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tv   Fareed Zakaria GPS  CNN  November 10, 2013 10:00am-11:01am PST

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and that's what makes america so great. we don't forget those who fought for us. >> certainly, bob dole has not. on another subject, if you would like to hear what bob dole feels about chris christie and even hillary clinton go to cnn.com/stu. this is gps, the global public square, welcome to you in the united states and afternoon the world, i'm fareed zakaria live from new york. we have an important show for you today, failure to reach an agreement on a nuclear deal with iran, despite the praens of the world's top diplomats in geneva this weekend. why were they unable to make a deal? and even if they got one, would it be sellable back home, inn r
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ir iran, in the united states. this manage, the head of the pakistani taliban was killed last week by an american drone strike, just when the taliban was supposed to sit down to talk peace. was the killing a good negotiating strategy, a serious miscalculation? we will discuss. and the most recent revelations from edward snowden's trove of documents changed the public's perception of the the -- can you change the trajectory of a city simply by changing the colors of its buildings? the prime minister of this country says yes, and he did it. finally, a worried tv topic for certain. why one nation spent nine hours glued to the tube to watch -- >> a sweater being made. but first here's my take.
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it's difficult to know what to make of the failure to arrive at an agreement in western iran. secretary of state john kerry's comments seemed the most sensible. it was going to be hard to arrive at a deal with iran when the mistrust was so deep and had gone on for so long. but what was remarkable was the tone of the negotiators as they broke up. both the iranians and the main western negotiator, were positive and constructive, believing that much progress had been made. there were voices that were much les positive, israel's prime minister benjamin netanyahu criticized what he described as the deal of the century. his aides explained that iran was going to get everything it wanted in return for nothing. the other critic of the deal appears to have been the french foreign minister.
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france's hard line position actually allowed washington to look rchblg. but it proved that no matter what stance ---do criticisms of the deal sound like alarmist hype to me. iran would temporarily freeze its nuclear program, including its uranium enrichments in return for some relief from western sanctions. during that period, about six months, serious negotiations would take place to arrive at a final agreement. the key here is what kind of sanctions relief were the iranians going to get? the answer is clear, not much. the obama administration was not proposing that any of the major sanctions against iran be lifted or even suspended. those are all passed by congress and couldn't be lifted easily anyway. it was proposing to take pretty minor steps. europe has more flexibility on sanctions, but from what we have heard, those countries were also
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proposing relief of very small kinds. the argument is that iran should make significant concessions, but that the west should make none at all. that's not negotiations, that's a requirement that the other side surrender. which makes one wonder. do the critics of this negotiating process want a better deal? or do they really want no deal at all? so that it opens up another path to deal with the problem, which is war. in that case, the danger for those critics was not that the geneva negotiations were failing, but rather that they were succeeding. let's get started. you just heard my take, let's bring in some experts, ken pollack is a former cia analyst, he's been a staffer at the national security council. he's the author of a great new book, unthinkable.
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he's also the author of a forthcoming book, nuclear nightmares, securing the world before it's too late. joe, let me just start with you by asking you, do you think net/net is there a deal here? >> we are very close, fareed, i thought your opening comments were right on the mark. we have seen some remarkable developments over the past couple of days including the normalization of u.s. and iranian dialogue. we now take it for granted that the secretary of state should talk to iran's foreign minister, but that hadn't in 34 years. the outlines of the deal are clear, iran will take initial steps to freeze its program in place, as you said, we will take very minor steps to release some financial assets and they will be done in a phrased agreement over the next six or seven months, each step building on
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the last. we're very, very close. they come back again in ten days, i expect we'll get a deal very soon. >> ken, are you as optimistic? >> i certainly share joe's hope that this deal can be brought about. and i share both of your hope or expectation that this is a good deal. i think the problems that have a rarisen is that -- these are things that howled be dealt with in a final status agreement between the two of them. it's not really clear why the french decided to make an issue of this now. that makes me a little bit more concerned about what it was going into this, about how hard it's going to be to get it. >> i wonder why you think the biggest obstacle that has been talked about isn't really an obstacle. there's a plutonium based reactor in iraq. there is concern that if it gets
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completed. uranium based -- so why do you think that that isn't a problem, because the french seem to be saying, we can't allow them to keep working on this plutonium based reactor because once it's established, there's no going back. >> the reactor is behind schedule, it won't come online until the end of next year, then you put the fuel in it and some plutonium is produced, but that takes at least another year. then you've got to take that fuel out and reprocess it. iran doesn't have a reprocessing facility. so it's a problem three or four years down the road. in this interim step,er rang has apparently agreed suspend construction of this reactor. so it's a problem you can deal with, but it has to be dealt with later. let's freeze the key parts of the program now, stop them from enriching uranium to 20%,
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lengthen the fuse in any breakout scenario. >> what about france and others that are objecting, israel, what do you think that tells us? >> it's not clear exactly what the israelis are doing? i think we should hope what the israelis are doing is simply to play bad cop, to try to get the best deal possible. but prime minister netanyahu's rhetoric has been so far off to the other side that it raises the question that perhaps he is actually trying to blow up the negotiations, perhaps he doesn't want a deal. that would be enormously damaging. if attend of the day, we don't get a deal between the international community and iran and israel is the culprit, that backfires completely against israel and against the united states and very much in favor of iran's hard liners, exactly the people netanyahu shouldn't be trying to empower. >> there's some part of this, the french have taken a slightly harder line position on the
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iranian nuclear program, they outflank the outside, by being more soft. what do you think is going on here? >> well, the guardian reports today that the other members were furious. you have to understand everybody else was in agreement until the foreign minister arrived and threw a -- france is trying to position itself for lucrative contracts with the saudis and other gulf interstates by showing it's opposition to iran. some think it's just a play for attention. the reason i'm optimistic, is that underlying it, these core strategic objectives of iran, of the united states, line up, that we're moving towards a deal. there is a strategic shift that has taken place in iran. we have a secretary state in an administration that's ready to take advantage of that. i'm very hopeful that we can work out the kinks and come up with a clean initial first step.
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>> ken, final thought on the one final monkey wrench which is congress. congress has to have sanction relief, if anything, it seems to be going in the opposite effect of putting ownerous sanctions on iran. >> ultimately, what the congress is doing is simply putting another brick in the wall of sanctions, it's not terribly meaningful in and of itself. across the ocean, you've got hassan rowhani who's taking a big risk in terms of his own political position. he's got to look to barack obama to by his partner and to be willing to sell any reasonable deal to the american congress. i think so far the administration is saying, don't worry, no matter what the congress does, no matter how many additional sanctions they pass, if we get the deal, i'll sell it to the congress. the problem is so far he's never been willing to take the congress on when it comes to
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iran sanctions. and rowhani may be wondering, do i really have a partner over there in washington? >> when you look at this and take ken's point, if you were to get a deal of some kind, that the international community can live with, that the obama administration could live with, what happens in congress? will congress undo the sanctions because only congress can do that? >> as you know, fareed, undoing sanctions takes a much longer time than putting them on. and you're always going to have political opposition and ideological opposition to this congress and the president. but the president has enormous waiver authority, he can suspend the skangations for some time. many of the sanctions we talked about in this initial step, is sanctionings only the president has control over, freeing upper rannian assets for example. once it starts to gain momentum, when you show that you have actually stopped the iranian threat, the deal is much better than no deal at all, i think
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you'll see support among the leading members of congress build. you already see members that are skiddish on this, taking some reassurance on the direction that the negotiations are going. i'm hopeful the leaders will stop any new sanctions over the next month to give these diplomatic talks a fair chance. >> do you agree that if obama does stand up, that he will be a able to move congress? >> i think that joe's right, if we get a good deal on the table, it's going to be very difficult for the congress to turn it down. because as you both point out, the alternatives are much worse. >> very illuminating, much more on the show. up next, pakistan a drone strike killed a top taliban commander there, a man who has killed hundreds if not thousands of pakistanis. and pakistanis are very angry about his death. what does this mean for us? we have a great set of experts. customer erin swenson ordered shoes from us online
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the group also known as the ttb has wreaked havoc in pakistan itself, killing thousands of civilians. so should his demise be welcomed? not according to angry leaders in pakistan and afghanistan who criticize the timing of the strikes, which came as they prepared for peace talks with the taliban. let's get right to it. are drones helping or hurting? hussein akani was pakistan's ambassador to the united states, he has a new book out about the relationship between the two countries called "magnificent solutions." he is now the dean of the maxwell school at syracuse university. jim, let me start with you, does it make sense to assassinate somebody you wanted to head peace talks to find some kind of political settlement in
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afghanistan? >> as you said, he was sort of somebody that the u.s. has been concerned about for a long time. he was directly involved in the attack on the cia base, his organization was involved in the attack in new york. so the united states has a very fundamental interest in making sure that these threats don't continue and i think that this has been a long standing interest in the united states, clearly an opportunity seems to have arizin and i think it's quite understandable from a national security perspective why -- >> you were involved as was jim in the very arduous project of trying to get peace talks started in afghanistan, it was on again, off again, so it took a lot to get them going. from your perspective, assassinating one of the guys that was going to be on the other site of the table, presumably, does that make sense? >> if he was going to be there at the end of the day, this was a very, very long table, and he
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was very, very far away. he just didn't say that he was going to come to the table. there were no ongoing talks. i think that what we are seeing is a typical pakistani political reaction because they are afraid that pakistan's people tend to sympathize with the process of negotiating with the taliban. massoud and his group were put on the list of america's high value targets specifically at pakistan's request. at one time you may recall that the pakistani intelligence used to wonder why americans were not striking the ttp. i think this is a time when we need to look at the more fundamental problem in that region, which is rulers and leader who is want to be close to the united states want to get involved in negotiating processes, to deal with situations but do not want to tell the truth to their own people. >> jim, if you're going to try
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to get a political settlement in afghanistan, clearly at the center of the problem was the pakistani taliban, that is the people based in pakistan, who could cross border, make trouble in afghanistan, made it very difficult to secure afghanistan and then retreat across an international boarder to a safe haven. so negotiating with the pakistani taliban was seen as a very crucial part to trying to create some kind of settlibility many afghanistan. has that process been derailed by this assassination? >> i don't think it was derailed. if there was going to be an agreement, it's not because of the decision of any individual, it's because all of the organizations, all the groups recognize that finding a political agreement is necessary. so i think the notion that the presence or absence of massoud will make a difference in terms of this. and i think it's important that the message go out that a murder like massoud who deliberately killed americans can't finding
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sanctuary because he now indicates a vague interest in peace talks. it's now time, both the afghan taliban and the pakistani taliban -- they will come in because that's their interest, not because they somehow find it as a way to get clemency for their past acts of murder. >> hussein, you said something which struck me, which is that there is a tendency in pakistan to sympathize with the idea of talking to the taliban. there is a hostility to these kind of targeted attacks. but these guys are troi s ars a and they have killed many, many more pakistanis than they have americans. explain to us, is the anti-americanism so strong, that if it actually gets rid of people -- assume it must be a bad thing? >> fareed, if you read my book you are find that the first
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anti-american demonstration was not a reaction to drone strikes, it took part in 1948. pakistani leaders have consistently negotiated against the u.s. by telling american leaders that i am your best hope of keeping an unruly country under control. and that process has not stopped. so if the pakistani public is simply not informed or educated about them the way it ought to be, then there will be confusion. >> briefly, hussein, where does this leave us? is this progress from the pakistani government pro forma and in a few weeks we'll be back to normal? >> i think we will be back to some kind of a relationship. prime minister sharif's visit to washington recently was the third attempt at a reset in relations between pakistan and the united states since 9/11. and i don't think he or his government want that attempt to completely fail. i think they will implicate public opinion for a little
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while, but they will come back to talking to the u.s. because at the end of the day, renegotiating with the united states is far more important for pakistani's leaders than negotiations with the taliban. and when they do negotiate with the fall ban, and if they do--do they really want to take pakistan into the 21st century. >> hussein, james, fascinating conversation. we'll be back in touch. up next, what in the world has the united nations come up with a way to actually end wars? it sounds too good to be true, doesn't it? i will explain. jackie: there are plenty of things i prefer to do on my own. but when it comes to investing, i just think it's better to work with someone. someone you feel you can really partner with. unfortunately, i've found that some brokerage firms don't always encourage that kind of relationship.
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now for our what in the world segment. take a look at these soldiers in the congo. the blue helmets are of course a give away. they are part of the u.n. peacekeeping force. that's not exactly a terrifying force is it? the u.n. peacekeeping force has
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always been seen as a hapless bunch. these guys are different. they're part of the u.n.'s new intervention force brigade. unlike the rest of the blue helmets who are only allowed to act in defense as peacekeepers, these soldiers are on the offense with the authorization to hunt and attack enemy forces. this is a first, a historic change in the u.n. and a new strategy in the republic of congo where thousands of people have died since 1978, amidst a complex civil war. the rebels hard already overtaking the city of goma. but the united nations peacekeepers were powerless to intervene. all that changed in march, when the u.n. gave a 3,000 strong force the green light to attack. the balance of the fights
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shifted, and this week the rebels surrendered. could this be a broader turning point? could the success in congo be replicated elsewhere? what effect would u.n. peacekeepers have in syria, for example? well, it's not as simple as it sounds. consider the makeup of these peacekeeping forces to start. as of september, there were a total of 97,000 u.n. troops, police and military experts. it's not a permanent force. the personnel are actually loaned from various nations. south aszian countries are the top providers, pakistan and bangladesh with about 8,000 each, followed by india, ethiopia. -- for many developing countries, including india, this is several times more than what a soldier actually gets paid by the government. should a poor country contributing troops to the u.n. is actually good business. now look at the other side of
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the ledger. according to the u.n., the total peacekeeping budget comes to $7.5 billion, more than a quarter of that is funded by american taxpayers, that's more than the next three top contributors combined, japan, france and germany. china and russia are in sixth and eight places respectively. each of these funders has its own agenda. so for example, if the u.n. were to propose an aggressive role in syria, china and russia would likely oppose it. or take another example, u.n. peacekeeping forces could never -- among other problems, a substantial number of troops are actually south asian, of course. it's a reminder that everything in the u.n. has to be sanctioned by itself member states, the u.n. cannot act without political will, resource s and mandates from these countries and their national interests will often trump any broader
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international interest. a 2005 study by the -- of the eight american led missions, only four were considered a success. germany, japan, bosnia and kosovo, while there were four failures, including of course iraq and afghanistan. the u.n. actually had a better track record. seven of its eight missions brought peace. of course the u.n. tends to get into a situation when the major powers have already reached some kind of agreement. still, it's worth giving some credit to these troops and hoping that they will succeed in the democratic republic of congo where they now are. up next, edward snowden says he's being vilified when he actually did the united states a lot of good. did he? we have two very smart guests with two very different views. an important message for americans eligible
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survivors are facing severe shortages of food, water and medical supplies. the storm has weakened and it's set to hit vietnam tomorrow. and police are investigating a shooting at a house fire in houston. two people were killed, 22 others were injured in what witnesses describe as a chaotic scene. the harris county police are searching for two people. she calls her father a calculating cold murder who killed her mom. and a jury agreed. an exclusive interview with the daughter who fought for years to get her dad convicted. i'm fredrick whitfield, fareed zakaria gps continues right now. this week--an open all right with a grandiose title, in a manifesto for truth, the former nsa contractor said that --
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inrecent weeks, as the revelations about the enormous extent of the nsa's spying have rolled out, i have noticed a sea change in attitudes about snowden. in conversations i have had and opinion pieces i have read, many smart peek are beginning to believe that snowden's leaks were valuable if not laudable. joining us now is ed luce who wrote a piece entitled snowden has zone all of us a favor. former assistant to george w. bush and the contributor editor at bloomberg tv. so ed, why don't you start us off by telling us, what do you think is the principal benefit of what snowden did in the sense of, i understand the relations shed a light on this. but what are we doing wrong that needs to be fixed? >> i think there are two
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principal benefits, the first is that he's shown how pore us this -- if a 29-year-old working in hawaii who's a high school dropout can download this kind of stuff, then thousands of other people or perhaps tens of thousands of other people are caping of doing it. it was going to happen anyway. so that's useful from a national security point of view. but i think far more importantly, he's educated us about the degree to which our lives are monitored, chronicles, stored up in clouds, cross tabulated, that even those who are very sanguine about the need for intelligence have been surprised by it. my point really is that, whatever snowden's personal motive, whether he's a criminal or -- the net effect of this, i think will stimulate a debate that we need to have at this time of frighteningly changing
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technology. the intelligence agencies are going to do what they can do, that's in effect what he eels taught us. the only constraint on them is what they can do. it's a huge service for us to be aware of the extent to which that's going on. >> first on the specifics of the wisdom, i can understand the nsa tapping, doing all kinds of things, analyzing metal data to find terrorists in europe, and it was a big sell. should it be using its most aggressive methods, to perhaps tap the phone of the chancellor of germany, the information they're going to get, is germany going to bail out greece. you can tap the phone, but you could probably ask them and you would get 80% or 90% of the answer. how should we think about that issue? >> i think the basic point is
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correct, that that particular operation, if we look just at it seems now improved and it was done because someone had said this is a low priority intelligence requirement to collect on allied talks or whatever, the technology, the nsa operatives figured out how to do it, it was legal for them to do it, so they did it. but the risk to the bilateral relationship to the industry and to our telecommunications companies outweighed any possible benefit we can get. >> do you think there should be greater restraints on the nsa, in terms of what it can do in gathering data from private citizens abroad and gathering from world leaders? >> on the legal side, i'm content with the current frame work and i hope that is not changed as a result of this, though isles possible that it will be. i think on the policy side, what the administration does within the law and where it decides to put its prioritiepriorities, th
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needs to be tightened up and strengthen ed strengthened. >> but the risk to reward ratio is -- >> i think that, we can argue went too far. >> but you're making a larger arguments that in a democracy, the process of an intelligence agency to tap phones and look at e-mails is frightening. >> it is frightening, but it may well be necessary, it is necessary. but in a google and facebook and others are going to be depicted of the h urh uaw eis -- >> that cooperates with the government when it's ask to? >> and it's seen as an arm of the chinese state. >> these companies, google, facebook, twitter, they are in the data mining business for themselves, but instead of article 2 of the constitution as their legal basis, they use a
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temples of service which no one reads, gives the company -- that becomes the basis of a billion dollar business. so there's a bit of irony for the chairman of google to be criticizing this when his entire business consists of getting people to voluntarily turn over their data in exchange for a very good service which then is data mined. >> you've been in washington, you were at the white house, do you think that it's -- that there is now going to be much -- the fisa courts, which people say the courts that oversee the nsa which seem to have granted essential i every request the nsa has made of it, do you think that's going to change? >> i think it will change at a global level, i think this is a very big deal. and we have had since the dawn of the internet age, a u.s. centric internet. and the u.s. companies are the most competitive in a global economy, we are still the hub of many data exchanges that are occurring around the world.
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i think this event, these disclosures will accelerate a shift away from that to a more multipolar internet. >> gentlemen, great to have you on, thank you so much. up next, a special way to transform a struggling city, the answer involves using bright colors of paint. i'll explain when i speak with the prime minister of albania, next. ♪ ♪ never loved ♪ [ sighs ] ♪ ♪ have you ever, think ♪ ooohhhh, oh, oohh
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my next guest is a man who's dabbled in many careers. he was once a mapter living in paris, he was once part of his country's basketball team. then he turned to politics. he became the mayor of the capital of albania. in june, he was elected prime minister of the country. i want to talk to you about what you did as mayor, because i think it's a fascinating story. the city had a lot of problems, aths of crime. and you decided to solve it by painting. what did you do? explain. >> when i was elittle bitted with a very big majority, i had to face a very high expectation with no budget. and so i decided to start and
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paint the buildings, the old buildings that were then deformed by illegal intervent n interventions, everyone trying to get their own space after the change. >> after the fall of come in addition? >> breaking windows in the first floor, to transform living rooms in flower shops or in bars, breaking ceilings up, to have an additional room. transforming balconies in parts of the space. so all of this wild deconstructivism, full of dust and gray has been painted and turned to be really a u turn from a city where everyone got lost in dust and waste, in a
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city of hope. >> but explain why painting the buildings orange? what did that do? >> it was like a wakeup call for people. because when i was elected, practically the body was an unexistent institution, tax collection was ridiculously low, people were not participatinpar not pay taxes, would not want to listen about any regulation because from a very frozen society of totally collectivistic pacific in a space of freedom where everyone wanted to redefine its own identity, was kind of very, very difficult. >> and you first -- >> so trying to bring people in was not through words, but through giving them signs that yes, the city can be livable and so everyone can enjoy it, but
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also should participate. >> when you first tried to paint the buildings all these different colors, the eu tried to stop you, because they said it didn't conform to eu standards. >> in effect it came like this, it was a project of fixing some sidewalks and some lighting in the entrance row of tirana with eu money, small money. decided paint with the strong colors. and when the first building started to be painted, i had a call from the guy who was in charge and he said, mr. mayor, it is a traffic jam and everybody is stopping. and this man was screaming as me and he was very nervous.
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it was like a big car accident in the middle of the street. so everything was watching and some laughing and some screaming and everybody said this is a scandal. this horrible color how one can stand this. i said okay, we want to do it. and they said no, i'm stopping because this is out of any standard. i said do you see anything in eu standard? i said if you want to stop it then you are acting like what color is the sky, the land and the skin on the people. and then he said we may negotiate. so we did and then the effect
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was fantastic. people started to participate and reshade their shrubs and they felt safer. this was a beautiful thing. >> there is a theory called the broken windows theory. you go into the crime ridden neighborhood and the first thing you do is fix the broken windows and that gives people a sense of order and they start reclaiming it. >> beauty is more intimidating than brutality. what you can do with colors, greenery and lighting you can never do with police and law enforcements in the neighbor where people have nothing to lose. >> up next, the key to a tv rating success in norway. not gps, it extend about wooley
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sweaters. in the nation, sometimes bad things happen. add brand new belongings from nationwide insurance and we'll replace stolen or destroyed items with brand-new versions. we put members first. join the nation. ♪ nationwide is on your side ♪
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medicare open enrollment. of year again. time to compare plans and costs. you don't have to make changes. but it never hurts to see if you can find better coverage, save money, or both. and check out the preventive benefits you get after the health care law. open enrollment ends december 7th. so now's the time. visit medicare.gov or call 1-800-medicare
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the european central bank cut it's interest right to a
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record low of 0.25% on thursday in effort to inject vigor into the economy. meanwhile the united states federal rate remains at an all time low at 0.25%. what is the hall time highest rate? a, b, c or d? stay tuned and we'll tell you the correct answer. my book of the week is actually a magazine. the atlantics t s technology i is absolutely first rate. take a look at two articles. think of gps and your ability to navigate. also a list of the 50 greatest inventions since the wheel.
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now for the last look. in norway where the divorce rate is 40% p one official has adv e advice. go out. the date ended with car chases and monster confrontations but at least they weren't home on the couch. last friday 1.3 million nor w norwegians were home watching a television show tuning in for a national knitting evening. yes knitting. so called slow tv is huge here. whether it is 7 hour train rides. a fall day of fishing or 30 hour interviews. more than 50% of the population once tuned in for a ship's 134
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hour coast line cruise. the knitting evening did have a dramatic twist. they attempted to break the world time record for producing a sweater. the sheering of a sheep, they missed the record books but 8 hand a half hours later a sweater. one company plans to bring it to the united states. ♪ >> compared with 21 hours of senator tedcruz reading "green eggs and ham". it seems spell bounding. >> the correct answer to my question was d. rates were raised to 20% in the
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early 1980s. this contributed to the country's plunge into recession but it's subsequent recovery. thank you for being part of my program this week. hill l hello everyone. 10,000 people are feared dead from super typhoon haiyan. and one of the daughters of that utah doctor convicted of murder speaks out to cnn. alex summers reveals why she knew her father killed her mother. and richy incognito goes on the

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