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tv   Life at 50C - Part 4  BBC News  November 13, 2021 5:30pm-6:01pm GMT

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that is awful, young person that is awful, your future is being young person that is awful, yourfuture is being taken young person that is awful, your future is being taken from you. at this conference, we have done the only thing that actually this conference was able to do, which was to say we know we are not doing enough and we promise to come back next year to do more. that was of this conference could do and it has done that. if you are the cop presidency, the uk, you will feel within that broader context of generational failure, this was a little moment of relative success. the ovation that _ moment of relative success. the ovation that we _ moment of relative success. the ovation that we had for friends to lemons, was precisely on that point. he asked the room to consider someone that they knew personally, each and every one of them, someone they knew he was going to be alive in the 20 305. that he was going to be alive in the 20 30s. that is not a long way away and you think about what kind of world that is going to be. that is the important part, this is the decisive decade in that respect.— this is the decisive decade in that respect. this has been a big change — that respect. this has been a big change over _ that respect. this has been a big change over the - that respect. this has been a big change over the last - that respect. this has been a big change over the last ten l big change over the last ten years. ten years ago when i
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walked for gordon brown, we talked about future generations as if they were other people who had not been born. this isn't about future generations it is about our kids and grandchildren. somebody who has kids in the 20s, this is about the rest of their lives. 2050, they will be my age, a bit less. this is about people we know, people we love and the future that they are going to live in. that has added an urgency. the kids demonstrating last friday and over the weekend, they are future voters, they are talking to the parents, telling the parents that you have got to do something about this. that has affected the cop and it will only affect them further into the future, as those voters become, as those kids become voters and some become politicians. we have left it too late, but that is what this has to be, some kind of a turning point where the politicians in power recognise it is the next generation of macro lives at stake. l it is the next generation of macro lives at stake. i have detected — macro lives at stake. i have detected that _ macro lives at stake. i have detected that urgency - macro lives at stake. i have detected that urgency with | detected that urgency with everybody i have spoken to this
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week. let's dip back in and we from guatemala.— from guatemala. as a responsible _ from guatemala. as a responsible society, l from guatemala. as a - responsible society, there are many of us in our countries, many of us in our countries, many vulnerable people suffering. they don't deserve that. we must make a difference. so i do thank you, mr president, for all the hard work. and ijust want to leave you with a phrase i heard not long ago. we must do the right thing because it's the right thing because it's the right thing to do. thank you, mr president. thank you, guatemala. and now i -ive thank you, guatemala. and now i give the _ thank you, guatemala. and now i give the floor to barbados. barbados, you have the floor.
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thank — barbados, you have the floor. thank you, mr president, and thank you for guiding all our efforts. in behalf of the g 77 and china, the comments made by antigua and barbuda... as we've heard by previous interventions, while not the perfect package, this is, we believe, a balanced package. it is not free of gaps. there are areas like loss and damage where we need to, and i believe we can, quickly advance innovative work to inform each of our positions and, therefore, in turn inform our collective position. over the last two weeks, i have heard a great deal of consensus in these rooms. and this
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afternoon, i hear consensus in this. mr president, i am encouraged by the openness in the text to the ways in which we can meet the scale of the finance required to meet the ambition on mitigation and on adaptation. i believe that, with this text, we have a basis on which to accept this agreement and to go forward. but to go forward beyond process. go forward to strengthen our partnerships and to strengthen those partnerships for the purpose of implementation of the important work that we all have to do. thank you. barbados, thank you very much for that— barbados, thank you very much for that intervention. friends, thank— for that intervention. friends, thank you _ for that intervention. friends, thank you for all your interventions. and of course, i do believe _ interventions. and of course, i do believe that these are ambitious texts, and of course
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they— ambitious texts, and of course they do— ambitious texts, and of course they do test the boundaries of what — they do test the boundaries of what parties are able to accept on certain— what parties are able to accept on certain issues. and i really do understand how difficult some — do understand how difficult some of these issues are, and the very— some of these issues are, and the very different national circumstances among parties in this room _ circumstances among parties in this room. i clearly heard some concerns, — this room. i clearly heard some concerns, and i commit that we will continue to work with all of you — will continue to work with all of you in_ will continue to work with all of you in partnership on these issues — of you in partnership on these issues. but as colleagues have acknowledged, these outcomes constitute an incredibly delicate balance. there is a fine — delicate balance. there is a fine and _ delicate balance. there is a fine and fragile green thread weaved _ fine and fragile green thread weaved around this balanced package. and i do think that if any of— package. and i do think that if any of us _ package. and i do think that if any of us tug at it, it will unravel— any of us tug at it, it will unravel all too easily, and that— unravel all too easily, and that is_ unravel all too easily, and that is certainly the sentiment i have — that is certainly the sentiment i have heard this afternoon from — i have heard this afternoon from colleagues. i do think these — from colleagues. i do think these texts are consistent with these texts are consistent with the goals of the paris agreement, and the ultimate objective of the convention. so i do hope — objective of the convention. so i do hope that we can leave
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this— i do hope that we can leave this conference united, having delivered something significant for our— delivered something significant for our people and planet, together, as one. dear friends, ithink— together, as one. dear friends, i think what we have seen in this— i think what we have seen in this room _ i think what we have seen in this room is a great deal of consensus and support for these texts. _ consensus and support for these texts, imperfect though they may — texts, imperfect though they may he _ texts, imperfect though they may be. we have also witnessed in this— may be. we have also witnessed in this room, the vigour of multilateral discussions. and of course, concerns have been expressed _ of course, concerns have been expressed. but i do think now is the — expressed. but i do think now is the time to confront our responsibility to our people, to the — responsibility to our people, to the world, to our planet. and — to the world, to our planet. and so— to the world, to our planet. and so what i now propose to do is to— and so what i now propose to do is to adjourn this meeting, and we will— is to adjourn this meeting, and we will then convene a formal meeting — we will then convene a formal meeting of the cop to confront these _ meeting of the cop to confront these responsibilities and to consider— these responsibilities and to consider and adopt the outcome of our— consider and adopt the outcome of our work here in glasgow. meetings— of our work here in glasgow.
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meetings of the cmp and the cma will he _ meetings of the cmp and the cma will be convened in conjunction. considerations are now being _ conjunction. considerations are now being unloaded onto the unfccc— now being unloaded onto the unfccc website. this meeting is now adjourned. i would request if you _ now adjourned. i would request if you would retain your seats. we need — if you would retain your seats. we need to have a short break, of course — we need to have a short break, of course i_ we need to have a short break, of course i understand, but we will reconvene very, very shortly, _ will reconvene very, very shortly, so please stay in the room — shortly, so please stay in the room and _ shortly, so please stay in the room and we are going to reorganise the podium. and then we moved — reorganise the podium. and then we moved to the formal plenary. thank— we moved to the formal plenary. thank you — we moved to the formal plenary. thank yon-— thank you. alok sharma, bringing _ thank you. alok sharma, bringing an _ thank you. alok sharma, bringing an end - thank you. alok sharma, bringing an end to - thank you. alok sharma, bringing an end to that i bringing an end to that informal process, a stock—taking process over the text. to explain what he was talking about, there are three separate texts being considered here in glasgow. it is sometimes complex. the cmp is the kyoto agreement, legally
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binding. cma is the paris agreement, they are still trying to finish the rules relating to paris. and then cop, everything separate to paris that has been agreed in glasgow. to set the scene for you, over my shoulder, that's the door into the main plenary room, you can see the journalists waiting for the various leaders who might come out and talk to their teams. that's the business end of the summit, where it's all happening. there is a brief adjournment, as alok sharma said, they will huddle and talk, but the intention is that in perhaps the next hour, they will begin the formal process of adopting what is in these texts. let me take you quickly through the draught agreement which alok sharma hopes will be the last. starting with the paragraphs relating to the phasing out of coal and fossil fuel subsidies. that remains in the text, it has been slightly softened again with accelerating efforts towards...
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inefficient fossil fuels, accelerating efforts towards... inefficient fossilfuels, while recognising the need for transition, meaning help for workers in the fossil fuel industries. changes that may well be the final compromise on that section of the on future emissions targets, the national determine contributions, there is a request for nations to return to the next cop in 2022 with more ambitious pledges, despite the disagreement we heard from india in the last couple of hours. 0n finance, there has been significant strengthening of the language in some areas. a dialogue every two years on adaptation finance, 2022, 2024, 2026, countries should consider doubling adaptation and finance, as other countries have already done. and going forward, there should be greater balance between mitigation and adaptation,
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recognition of those countries already dealing with the effects of climate change. parties will also begin working towards a post—2025 finance goal to help developing nations with the aim of increasing the amount needed in 2024. but the most substantial changes relate to the loss and damage sections, that poor and vulnerable countries have been demanding for the impact already caused by climate change. they will be a dialogue to discuss the arrangements for funding of activities to avert, minimize and address loss and damage in these countries. it's the first time it has appeared in a climate text. no amount discuss, and you will have heard the dissatisfaction from the likes of guinea, they say it's not perfect, far from the likes of guinea, they say it's not perfect, farfrom it, but they will accept it in the spirit of compromise. john kerry is the us special presidential envoy for climate, he has been speaking. let's remind you what he had to say.
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i close by saying not everybody in public life, and i've been in public life, and i've been in public life for a long time, and we are all in public life, whether permanently or temporarily in this endeavour, not everyone gets to make choices about life and death. not everyone gets to make choices that actually affect an entire planet. we here are privileged to do exactly that. so i hope before long we are going to ratify this, accept this text, initiate a critical set of choices for all citizens around the world for this decade, so that we can in fact guarantee to our children, grandchildren, the next generations that we did our job. and i'm proud to be part
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of it, thank you.— of it, thank you. john kerry, who has _ of it, thank you. john kerry, who has been _ of it, thank you. john kerry, who has been locked - of it, thank you. john kerry, who has been locked in - who has been locked in discussions with his opposite number from discussions with his opposite numberfrom china. president number from china. president biden numberfrom china. president biden and president xi will be talking further on monday. the eu climate chief was clearly frustrated with some of the things he was hearing in the room warned nations not to kill this moment by asking for yet more changes to the text. and more changes to the text. and it is my firm — more changes to the text. and it is my firm belief _ more changes to the text. jifuc it is my firm belief that the text on the table now reflects perfectly well this respect shown by the presidency, and at the same time allows us to act with the urgency that is essential for our survival. so i please implore you, please, embrace this text so that we can bring hope to the hearts of our children and grandchildren. they are waiting for us, they will not forgive us if we fail them today. will not forgive us if we fail them today-—
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them today. there was an ovation in _ them today. there was an ovation in the _ them today. there was an ovation in the room, - them today. there was an ovation in the room, lotsl them today. there was an l ovation in the room, lots of people like that mattered because they had just been hearing from india, expressing its reservations over key parts of the text. michaeljacobs is still with me, the former climate adviser to british prime minister gordon brown, now professor of political economy at the university of sheffield. when he wrapped up that informal uptake, alok sharma said there is a very thin green thread wrapped around these texts and if we start pulling at it, it will unravel. as you were telling us a short time ago, that is why they were piling on the pressure, on india. india is the one — pressure, on india. india is the one country _ pressure, on india. india is the one country who - pressure, on india. india is the one country who have. pressure, on india. india is. the one country who have said we are not happy with the text, and notjust that we are not happy with the text, and not just that they are not happy with it, but they don't want to agree to it. lots of countries said they were not happy with things but in the spirit of compromise, they would agree to the text. india said they were not prepared to agree, and as alok sharma, the uk presidency chair said, this
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is like a little tapestry, if india pulls a thread, the whole thing will start unravelling because other countries will say, hang on, there are lots of things we don't like either and they will pull on other threads. so alok sharma and the vast majority of countries who have spoken are desperate to keep the text intact and they will now be talking to india, trying to pressurise them into withdrawing the objections, or finding some minuscule shift in language which everybody else can accept and which willjust mean india can say, well, we did win something at the end. quite a tense little moment because india is a strong country, a big country, with principles and it tends to act on principles, and it doesn't like some of the things in the text. it will be a very interesting few minutes. i text. it will be a very interesting few minutes. i have 'ust seen interesting few minutes. i have just seen a _ interesting few minutes. i have just seen a very _ interesting few minutes. i have just seen a very large - interesting few minutes. i have just seen a very large man - interesting few minutes. i have just seen a very large man go l just seen a very large man go past us delicately balancing ten large boxes of pizza and taking them into the room! they have been at this all afternoon. do you need a bit of frustration and exhaustion to get a text like over the line?
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also, it's old. turning the heating off might be a little tactic by the british to make people feel it is getting a bit glasgow is and we need to go home, or it mightjust be the venue organisers saying, we have been instructed to provide until five o'clock on saturday afternoon, so who knows? the pressure begins to build and there have been previous cops before where we see the pressure built at the end of the conference, so this will be an interesting few minutes, but i do think we will be coming back togetherfairly i do think we will be coming back together fairly soon and the agreement will be put through. the chair has a little gabble. through. the chair has a little rabble. ,, ,. , , gabble. set the scene, because --eole gabble. set the scene, because people will _ gabble. set the scene, because people will be _ gabble. set the scene, because people will be tuning _ gabble. set the scene, because people will be tuning in - gabble. set the scene, because people will be tuning in and - people will be tuning in and waiting for the do no more. he is the president of all three texts at this stage, so what is going to happen? —— for the finale.
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going to happen? -- for the finale. ~ ., ' finale. we have three different treaties and _ finale. we have three different treaties and processes. - finale. we have three different treaties and processes. there l treaties and processes. there will be one plenary but lots of different texts, so in practise, the big one we have all really focused on, that you have taken clips from, is the decision of cop26, which is called one cop26. the others are agreements arising out of these other processes. those also have to be formally agreed, but 26 will be the first one, that will get the applause and then there will be applause and then there will be a rather odd moment when we think we have all done it, and in fact he still has to get agreement on all the other ones. you will probably take your camera is off the plenary at that point, i suspect. to mark the _ at that point, i suspect. to mark the card, the language i just set out, the different issues that have been fiercely fought over in the last few days, as you say, they relate to cop26, but there has been some finishing work done on paris. and you can't put that bit of text in that agreement,
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because legally that is unsound. is that how it works? yes, basically, once you have a treaty, you finish the paris rule book, because that treaty was at a pretty general level, so we have had more detailed regulations in a domestic context that would be secondary legislation. once you have an act of parliament, you have secondary legislation that goes through parliament to tie up the regulations that go with the regulations that go with the more general text you started with. so we have been doing that, some of it has been controversial and we have only just reached agreement in the last couple of hours on some of that text, so that has to be formally agreed as well. and then a lot of that will continue in future cops, because there is still more work to do. work programmes have been set up and work needs to be done on some of those issues to take things forward, like carbon markets. just finall , like carbon markets. just finally, because - like carbon markets. just finally, because i- like carbon markets. just finally, because i know i like carbon markets. just finally, because i know you have to go, you are a veteran of this process... where does
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the climate roadshow go next? how quickly does it happen? they agree all these things, how quickly do they start dealing with these issues? for the technical _ dealing with these issues? fr?" the technical issues, there are meetings every quarter, so they have them now in bonn, where the unfccc is based. only officials go to those, ministers don't go to those, they deal with technical matters. the next place the roadshow goes is back to domestic politics. because countries have been told, the commitment you have made, often quite painfully, in your domestic parliaments and legislatures, they are not good enough. you have to come back next year. so actually this now goes back to westminster, to the american congress, to each of the national parliaments to try to improve those policies, to cut emissions further in the period to 2030, and then we hope countries will come back next year at about this time to egypt, where cop 27 will be held and they will bring back
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stronger commitments which will together add up to a pathway towards holding climate change towards holding climate change to 1.5 degrees, globalwarming to 1.5 degrees, globalwarming to 1.5 degrees, globalwarming to 1.5 degrees. so it's going back to national capitals and politics. this isjust the annual coming together, if you like, of all those domestic political processes, and it's where we tell each other how far we have got at home. this time we told each other, well done, but you are not nearly there, come back in a year. it will be done in our parliament and in every country around the world and it's not going to be easy. world and it's not going to be eas . ., ., ~ , ., , easy. the hard work starts here. michael— easy. the hard work starts here. michaeljacobs, - easy. the hard work starts | here. michaeljacobs, great easy. the hard work starts - here. michaeljacobs, great to have your company, thank you for being with us. as we focus on events in the wind behind us, let me take you to a bit of what we've been hearing in the last few hours. a bit from the representative of guinea, i was talking about it earlier, not very pleased about the current text on loss and damage. the r-rou text on loss and damage. the group expresses _ text on loss and damage. tue: group expresses its extreme disappointment in paragraph 73
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and 74 on the dialogue related to loss and damage. this is very farfrom the to loss and damage. this is very far from the concrete call for loss and damage facility that the group came together to announce in glasgow, but in the spirit of compromise, we will be able to live with this paragraph with the understanding that it does not reflect or prejudge the inevitable outcome that we see on loss and damage, to which the most vulnerable... basic common decency, the group of 77 and china will continue to push. and china will continue to ush. , , ., ., push. the representative of guinea there, _ push. the representative of guinea there, who - push. the representative of guinea there, who was - push. the representative of i guinea there, who was talking on the heart of the g 77 plus china, so on behalf of a large
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group of countries. —— on behalf of. it relates to the dialogue, but in the spirit of compromise alok sharma has talked about, they are prepared to wave it through and keep the talking on going. with me, the of the climate change conservation foundation. what do you make of it all? this conservation foundation. what do you make of it all?- do you make of it all? this is really now — do you make of it all? this is really now hanging _ do you make of it all? this is really now hanging by - do you make of it all? this is really now hanging by a - do you make of it all? this is i really now hanging by a thread, isn't it? we have some very late interventions from a number of countries, developing countries, the g 77, backed up by india and in most cases china, calling for the wealthy countries to meet their historical responsibilities. and that is, in order to keep global temperatures to 1.5 degrees, developed countries need the resources to adapt to the climate change already being experienced, and to develop while keeping emissions
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down. and there has been a trust deficit between rich countries and poor countries over the delivery of this money they have now been promised for years. they want to see some more assurances in the text that the money will be forthcoming, the 100 billion, in the next few years, starting next year, and then a renegotiation from 2025. looking at my notes on what india said, they said developing countries have their right to a fair share of the carbon budget. how can we make assurances on phasing out coal and fossil fuels when we are still developing? there is a view among some countries, we heard it from other countries, the developed countries are lecturing other countries, having put all of this carbon into the air, and now telling them they need to go quicker, and there is a lot of resentment on that. there is, althou . h resentment on that. there is, although i— resentment on that. there is, although i would _ resentment on that. there is, although i would say - resentment on that. there is, although i would say that - resentment on that. there is, | although i would say that india lost some authority when it argued to water down the text
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on coal, that was disappointing to see. they have a strong moral case on loss and damage reparations and compensation and finance. they are on a less strong territory when it comes to watering down texts about rapidly phasing out coal generation and fossil fuel subsidies. it would be disappointing to see further watering down of that text. also interesting to see the pacific island nations depart a bit from the g7 and say, we want the money, but we need mitigation, we need the agreement to land and we need a trajectory to 2 degrees and then 1.5, because no amount of money will protect us from rising sea levels. there was some desperation from the pacific island states who feel they can't hold quite as strong a position because the very future of those pacific island nations are at stake right now. that's really interesting, you are almost signalling that for all the language about acceleration and whether it's strong enough and the fact it is not mandate, actually, that
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ship has sailed and the room knows that the end of coal is coming. that's are very interesting debate in australia, your country. australia, your country. australia is the largest exporter of coal and gas in the world, ourfossilfuel emissions are the third largest in the world after saudi arabia and russia. so the context matters for australia, although now it has been significantly watered down, it's now really focuses on domestic coal generation, it's now pushed aside metallurgical coal, used for steel—making, and coal exports, but any language on this agreement in whole is significant language. it does put another nail in the coffin of coal, and major gas producers around the world, it will not be lost on them to know that if there is coal language, sooner or later there will be language on gas as well. major gas producing nations will be seeing this as being in the firing line next if the coal language manages to hold, but we are seeing india push very strongly for its removal, which would be
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disappointing. l removal, which would be disappointing.— removal, which would be disa ”ointin. . ., disappointing. i am wondering what effect — disappointing. i am wondering what effect a _ disappointing. i am wondering what effect a text _ disappointing. i am wondering what effect a text like - disappointing. i am wondering what effect a text like this - what effect a text like this has, because it is not an international treaty, not legally binding. we heard from scott morrison before the summit that australia would not be bullied and they would do it the australian way. they have not come up with improved targets for 2030 or indeed the middle of the century. does the language in a text like this put more pressure on scott morrison at home?- put more pressure on scott morrison at home? yes, it does. he faces a _ morrison at home? yes, it does. he faces a federal _ morrison at home? yes, it does. he faces a federal election - he faces a federal election sometime between march and may next year, climate change will be an issue and this text will be an issue and this text will be used, particularly the ambition and the mitigation texts which includes a requirement for australia to update the 2030 target next year. that would homework it fails to bring to this cop. they will be strongly urged to do it. there is also a requirement for a ministerial roundtable meeting every year, to look at how the carbon budget is going to be met, how those increased ndcs will be
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met, and they will be a strong focus on australia's position, because australia's performance at that cop has been really appalling. at that cop has been really appalling-— at that cop has been really appalling. at that cop has been really anallina. ., ,, appalling. kevin, thank you so much. if appalling. kevin, thank you so much- if you _ appalling. kevin, thank you so much. if you are _ appalling. kevin, thank you so much. if you are watching - appalling. kevin, thank you so much. if you are watching us, | much. if you are watching us, we are at cop26, continuing coverage on bbc news.
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developing nations feel like they have received those assurances before and developed countries haven't come through with the goods. there is a trust deficit here and most of the focus has been on mitigation and emission and getting the emissions down the poor countries are saying we cannot get our emissions down until we get the finance to be able to develop in a way that is low on emissions and gives us the resources to adapt to the catastrophic climate change we are facing right now.— the catastrophic climate change we are facing right now. really good to net our are facing right now. really good to get your thoughts. _ are facing right now. really good to get your thoughts, thank _ are facing right now. really good to get your thoughts, thank you - are facing right now. really good to get your thoughts, thank you very l get your thoughts, thank you very much for being with us. if you are justjoining us, we have had an informal stock—taking exercise over the last three hours at the summit in glasgow. they have paused and adjourned for a short period of time while they iron out the differences
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there may still be in the room for there may still be in the room for the text, but alok sharma signalling firmly that this summit will be wrapped up in the coming hours. stay with us. bbc news. world leaders are in the final hours. now is the time to confront our responsibility to the world and the planet. the representative from the maldives said while deliveries had progressed, it would not be sufficient to save her country. late would not be sufficient to save her country-— would not be sufficient to save her country. we have 98 months to halve global— her country. we have 98 months to halve global emissions. - her country. we have 98 months to halve global emissions. the i to halve global emissions. the difference between 1.5 and 2
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degrees is a death sentence

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