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tv   Students of War - The Rise of...  BBC News  September 11, 2021 4:30am-5:01am BST

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this is bbc news, the headlines: president biden has appealed for national unity ahead of the commemorations, 20 years on from the 9—11 attacks on the united states. he paid tribute to the nearly 3,000 people killed when al-qaeda terrorists crashed airliners into the world trade center in new york, and the pentagon in washington. lawyers for the american woman suing the duke of york over sexual assault allegations say they've successfully served him with legal papers — a condition for the lawsuit to proceed. ajudge must now decide if the papers were indeed served. prince andrew has always strongly denied the allegations. excitement is growing ahead of the women's singles final of the us open. for the first time in more than 20 years, both competitors are teenagers. leylah fernandez from canada will face the british player emma raducanu.
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now on bbc news, with rare interviews and archive, yalda hakim examines the rise of the taliban after the soviet occupation of afghanistan. backin back in control. after nearly 20 years of conflict, thousands of lives lost and trillions of dollars spent, the taliban has seen of the us nato and their afghan allies. a stunning success for them and another superpower humbled in the streets and fields of afghanistan. but to understand these events and the origins of these events and the origins of the taliban, we need to go back to the cold war.
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the body aftermath of the soviet occupation set the ground for a new force to emerge. ground for a new force to emerge-— ground for a new force to emerge. ground for a new force to emerue. , ., , , emerge. they were really seen as angels. _ emerge. they were really seen as angels, these _ emerge. they were really seen as angels, these young - emerge. they were really seen as angels, these young angels| as angels, these young angels who had arrived to save the country.
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0n on december 20 seven, 1979, soviet special forces stormed the presidential palace in kabul. the president, hafamin was killed. this was the start of the soviet invasion of afghanistan. the soviets had invaded to shore up the communist government. afg hanistan�*s communist government. afghanistan's communist had taken power in a coup in 1978, but opposition to the radical modernisation programme, together with internal
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communist party squabbling had resulted in crisis copy moscow ran out of patience. after assassinating president amin, soviet forces poured into afghanistan and occupied the major cities. this was the first time in the cold war that a regular armed
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force, tanks, jet fighters, was crossing into another country and occupying it. now, if they had their own jet fighters, at the air force base in bagr and harat, they could have control of the persian gulf and the world's oil supply. afg hanistan�*s soviet world's oil supply. afghanistan's soviet installed afg hanistan�*s soviet installed leader continued afghanistan's soviet installed leader continued the previous policy. mass education and more freedom for women remains a priority. many saw it as a positive. for many in
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afghanistan's traditional afg hanistan�*s traditional conservative society, afghanistan's traditional conservative society, these changes were not welcome, nor the brutal where the government imposed them.
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hundreds of thousands abandon afghanistan. refugee camps mushroomed alongside the borders inside pakistan. the camps became a recruiting ground for the mujahideen, the holy warriors.
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in february 1980, president carter's security adviser visited the refugee camps along the afghan pakistan border. that land over there is yours. you go back to it one day, because your fight will prevail, and you'll have your home is your masks back again, because your cause is right and god is on your side. figs because your cause is right and god is on your side.— god is on your side. as more and more — god is on your side. as more and more afghans _ god is on your side. as more and more afghans bought i god is on your side. as more l and more afghans bought over the border into pakistan, a lot of them — the border into pakistan, a lot of them did not want to stay in pakistan— of them did not want to stay in pakistan as refugees, they wanted _ pakistan as refugees, they wanted to go back and fight, but they— wanted to go back and fight, but they wanted weapons to go and do — but they wanted weapons to go and do it— but they wanted weapons to go and do it with, and other kinds of assistance. that was an opportunity that president carter_ opportunity that president carter took advantage of. the americans — carter took advantage of. the americans knew _ carter took advantage of. tie: americans knew the local carter took advantage of. ti9 americans knew the local arms industry could never supply the demand for weapons, and with
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the saudis matching the american contribution dollar for dollar, the mujahideen started to get better equipment.- started to get better equipment. started to get better ea-uiment. ~ , :, started to get better eu-uiment.~ , :, , equipment. we begin to procure weaons, equipment. we begin to procure weapons. import _ equipment. we begin to procure weapons, import them - equipment. we begin to procure weapons, import them and - equipment. we begin to procure weapons, import them and get i weapons, import them and get them to pakistan, where the pakistani army built the beginning of what grew into an enormous support structure to receive weapons that would come in by sea, move them to the borders, get them to camps in some instances train were jardine, who would then take the weapons inside afghanistan and attacked the soviets. all the weapons that we gave them were made, most of them were made in communist countries, we just bought them from the communists and then sent them into afghanistan. they used polish a case, czechoslovakian a case, chinese a case, everybody�*s a case, and within a year of beginning the programme, we had armed about 400,000 mujahideen. the
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programme, we had armed about 400,000 mujahideen. 400,000 mu'ahideen. the shower in pakistan 400,000 mujahideen. the shower in pakistan became _
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400,000 mujahideen. the shower in pakistan became a _ 400,000 mujahideen. the shower in pakistan became a centre - 400,000 mujahideen. the shower in pakistan became a centre for. in pakistan became a centre for the numerous competing mujahideen groups and their international supporters. weapons were pouring in and the distribution was controlled by the pakistan intelligence service, the isi. de the pakistan intelligence service, the isi.- the pakistan intelligence service, the isi. service, the 151. de isi gave out bullet — service, the 151. de isi gave out bullet per— service, the 151. de isi gave out bullet per bullet - service, the 151. de isi gave out bullet per bullet to - service, the 151. de isi gave| out bullet per bullet to their favourites, and who were the favourites, and who were the favourites but the most similar islamist and hardline islamist and ha rdline islamists. islamist and hardline islamists. this was away for the pakistani to really exert its influence inside afghanistan because what they hoped eventually was that the islamist were soviets would leave pakistan would have its proxy inside kabul. the mujahideen _ proxy inside kabul. the mujahideen with - proxy inside kabul. the mujahideen with better weapons and knowledge of the domain were not an easy force to defeat. the afghan government and the soviets controlled the main cities and communication roots. the vast tracks of the country were beyond their
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control. forfouryears country were beyond their control. for four years after the soviet invasion, the war raged on. during this time, much of the afghan army deserted or defected to the
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mujahideen, but neither side was winning. ismail khan was a mujahideen commander in the north—west of afghanistan. in 1985, president ronald reagan decided to expand us aid to the afghan gorillas. the mujahideen were to be given a sophisticated new weapon, the stinger, a portable land to air missile. meanwhile in moscow,
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the soviet union had a new leader, mikael gorbachev prepared to embark on a programme of reforms he hoped would revitalise the soviet union. 100 �*s main aims was to get soviet troops out of afghanistan. he first replaced karmal with a new leader, the former head of the hated secret police. he also agreed to peace talks. the united nations peace talks. the united nations peace talks in geneva began in 1986, aiming to end the war. americans wanted mujahideen involvement. the soviets insisted the communist afghan government remains. the soviets insisted on _ government remains. the soviets insisted on supporting _ government remains. the soviets insisted on supporting the - insisted on supporting the afghan communist, which was then the president, and then they would continue supporting food and weapons and outcomes the americans at tehran said if you would do that, we will continue supporting the afghan
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mujahideen. the afghan mujahideen. the afghan mujahideen and the afghan communist would continue fighting, this was essential. geneva did not bring peace, there was no illusion about that. it was only a cover basically for the soviets to leave. , :, , ' basically for the soviets to leave. , :, y' leave. on february 15, 1989, the last soviet _ leave. on february 15, 1989, the last soviet troops - leave. on february 15, 1989, the last soviet troops left i the last soviet troops left afghanistan. the soviets left behind them a country devastated. they had lost 15,000 men, but1 million
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afghans had been killed and over 4 million wounded. 5 million had fled the country as refugees. altogether, one quarter of the afghan population was displaced by the war. and the fighting still continued. the mujahideen and the communist regime in couple were locked in stalemate —— kabul. in1991, a in 1991, a failed coup in
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moscow brought about the collapse of the soviet union and the russians stopped funding their communist proxies in kabul. with the soviet union no more, america stopped supplying arms to the mujahideen.— supplying arms to the mujahideen. supplying arms to the mu'ahideen. , :, :, mujahideen. our goals had not been, mujahideen. our goals had not been. really. _ mujahideen. our goals had not been, really, to _ mujahideen. our goals had not been, really, to build - mujahideen. our goals had not been, really, to build a - mujahideen. our goals had not been, really, to build a new. been, really, to build a new afghanistan and our own internal debate over what is the future of the soviet union affected our strategy towards the afghan resistance. we decided to abandon the afghan resistance. and to focus, really, on taking it out of the hands of possible future terrorist attacks.- hands of possible future terrorist attacks. with the us and soviets _ terrorist attacks. with the us and soviets gone, _ terrorist attacks. with the us and soviets gone, the - terrorist attacks. with the us and soviets gone, the field . terrorist attacks. with the us l and soviets gone, the field was open for others to exert their influence. open for others to exert their influence-— open for others to exert their influence. :, ~ , :, , influence. the pakistanis were back golby _ influence. the pakistanis were back golby into _ influence. the pakistanis were back golby into come - influence. the pakistanis were back golby into come into - back golby into come into power. the iranians and the
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indians were backing others. they were trying to put together a coalition government with commins elements as well as with the heating elements. so everybody was doing their own thing —— communist elements. own thing -- communist elements.— own thing -- communist elements. j " ' :, :, elements. by 1992, two of the strongest _ elements. by 1992, two of the strongest modulating - elements. by 1992, two of the strongest modulating partiesl strongest modulating parties were closing in on kabul. those coming down from the north were led by a nijat masood. he is better rival was moving up from the south—east. the government collapsed. he took shelter in the united nations compound in the united nations compound in the city. on 25 april, 1992 their main both entered kabul. they now fought for control in
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the streets of kabul. the men were forced out of the city and took up positions in the hills and started shelling the capital. behind it in ramadi was the leader in waiting of the new afghanistan government.
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there had long been attempts internally to bring about a broad mujahideen coalition, but all efforts had failed. for the next four years the country was torn apart by inter— factional fighting. in kabul, thousands were killed in indiscriminate bombing.
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with chaos and anarchy a across afghanistan, a new force emerged on the scene. radical is most students known as the tellebang joined the fight for control of the country. == control of the country. -- taliban- _ control of the country. -- taliban. the _ control of the country. -- taliban. the taliban - control of the country. -- taliban. the taliban came with a very simple message. they said we will bring peace, we will disarm the population, which is exactly what the public wanted, in other words, disarm the warlords. and we will then refer to our elders and we will liberate the country and we will then, we will not take power ourselves, we will call a tribal council of all the elders of the country and then we will decide who should rule the country. the taliban have been trained in schools or mattresses in pakistan which had been funded by saudi arabia. they swept into southern afghanistan and took kandahar with little
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resistance. they were really seen as, you know, angels, these young angels who had arrived to save the country. but angels who had arrived to save the country-— the country. but any thoughts that the taliban _ the country. but any thoughts that the taliban were - the country. but any thoughts that the taliban were angelicl that the taliban were angelic young idealists, soon faded. two more years of vicious fighting followed, including a 10—month bombardment of kabul before the taliban finally took the capitol on 27 september, 1996. :, ::, �* the capitol on 27 september, 1996. :, �* , 1996. the taliban couldn't be defeated because _ 1996. the taliban couldn't be defeated because they - 1996. the taliban couldn't be defeated because they had i defeated because they had enormous military support from pakistan, saudi arabia, all the
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golf estates, and arabs were extremely ruthless, brutal fighters and gave them a whole new dimension, new tax mix a new, you know kind of weaponry and retrained them. by the time they reached kabul, the leadership of the taliban is saying we will seized power, we will rule this country. the first act — will rule this country. the first act as _ will rule this country. the first act as victors - will rule this country. the first act as victors was - will rule this country. the | first act as victors was the torture and execution of former communist leader najibullah and his brother, who is what is were hanged from a lamppost. —— his bodies. the 24 hours the taliban impose a strict interpretation of islamic law. they banned all women from work, which led to the health services schools almost completely closing down. they enforce a strict dress code with head to cover for women and men ordered to grow beards.
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music and arts were bands thieves had their hands and feet amputated. adulterers were stoned to death. anyone drinking liquor based the lash. 20 years after the communist had taken power in kabul after an armed coup, afghanistan was being run by a group of extreme islamist. —— communist. just as the soviets had wanted to make afghanistan a bastion of world communism, now the taliban's most extreme arab supporters, al-qaeda, wanted to use the country as a base to launch the internationaljihad.
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the al-qaeda attacks on us soil would soon lead to another great power becoming directly engaged in afghanistan. america, with bombers, special forces, and money supported the mujahideen groups who had continued to fight the taliban,
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united as the northern alliance. it tookjust united as the northern alliance. it took just five weeks of fighting for the alliance to reach kabul. and on 12 november, 2001 they took the city. the taliban and al-qaeda fled to the mountains. today, after 20 years of western intervention in afghanistan, countless deaths and trillions of dollars spent, history has turned full circle. the taliban are back in power. many afghans now fear a dark and uncertain future, while the us and western allies have left the field humiliated byjust a few tens of thousands of modestly armed fighters. afghanistan, so
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long the site for proxy wars between nations, loucheiz, and terrorist groups, faces a new chapter in its turbulent history —— militias. hello there. fewer showers on the cards for the day ahead because the low pressure, which has brought the showers, to move away. it is close to scotland, as is this weather front, which means the reins have been setting in through the night will continue. it has really been very wet across parts of shetland, some buzz of numbers scotland, gesink 30—40 millimetres by the end of the day had. they will start elsewhere, 14—15, rain, misty, and mickey, a little damp across the hills and close.
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drier, brighter, some sunny spells across much of england and wales. just the odd shower around. a few more for northern ireland as the breeze picks up stopping cooler breeze here and for scotland, where in the it remains pretty wet. 0ne, 20/23 we see sunny spells south and east. should hang onto some of that on sunday, at our weather front at that stage in the north has weakened, pushing rain down potentially for the great north run. this is the big question mark, how far north this rain reaches and how far east during the course of sunday. bye for now.
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this is bbc news — i'm tim willcox. our top stories: as america prepares to mark 20 years since 9/11, the president calls for the country to come together. at our most vulnerable, the push and pull of all that makes us humam, in the battle for the soul of america, unity is our greatest strength. the attacks led to the invasion of afghanistan, now back under taliban control, and many fear for the future. lawyers for the woman who's accused prince andrew of sexual abuse claim they've successfully served him with legal papers. and the battle of the teens — the build—up to the women's final of the us open.

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