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tv   Witness History  BBC News  August 28, 2021 2:30pm-3:01pm BST

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to say that what we're going to do is bring an end to all plastic- pollution and what we're going to do is drastically reduce _ the amount of all single—use - products, not just a fork followed by a spoon followed by a cup. we're trying to be sustainable... paris hopes increased awareness and reduced cost will make alternatives to plastic more popular. if we came to your house for dinner, we'd all be eating with bamboo cutlery? i will give you bamboo cutlery — no plastic in my house. nick eardley, bbc news. now it's time for a look at the weather. bank holiday, we need good news. the good news would be me not working, that would be lovely. instead, it is a good bank holiday weekend of whether, unfortunately for those of us working but warm sunshine around today. patchy cloud around, the
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threat of those receding in the next few hours. sunshine for much of scotland and northern ireland with the cloud draped around coastal areas and in the central belt of scotland highest temperatures, 24. 20 and 21 more like it in england and wales, better than yesterday where we had cloud. not much cloud tonight for the southern half of the uk. cloud moving from the north means it won't be as cold in scotland and northern ireland and northern england as it was bocelli further south with the clear skies and early sunshine. more cloud across the northern half of the uk compared with today, pretty cloudy in eastern scotland and north—east england. spots of drizzle with cloud bubbling up but decent spells of sunshine and top temperature going to be 20 or 21.
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hello, this is bbc news. the headlines... the ministry of defence confirms the final uk flight for civilians has left kabul. further flights will bring home uk diplomatic staff and military personnel. the us military says one of its drones has taken out an islamic state group planner, following thursday's attack which killed as many as 170 people at kabul airport. a recipe for covid chaos. government plans for schools are criticised by education unions who fear a rise in coronavirus infections.
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britain's lorry driver shortage. the business secretary has rejected a temporary loosening of immigration rules and told companies to employ uk—based staff. hurricane ida is approaching louisiana, forcing the evacuation of high—risk areas. two world records for the british cycling couple, husband and wife lora and neil fachie, who are amongst seven gb paralympians to win gold today. now on bbc news, witness history. coming from kenya's capital, nairobi, ciru muriuki brings you stories from across africa. hello and welcome to this special edition of witness history with me, ciru muriuki, here at the national museum in kenya's capital, nairobi. this month, we're featuring five incredible moments in recent african history. coming up, how tunisian women became some of the most liberated
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in the world in the 19505. we find out about the history of great zimbabwe, the ancient stone city, once the centre of an african empire. plus, one of the world's largest refugee camps, and the kenyan pop song that became a global hit. but first, we go back to south africa in 1977, when the country was governed by a racist system known as apartheid, which discriminated against the black population in almost every area of life. peterjones spoke to witness history about his friend steve biko, a young black south african who was trying to bring about change. i miss my friend steve bike, and i am forever in his debt. steve biko is one of the people that originated the new generation of young, political—minded black people. the black consciousness movement.
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we believe that, in our country, there shall be no minority, there shall be no majority — there willjust be people. and those people will have the same status before the law and they will have the same political rights before the law. the apartheid government ensured that there was no resistance against its doctrines and against its policies. there was a roadblock and they then searched the car. they found an identity document, which was mine. they then said, "who's peterjones?" and i said, "that's me." he said, "oh, and who are you, big man?" that's now steve. and steve said, "i'm steve bantu biko." and we were then locked up together in one cell. the next morning, we started getting an uneasy feeling, and in a convoy of three cars, we sped towards port elizabeth. because there were now more police.
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and in a convoy of three cars, we sped towards port elizabeth. in port elizabeth was the headquarters of the security police for that region. reporter: the building has been i converted into a block of flats. l steve biko was being walked to his death along this very corridor, a man poised to fill the void left behind after mandela was jailed. we got taken up to the fifth floor and we were manacled, each to a separate window. one of the senior police, a major, came in and said, "now i can confirm that you are officially being detained under section 6 of the terrorism act." that is the act in which you literally disappear. they separated us. i only had a chance to shout steve's name, and that was the last time i saw steve alive.
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three weeks and three days later, ijust heard a lot of commotion. many, many people singing protest songs, the cell next to mine was being filled with many people. then this young man told me that they have just returned from the funeral of steve biko. and that was the first time that i heard about the death of steve biko. i went to my mat that was my bed and i thenjust sat there, uh... ..with... to me, it was like a huge hole in my soul, just an inconsolability. which even today would make me weep
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at unexpected moments. the police said the leader of the black consciousness movement had lost his life by accident when his head struck a wall while he was being restrained. steve biko's family believe he was thrown at the wall quite deliberately by the police officers. steve biko's death and the brutality of it highlighted like no other event at the time the extent to which the apartheid regime would go to protect itself. peterjones there, remembering his friend steve biko. next, we go to tunisia in the 19505 and the introduction of equal rights laws, which gave women not just the right to vote, but the right to contraception and, in some cases, abortion.
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the wide—ranging reforms were brought in by the country's first president following independence. saida el gueyed remembers when president bourguiba asked her to help him introduce the laws to tunisian women. rock �*n' roll music plays. reporter: for women, - who ten years ago, had no rights, were contracted to a marriage by their parents, covered their faces when they left the house, these tunisians are not doing at all badly. this is, one imagines, as emancipated as any girl can get. thes swinging tunisian dolly birds represent one of the most remarkable social transformations of present times. translation: the equal rights law was the biggest ever _ gain for tunisian women. president bourguiba said he was not just a liberator of tunisia, but a liberator of tunisian women as well. reporter: bourguiba is tunisia. for 30 years, he's - fought for his country. first he battled for independence from france and was jailed -
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and exiled for his trouble. since independence, he's been his nation's leader. | i knew president bourguiba during the struggle against colonialism. in the equal rights law, he banned polygamy. he gave women social, political and economic rights. he introduced the law on 13th august 1956. thanks to this law, women were allowed to vote and also become politicians. i'm one of the founders of the tunisian women's union, and president bourguiba relied on us. reporter: in this school, 100 miles from tunis, - a teacher hammers home the newly discovered facts of female life to 60 teenagers. there are 13 such schools in tunisia, organised and staffed by the tunisian women's union, a militant and powerful body of opinion in the land. the teacher leaves them in no doubts about their right. she tells them, "you're not slaves any more.
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"you're like european women. "you have equal rights with men. "this you must understand." this law protected girls. fathers were no longer able to force their daughters to marry against their will. president bourguiba encouraged us to make sure families were not stopping girls from getting an education. they're taught about contraception, abortion and the laws giving them equal rights. after three months here, they return to their villages to spread the word, because it's here, in the tunisian countryside that the modern tunisian woman has to win the fight for equality in territory that for centuries has remained the unassailable stronghold of tunisian men. we spoke to men more than we did to women because we faced opposition from them. we spent a lot of time meeting men and explaining the law to them. family traditions used to oppress girls.
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but now they are free to choose who to love. tunisian women were given yet another safeguard against massive families when they became the first women in any muslim country able to have abortions. the law at present is that any tunisian woman with four children can have an abortion without her husband's consent. the operation is paid for by the government. president bourguiba told us to make women feel like they have a role to play, that they have the right to live in dignity and to trust themselves and their soul. he said he gave women these rights not as a gift, but because he saw women's power to lead in post—independence society.
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saida el gueyed, who continues to campaign for the rights of women. now, let's go back hundreds of years to the ancient ruined city of great zimbabwe. when colonial explorers discovered it in the 19th century, they insisted foreigners must have built it. then, following zimbabwe's independence, the country was able to reclaim its full heritage. our next witness, dr ken mufuka, was a historian tasked with rewriting the history books. this is one of the most remarkable sights in africa. these are the corridors of power of an ancient african civilisation. this is great zimbabwe. everybody in power wants to control history because it brings them legitimacy. the europeans said the africans did not build the ruins. it belonged to someone else — the phoenicians, the arabs, the queen of sheba. anybody else except the africans.
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the great zimbabwe was the greatest civilisation south of egypt. it carried about 10,000 people, so that was quite a large city. it was also the centre of religion and the economy of zimbabwe, it was gold. it could be traced far back as 1100. i was raised about ten miles away. i was obsessed with history. so, i visited it as a child. there was a bus to the great zimbabwe, but this was for tourists. blacks were not allowed there. but we just turn up, and if there are no white visitors, you can wander about. the structures are massive. the stones are chiselled to be exactly the same size and they are not connected by mortar or cement.
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we felt in some ways deprived of what belonged to us, that we belonged to a great people, but we are oppressed by the colonial regime. reporter: when europeans first saw great zimbabwe in the 1890s, - they could not believe that so imposing a structure could have been built by the ancestors of the africans they found living there. zimbabwe was not built i by either blacks or whites. the people who built it were semitic. - they were brown in colour— and were evidently a people who were a mixture of arabs and jews. the europeans, they were going there to civilise africans who were in darkness, who had no history. so, if they accepted that some of these africans had these wonderful civilisations, the reasoning would fall apart. on april the 18th, 1980, zimbabwe became independent.
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it was a great moment for us. history became important. they were going to find a new identity by going into the past. i was the first black director of national museums. i was supposed to use my abilities as a writer to write a new manual for the great zimbabwe, getting away from the eurocentric interpretation so that that heritage could be reclaimed. it was one of my happiest times, but it was also full of challenges because the politicians insisted that i must say that the great zimbabwe was built by revolutionaries. and i refused. isaid, "no, there's nothing revolutionary. "they were just ordinary people building, "as they were told by the king." they were angry with me and i had to leave zimbabwe in a hurry
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because now they were looking to lock me up. i think my life explains why history is very exciting, because look at the problems i've gone through because of my writing of history. dr ken mufuka there, on the enduring power of history. and this seems like a good time to remind you that you can watch witness history every wednesday on bbc world news, or you can catch up on all ourfilms, along with thousands of radio programmes in our online archive. just search for bbc witness history. after the break, we hear from zamzam abdi gelle, who describes the early days of living in what was for a long time the world's largest refugee camp. now a story about home and nationality. our next witness began life in somalia, but what came in 1991, and the following year,
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zamzam abdi gelle found herself living in kenya in dadaab. for a long time, it became known as the world's largest refugee camp, and it's currently home to more than 200,000 people. there are now commercial hubs in the camp, but many residents have known no other home. you don't know what life holds for you. we have been in mogadishu, in a big city, with a good life. and then we end up in a refugee camp in mogadishu, the war had started, there was militia groups everywhere. we were scared. dead bodies were scattered everywhere. just, like, things that you cannot imagine. we were attacked by the militia groups. i think there were about ten. they killed one of my uncles and then they shot my father that night. he was shot in his left leg, and then from the back, going out from this side. alhamdulillah, that night, my father survived. we fled from mogadishu in the beginning of 1992. we travelled to the border of kenya. we are very young at that time and my father could not walk, so we had a donkey cart and then we were trying to cross the border.
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having in mind that you can be caught by the bandits at any time. if they caught you, that's the end of your life. also, in the day, if you're caught by the soldiers from kenya, that will be the end of your life also. so, the means of survival was 50—50. everybody trying to come to kenya to look for means of survival, but we never expected that we'll be going to refugee camp. at the beginning, when when dadaab was established, it was just like you collect branches from a tree and then you build a small hut and then covered by plastic. the environment is so harsh. it was dusty, the soil is not fertile, you cannot grow anything. the rainfall is so low it might happen that, in all three years, there might be no rain. it's so hot. sometimes it can be up to 40 to 50 degrees.
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when we arrived at the refugee camp, these gangs will come to you at night, they will rape girls, they will take away what you have. they might kill. it wasn't safe at the beginning. but things become cool as time goes. it's like a city now, a big city. we thought we could have stayed there, like, two years or one year, but we never thought we could have stayed there, like, 25 years. we cannot travel from dadaab to another part of kenya and you cannot go back to somalia. so, you know, necessity is the mother of invention. we got, i mean, a good education in dadaab, i got a scholarship from unicef to go to university. now i feel like a kenyan.
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i feel like a kenyan because we just stayed four years in somalia, and 24 years in kenya. but kenya was telling us the other day what they want is just to close the camps and chuck away somali people living in the camps back to somalia. reporter: dadaab is the world's . largest refugee camp and now kenya wants to close it down. will they be forced to leave? many of them have never been anywhere else. where will i go back to? we neither kenyans, cos they are telling us we are refugees, we are neither the somalis, because we have been brought up in kenya. so, we are caught in between. that was zamzam abdi gelle. and finally, 40 years ago here in kenya, tourism was booming, with visitors coming for the wildlife as well as its beautiful beaches. our next witnesses were earning a living playing music at hotels when they were inspired to write a song which went on to become a global hit. this is the story of jambo bwana.
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#jambo, jambo bwana... # habari gani... # mzuri sana... # wageni, wakaribishwa. .. # kenya yetu hakuna matata... # kenya nchi nzuri... # hakuna matata. .. that's the way it went. the tourists were just crazy about this song. #jambo, jambo bwana... it went silver, then gold, then it went platinum. that came as a complete surprise. i started the group them mushrooms in 1972. me and him were working with the cement factory in mombasa. there was a lot of tourists coming into mombasa, so it was a very vibrant scene in mombasa. we were playing mostly congolese stuff and kenyan music and whatever.
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but when we realised that we could make more money and playing for less time for tourists in the hotels, we had to switch to playjust cover versions of chart music from europe and from america. one night, i think it was late 1979, i was sitting at the pool bar after a performance and there were these tourists in the pool playing around and joking, trying to speak kiswahili. "jambo! habari? nzuri sana. haku na matata." you know? and i got this idea, maybe i should write a song with the simplest words in kiswahili and get the tourists to learn kiswahili while they sang along and danced to our music. #jambo, jambo bwana... # habari gani... # mzuri sana... it says... which means... it says...
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then you say, "mzuri sana," which is a reply to habari gani. mzuri sana is "very, very well, thank you". "all the guests, visitors are welcome to kenya." "there are no problems in kenya." just a very simple song. whenever we finish, another tourists will come over and say, "can you do thisjambojambo? we had to do it about 20 times. and then the financial director of polygram said, "here is my card, you call me. "i want us to record this song." we didn't know that it's going to be this big. #jambo, jambo bwana... # like they say, the rest is history. after the recording, the rest, it was history. when we signed the agreement with polygram at that time, i didn't know much about copyright ownership. we were just happy to have our music recorded. and so many people have wanted to do
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cover versions of it. most kenyans say, "ah, this is a song for the mzungu, not for us kenyans," you know? but they are proud of it, that at least it's given some kind of identity to kenya, you know? any kenyan who goes overseas, they will always ask you, "ah, you know the song jambo jambo?" they start singing this song, you know? so that's a big honour for us. he plays jambo bwana. applause. he chuckles. thank you. billy sarro harrison and teddy kalanda harrison on the enduring appeal ofjambo bwana. this song put kenya on the map and its hook — hakuna matata — even made it into the lion king. that's all from this special edition of witness history, coming to you from the national museum, here in nairobi, kenya. we'll be back next month with a collection of first—hand accounts of extraordinary
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women in history. but, for now, from me and the rest of the witness history crew, it's kwaheri, goodbye. hello, good afternoon. as far as bank holiday weekends go, getting some good weather for a change. bank holiday weekends go, getting some good weatherfor a change. a lot of dry weather through the rest of the weekend and someone sunshine. feels warm when the sun is out. good day to be on the beach. early this beach picture where we saw temperatures about 20. some areas of cloud, most of it fairweather and that's because high pressure is essentially in charge of our weather. this has been playing a lot of heavy showers, one or two light
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showers, there was showers fading away and it dry for the rest of the day. away from these northern and some western coasts we have got that shield of cloud. in the sunshine this is where we will see the highest temperatures. could make 23 in northern ireland, 20 or 21 near the murk in england and wales, an improvement on yesterday. overnight, things start to change, cloud moving down across scotland eventually into the far north of england so these areas not as cold as last night. clear skies to the south and temperatures of six or seven. tomorrow looks cloudier for scotland, northern ireland, northern england. stays rather dull and may be damp in eastern scotland and the north—east of england. sunshine further south, fairweather cloud
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bubbling but decent spells of sunshine, quite breezy in east anglia and the south—east and top temperature is 20 or so but cooler than that in the cloud in eastern scotland and the north—east of england. high pressure in charge this weekend. the centre of the high is the north—west so the winds around it coming from now north sea, stronger wind during monday. more cloud coming off the north sea and that will affect large parts of the uk. not as much sunshine for southern areas. the best of the sunshine towards the west more sheltered from the brisk wind. stronger wind on the monday. the wind will find more around the cloud, 16—17 in sunshine for the rest. how is around 20. maybe even 21. it is a dry week ahead, some sunshine at times but large amounts of cloud.
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this is bbc news with the latest headlines... the ministry of defence confirms the final uk flight for civilians has left kabul. further flights will bring home uk diplomatic staff and military personnel. the us military says one of its drones has taken out an islamic state group planner, following thursday's attack which killed as many as 170 people at kabul airport. a recipe for covid chaos — government plans for schools are criticised by education unions who fear a rise in coronavirus infections. britain's lorry driver shortage — the business secretary has rejected a temporary loosening of immigration rules and told companies to employ uk—based staff. two world records for the british cycling couple, husband and wife lora and neil fachie, who are amongst seven gb paralympians to win gold today.

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