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tv   Witness History  BBC News  December 13, 2020 3:30am-4:01am GMT

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are continuing through the night in brussels. a decision is due sometime on sunday about whether enough progress has been made to carry on negotiaions or abandon them, leaving the uk on course to leave the eu without a deal. nigeria's military says it has located the hideout used by gunmen who are reported to have carried out a raid on a school in the north—west of the country. hundreds of students are missing in katsina state after attackers arrived on motorbikes and started shooting, causing the students to flee. on the fifth anniversary of the paris climate agreement, the un secretary general has urged a group of 70 world leaders attending a virtual summit to declare what he called a ‘climate emergency‘ after predictions of catastrophic global warming. a number of important countries did not attend.
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regardless of whether or not a brexit trade deal is agreed, from january first, british citizens visiting any eu country as well as switzerland, norway, iceland and liechtenstein, will face new restrictions, including on receiving medical treatment. with more, here's our consumer affairs correspondent, sarah corker. with the promise of mediterranean sunshine, spain and france have been the top destinations for millions of british holidaymakers for decades. but, from january, the rules on travelling to the eu will change, and that's thrown up lots of questions. if you are a tourist, you won't need a visa to travel to most eu countries, but there are limits on how long you can go for. you will be able to stay for up to 90 days in any rolling six—month period, but it does all add up, so, a summer holiday in greece followed by an autumn half—term break in france will count towards your 90—day limit.
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you can still use this. your current passport is valid as long as it's less then ten years old and has six months left before it runs out. travellers are also asking if it will cost more to use mobiles. free roaming in the eu will officially end. the good news is that the noise being made from the top four providers is that they won't be imposing huge roaming charges, but i would always suggest you check with your provider before you go. and what about health insurance? free medical treatment in the eu won't be guaranteed. from the 1st of january, travellers can no longer rely on the european health insurance card, which will make it more important than ever that they have full travel insurance when they venture to the eu and beyond. and how will people be able to take their pets on holiday? from 2021, eu pet passports
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will no longer be valid. the government has applied for great britain tojoin a shortlist of countries where cats, dogs and ferrets enter the eu in a similar way to now but, if the uk doesn't make that list, then the rules get more complicated and you may need to get a certificate from the vet. so, when beach holidays are back in 2021, british tourists will need to make sure they aren't tripped up by the new rules. now on bbc news, this week's edition of witness history. hello and welcome to this special edition of witness history with me ciru muriuki here at the national museum in kenya's capital, nairobi. this month we are featuring five incredible moments from recent african history. coming up, how tunisian women became some of the most liberated in the world in the 1950s.
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we find out about the history of great zimbabwe, the ancient stone city once the centre of an african empire. plus one of the world's largest refugee camps. and the kenyan pop song that became a global hit. but first, we go back to south africa in 1977 when the country was governed by a racist system known as apartheid, which discriminated against the black population in almost every area of life. peterjones spoke to witness history about his friend, steve biko, a young black south african who was trying to bring about change. i miss my friend, steve biko, and i am forever in his debt. steve biko is one of the people that originated the new generation of young political—minded black people — the black consciousness movement. we believe that in our country there shall be no minority, there shall be no majority, there shall be just the people. and those people will have
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the same status before the law and they will have the same rights before the law. the apartheid government ensured there was no resistance against its doctrines and against its policies. there was a roadblock and they then searched the car. they found an identity document, which was mine, they then said, "who is peter jones? " and i said, "that's me". he said, "oh, and who are you, big man?" that's now steve. and steve said, "i am steve bantu biko." and we were then locked up together in one cell. the next morning we started getting an uneasy feeling because there were now more police and in a convoy of three cars we sped towards port elizabeth. in port elizabeth was the headquarters of the security police for that region.
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the building has been converted into a block of flats. steve biko was being walked to his death, along this very corridor, a man poised to fill the void left behind after mandela was jailed. we got taken up to the fifth floor and we were manacled, each to a separate window. one of the senior police, a major, came in and said, "now i can confirm that you are officially being detained under section six of the terrorism act." that is the act in which you literally disappear. they separated us, i only had a chance to shout steve's name and that was the last time i saw steve alive. three weeks and three days later, i had just heard a lot
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of commotion, many, many people singing protest songs, the cell next to mine was being filled with many people. then this young man told me that they have just returned from the funeral of steve biko, and that was the first time that i heard about the death of steve biko. i went to my mat, that was my bed, and i then just sat there... with... to me, it was like a huge hole in my soul, just inconsolability which even today would make me weep at unexpected moments.
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file footage: the police said the leader of the black consciousness movement had lost his life by accident when his head struck a wall while he was being restrained. steve biko's family believe he was thrown at the wall quite deliberately, by the police officers. steve biko's death and the brutality of it highlighted, like no other event at the time, the extent to which the apartheid regime would go to protect itself. peterjones there remembering his friend, steve biko. next we go to tunisia in the 1950s and the introduction of equal rights laws which gave women notjust the right to vote but the right to contraception and in some cases abortion. the wide—ranging reforms were brought in by the country's first president following independence. saida el gueyed remembers when president bourguiba
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asked her to help him introduce the laws to tunisian women. file footage: the women who, 10 years ago, had no rights, were contracted to a marriage by their parents, were covering their faces when they left the house, these tunisians are not doing at all badly. this is, one imagines, as emancipated as any girl can get. these swinging tunisian dolly birds represent one of the most remarkable social transformations of present times. translation: the equal rights law was the biggest ever gain for tunisian women. president bourguiba said he was notjust a liberator of tunisia but a liberator of tunisian women as well. file footage: bourguiba is tunisia. for 30 years, he's fought for his country. first, he battled for independence from france, and wasjailed and exiled for his trouble. since independence, he's been his nation's leader.
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translation: i knew president bourguiba during the struggle against colonialism. in the equal rights law, he banned polygamy, he gave women social, political and economic rights. he introduced the law on 13 august 1956. thanks to this law, women were allowed to vote and also become politicians. i am one of the founders of the tunisian women's union and president bourguiba relied on us. file footage: in the school, 100 miles from tunis, a teacher hammers home the newly discovered facts of female life to 60 teenagers. there are certain 13 such schools in tunisia, organised and staffed by the tunisian women's union, a militant and powerful body of opinion in the land. the teacher leaves them in no doubts about their right. she tells them, "you are not slaves anymore, "you are like european women. "you have equal rights with men. "this, you must understand."
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translation: this law protected girls. fathers were no longer able to force their daughters to marry against their will. president bourguiba encouraged us to make sure families were not stopping girls from getting an education. file footage: they're taught about contraception and abortion and the law is giving them equal rights. after three months here, they spread the word in their villages because it's here, in the tunisian countryside that the modern tunisian woman has to win the fight for equality that in territory further centuries has remained the unassailable stronghold of tunisian men. translation: we spoke to men more than we did to women because we faced opposition from them. we spent a lot of time meeting them and explaining the law to them.
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family traditions used to oppress girls, but now they are free to choose who to love. file footage: tunisian women were given yet another safeguard against massive families when they became the first women in any muslim country able to have abortions. the law at present is that any tunisian woman with four children can have an abortion without her husband's consent. the operation is paid for by the government. file footage: president bourguiba told us to make women feel like they have a role to play, that they have the right to live in dignity and to trust themselves and their soul. he said he gave women these rights not as a gift but because he saw women's power to lead in post—independence society. saida el gueyed there who continues to campaign for the rights of women. now let's go back hundreds of years to the ancient ruined
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city of great zimbabwe. when colonial explorers discovered it in the 19th century, they insisted foreigners must have built. then, following zimba bwe's independence, the country was able to reclaim its full heritage. our next witness, dr ken mufuka, was the historian tasked with rewriting the history books. this is one of the most remarkable sites in africa. these are the corridors of power of ancient african civilisation. this is great zimbabwe. everybody in power wants to control history because it brings them legitimacy. the europeans said, "the africans did not build the ruins. "it belonged to somebody else, the phoenicians, arabs, "the queen of sheba." anybody else except the africans. great zimbabwe was the greatest civilisation south of egypt.
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it carried about 10,000 people, so that was quite a large city. it was also the centre of religion and the economy of zimbabwe, it was gold. it could be traced far back as 1100. i was raised about 10 miles away. i was obsessed with history. so i visited it as a child. there was a bus tour of great zimbabwe but this was for tourists — blacks were not allowed there. but we'd just turn up and if there's no white visitors, they said "you can wander that. " the structures are massive. the stones are chiselled to be exactly the same size, and they are not connected by mortar or cement. we felt in some ways deprived of what belonged to us, that we belonged to a great people that were oppressed
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by the colonial regime. file footage: when europeans first saw great zimbabwe in the 1890s, they could not believe that so imposing structure could have been built by the ancestors of the africans they found living there. zimbabwe was not built by either blacks or whites. the people who built it were semitic, they were brown in colour and were evidently the sabaean people, who were a mixture of arabs and jews. the europeans were going there to save lives, africans, who are in darkness, who had no history. so if they accepted that some of these africans had these wonderful civilisations, the reasoning would fall apart. on april18, 1980, zimbabwe became independent. it was a great moment for us.
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history became important. they were going to find a new identity by going into the past. i was the first black director of the national museum. i was supposed to use my abilities as a writer to write a new manual for the great zimbabwe, getting away from the eurocentric interpretation. so that heritage could be reclaimed. it was one of my happiest times. but it was also full of challenges, because the politicians, they insisted that i must say that great zimbabwe was built by revolutionaries. and i refused, said no, there is nothing revolutionary about it, it was ordinary people living as they were told by the king. they were angry with me, and i had to leave zimbabwe in a hurry because now they were looking to lock me up. i think my life explains why history is very exciting,
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because look at the problems that i've gone through because of my writing of history. dr ken mufuka, on the enduring power of history. you can watch witness history every month on the bbc news channel, or you can catch up on all of our films along with thousands of regular programmes in the online archives. just search online for bbc witness history. now, a story about hope and nationality. our next witness began life in somalia but relocated in 1991, and in the following year she found herself living in dadaab refugee camp in kenya. for a long time, it became the world's largest refugee camp, and currently holds more than 200,000 people. many residents have known no other home. you don't know what life holds for you. you've been in mogadishu, in a big city, with a good life, and then we end up in a refugee camp.
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in mogadishu, when the war started, there were militia groups everywhere. we were scared, dead bodies were scattered everywhere, just things that you can't imagine. we were attacked by the militia groups. i think there were about ten. they came to one of my uncles, and then they shot at my father that night. he was shot in his left leg. and then from the back, it was going out from his side. my father survived. we fled from mogadishu at the beginning of 1982, we travelled to the border of kenya. we were very young at that time and my father could not walk. we had a donkey cart, we are trying to cross the border. you know that you can be caught by the bandits at any time.
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if they catch you, that is the end of your life. also, that day, if you are caught by the soldiers from kenya, that will be the end of your life also. so the means of survival was 50—50. everybody was trying to come to kenya to look for means of survival, but we never expected that we would be going to a refugee camp. at the beginning, when the camp was established, it was just, like, you collect branches from a tree and then you build a small hut and then it is covered by plastic. the environment is so harsh. it was dusty, the soil was not fertile, you cannot grow anything. rainfall is so low. it might happen that in three years, there might be no rain. it was so hot. sometimes it could reach up to a0 or 50 degrees. when we arrived at the refugee
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camp, they were men with guns, they would come to you at night—time, they would rape girls, they would take away what you have. they would kill. it was not safe at the beginning. but things become calmer as time goes. it is like a city now, big city. we thought we could have stayed there, like, two years or one year, but we never thought we could have stayed there, like, 25 years. you cannot travel from there to another part of kenya. and you cannot go back to somalia. so, you know, necessity is the mother of intervention. you've got a good education. i got a scholarship from unicef, to go to university. now i feel, like, kenyan. i feel kenyan because i was four years in somalia and 2a years in kenya.
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but kenya was telling us the other day that what they want is to close the camps and take away the somali people living in the camps, back to somalia. newsreel: dadaab is the world's largest refugee camp, and now kenya wants to close it down. many of them have never been anywhere else. where will i go back to? we are not kenyans, because kenya is telling us, you are refugees. but we are somali neither, because we were brought up in kenya. so we are caught in between. that was zamzam abdi gelle. and finally, a0 years ago, tourism here in kenya was booming, with visitors coming for the wildlife as well as its beautiful beaches. our next witnesses were making a living playing music at hotels when they were inspired to write a song which went on to become a global hit. this is the story of jambo bwana. plays jambo bwana on saxophone. #jambo, jambo bwana!
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# habari gani, mzuri sana # wageni, wakaribishwa # kenya yetu, hakuna matata # kenya nchi nzuri, hakuna matata... that's the way it went. the tourists were just crazy about this song. #jambo, jambo bwana! it went silver, then gold, then platinum. that came as a complete surprise to me. # wakaribishwa, hakuna matata! i started the group, them mushrooms, in 1972. me and him were working at the cement factory in mombasa. there was a lot of tourists coming into mombasa, so it was a really vibrant scene in mombasa. we were playing mostly congolese stuff, and kenyan music, and whatever, but when we realised we could make more money and play for less time for the tourists and hotels,
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we switched to playing disco cover versions of pop music from europe and from america. one night, i think it was late, 1979, i was sitting at the pool bar after a performance, and there were these tourists in the pool, playing around and joking, trying to speak swahili, "jambo, hibari, hakuna matata," you know, and i got this idea. maybe i should write a song with the simplest words in swahili and get the tourists to sing along and dance to our music. #jambo, jambo bwana # habari gani... it says "jambo, jambo bwana," which means "hello, hello mister." it says "habari gani," "how are you?" "mzuri sana" is "very well, thank you."
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then it says, "welcome, all guests, all visitors are welcome to kenya." "kenya yetu, ha ku na matata," "there are no problems in kenya." that's a very simple song. whenever we finished, another tourist would come over and say, "can you do thisjambojambo?" we had to do at about 20 times. and then the financial director of polygram said, "here is my card, you call me, i want us to record this song." we didn't know that it was going to be this big. #jambo, jambo bwana... like, they say, the rest is history. after the recording, the rest was history. when we signed an agreement with polygram at that time, i didn't know much about corporate ownership. we were just happy to have our music recorded, and so many people have wanted to do cover versions. most kenyans say, ah, this is a song for foreigners,
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not for us kenyans, you know? but they are proud of it, that at least it has given some kind of identity to kenya, you know? any kenyan who goes overseas, they will always ask you, do you know that song, jambo bwana? they start singing the song, you know? so that is a big honour for us. billy sarro harrison and teddy kalanda harrison on the enduring appeal of jambo bwana. this song put kenya on the map and its hook, "hakuna matata," even made it into the lion king. that's all from this special edition of witness history, coming to you from the national museum in nairobi, kenya. we will be back next month with a selection of extraordinary accounts of women in history. for now, from me and the rest of the witness history crew, it's kwaheri — goodbye.
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hello there. it's quite chilly for a while overnight. temperatures could be close to freezing for a while before the weather then starts to change. we've got all this cloud coming in from the atlantic, replacing the clearer skies. and the main driver is an area of low pressure and these weather fronts. and they will bring some rain into western areas and then that rain will move northwards and eastwards through the day and the winds pick up too. as we get the wetter weather arriving in northern ireland, wales and the south—west, temperatures here will be much higher by morning, but with some clear skies ahead of that, away from the north—east of scotland, it will be quite a bit chillier. as we head through the morning though, this cloud will quickly move northwards and eastwards and it will bring with it some outbreaks of rain. some heavier rain moving northwards through
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the midlands into northern england, into scotland, during the afternoon. some more rain coming into the south—west and wales, and then we see sunshine and showers arriving into northern ireland. stronger winds actually on sunday, particularly strong around coastal areas, drawing in mild air. double—figure temperatures for most. it could make 1a in the south—west but cooler again, i think, for scotland and the north—east of england, where we will have some rain during the evening and that could be quite heavy for a while. this band of rain then sweeps eastwards through the midlands, into eastern england and then the showers follow on behind. it should be pretty mild, actually, overnight as that when the system moves away, we still got low pressure to the north—west of the uk and that will continue to fit in some blustery winds and some further showers as well. so a sort of day of sunshine and showers, i think, for many places on monday. could be some longer spells of rain coming northwards across scotland. most of the showers down the western side of england and wales, some moving through the english channel. somewhat drier weather though, i think, for the midlands and eastern areas of england. temperatures though
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still on the mild side. we've got those blustery south to south—west winds so 10—13 really sums it up on monday. moving quickly into tuesday, the winds will not be as strong on tuesday. there will be still some showers around, southern and western areas in particular. they probably will become fewer during the afternoon and many places will be turning dry. those temperatures still good for the time of year, around 9—11 degrees. it is a very unsettled week ahead and wednesday could see a return of wet and windy weatherfor a while, and then things calm down a bit on thursday. we get some sunshine and just one or two showers. goodbye.
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welcome to bbc news — i'm james reynolds. our top stories: talks between the eu and the uk about a post—brexit trade deal continue overnight in brussels but a british government source warns the offer from brussels remains unacceptable. hundreds of students are feared missing in north—western nigeria after a raid by gunmen on a secondary school. the head of the un urges countries to declare climate emergencies as part of efforts to tackle global warming. and anthonyjoshua retains his world heavyweight titles after beating kubrat pulev in london. hello and welcome.


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