called the colliding beam accelerator, the only one of its kind in the world, designed to hurt particles of matter and particles of antimatter. —— to hurt particles of matter at particles of antimatter. translation: our institute of nuclear physics is a globally recognised research centre. its scientists have collaborated in the construction of the large hadron collider in switzerland, but many of the inventions and breakthroughs happened in secret research projects for the ministry of defence. excellent sports facilities were constructed. the house of scientists was built and it had a great theatre and concert venue. of course the creation
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of academic city was a great achievement. a new generation of scientist has been nurtured here. most people who work in academic city now are graduates of university and what does russia live on today? gas and oil, of course. and who found and explored those resources? our siberian scientists. victor varand, who still lives in academic city. and that's all from this edition of witness, here at the british library. we'll be back here next month to bring you more extraordinary moments of history and the remarkable people who witnessed them. but for now, from me and the rest of the witness team, goodbye. most parts of the country today had
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horrendous weather. grey, cold, dark, all full day with outbreaks of rain. sunday is looking a lot better. this is what we have been dealing with. this slow—moving weather front. what does that mean? it means that once it is over us, it stays there and is cloudy and horrible. it is stuck between the wind coming out of the east and also this wind from a different direction. it has stored across the uk. that easterly wind over the next 21: uk. that easterly wind over the next 2a hours will win. so we will see
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easterly and north—easterly winds developing. when the wind comes from that direction, it tends to stay cold. this is what it looks like first thing on sunday morning. it will be freezing in some spots. a lots of sunshine for many of us. the further west and south west you are, the better. but there are showers across south—eastern england, east anglia and lincolnshire. on sunday and monday, some of those showers coming out of the east and north—east in that cold wind will turn increasingly wintry. possibly with rain and hail. and sleet and snow. it will feel cold weather you are in the north for the south. here isa are in the north for the south. here is a closer look. sunday night into monday, it doesn't look like a lot but some of the snow showers can be substantial. they could be a nice
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covering in some areas across the south—east and east anglia. but for most of us on monday, the weather is looking bright and cold. then as we head into tuesday, another weather front pushes out of the atlantic. so the winds want to push in from the north—west and this weather fund could bump into the cold air is sitting across the uk so they could be snow across northern and north—western areas. the basic message is that it will stay cold across the next few days, cold enough for some snow. but not everywhere. stay tuned to the weather forecast. there could everywhere. stay tuned to the weatherforecast. there could be snow showers on the way. this is bbc news. i'm vicki young. the headlines at nine... the leader of northamptonshire council, which has had to ban almost all spending, says she warned the government their finances were unsustainable. we've been in what you might call a perfect storm of huge increases
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in demand for our services at the same time as significant reductions in funding coming from central government. it's emerged tonight that two more women have reported harvey weinstein to the metropolitan police over allegations of sexual assault. six migrants have been injured after a gunman opened fire from a car in the central italian city of macerata. the gunman has been arrested. after getting caught in a scuffle with protesters last night, tory mp jacob rees—mogg accuses civil servants
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