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tv   Unreal Dream The Michael Mor...  CNN  December 5, 2013 11:00pm-1:01am PST

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. >> hello, welcome to our special coverage of nelson mandela. >> the iconic leader who had every reason to hate instead chose to forgive with 95-years-old. he guided south africa through its historic transaction to democracy. his current success with president jacob zuma told the world the news. >> south africans, our beloved no sin nelson mandela, the founding president of our democratic nation has departed. he passed on peacefully in the company of his family around 20:50 on the 5th of december,
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2013. >> man zel la retired from public life years ago. he hasn't been seen in public since 2010 when they hosted the world cup. his health had been failing for quite some time n. recent years, he was in and out of hospital. mr. mandela's hospital has been moved to a military hospital in pretoria since the news broke, crowds have been gathering outside mandela's home in johannesburg. >> [ music playing ] >> they are singing, they are daning. they have been gathering there all throughout the night and they will continue during the day just after 506789 local time there in johannesburg. of course, many people there
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trying to remember this moment, capturing these images on cell phone cameras on iphones because this will be a day so many people will remember for so long. >> well, reaction is pouring in from around the world as the news sinks in about the death of nelson mandela. i want to go to johannesburg and talk to robin kurnow, she has covered him extensively. she joins us live. robin, talk to us a little bit more about the reaction there in south africa as this news truly sinks in. >> well, it was 12 hours ago that nelson mandela passed away. and the president jacob zuma a few hours later told the nation, but it was around midnight south african time, so south africans across this country, particularly those in rural areas, with not easy access to twitter or facebook, probably
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didn't get the message that this great man had passed on and until this morning, those perhaps who are going to work, catching trains, getting on minibus taxis saw headlines like this as they went to work this morning. the world weeps, giving the details quite clinical of where he went and where, but i think this in a way sums up what many south africans are saying, hamba kahle, which means good-bye. nelson mandela freedom for life defined his life. hess born in the remote hills of south africa's eastern cape. he was given a main which means trouble maker. he was only given the name nelson by a school teacher later on. after moving to johannesburg and studying law, mandela's trouble
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making politics began. as a boxer, he game adept at picking fights and sparring with the authorities, which had increased its suppression against the black population. it was then that mandela made the crucial decision to take up an arms struggle, launching african national congress's armed when. he was militant and a fire brand, defiantly burning his passbook, a dreaded document the apartheid authorities used to control the movement of south africa's black population. >> the africans require, want to franchise on the basis of one man one vote. they want political intervention. >> reporter: that simple demand and the methods mandela took to fight for democracy eventually saw him and others tried for treason and sabotage by the apartheid government, acts punishable by death. but they got life imprison. instead, banished to robben island, one of the country's
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most brutal and isolated prisons. another political prisoner remembers the first time he saw mandela in a prison yard. >> i could see from the way he walked and from his conduct that here was a man already stamping his authority on prison regime. >> reporter: mandela was released 27 years later. >> i have spoken about freedom in my lifetime. your suffer, your commitment and your discipline has released me to stand before you today. >> and his lack of bitterness towards the apartheid authorities helped him to lead one of the most remarkable political tran sixes of the 20th century, mandela, the trained lawyer and life long rebel, outmaneuvered the apartheid leaders and he steered south
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africa's peaceful transition to democracy. he won a nobodile peace prize, together with his former enemy the former leader f.w. de klerk. >> for the well being of the republic. >> and then he became south africa's first black president in 1994. >> so help me god. >> what marks mandela's career as president more almost more than anything else, this is after five years, he stepped down. there have been vrp few presidents in africa who have given up willingly. >> don't call me. i'll call you. >> his years were busy with fundraising for charities close to his heart. he celebrated his 90th birthday with much fanfare and told cnn in a rare interview that looking back, he wouldn't do anything
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differently. >> i don't regret it because the things that affected me were things that pleased my soul. >> now, those who loved and respected him, look to his legacy. >> and if we want to learn from him, learn that life is not made up of straight victories, it's made up of mistakes, zigzags, stumbling, picking yourself up, and dusting off the dirt, streeting and walking forward. that's what mandela is. [ music playing ] >> good-bye. >> good-bye, good-bye to a most remarkable journey, so difficult for a journalist to try and pack those achievements, that monumental life into such a short three minute story. bus if you just put this into
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perspective, considerate, he was born in 1918, the first world war was just coming to an end. he was sent to jail, life imprison. at the age of 46, nearly a lifetime and then he was released from prison at the age of 72. he became the first democratically elected president at the age, the ripe old age of 76 and then he married for the third time at the age of 80, retired, but still traveled, still went to raise money for charities, causes close to his heart. he spent quality time with the grandchildren and the children that he hadn't spent a lot of time in those proceeding decades with. so at the age of 95 when he went to sleep last night, he had had such a rich, full life and there was a cricket game going on down the road at the stadium and to
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use that cricket parlance, this is a man who had a truly good innings. >> he was a giant among men. you had the privilege of sitting down with him, hearing his thoughts and reflections on his life. we all talk about legacy now, how do you think he would like to be remembered? >> it's such a difficult question. it's a difficult question. because nelson mandela was that rare person who didn't try and prescribe things. he didn't try and tell people what to do. he was a leader who stood back like a shepherd leading his sheep from behind. he was very much a leader who trusted in those who he led and it was the same with south africans. it was the same with anybody in the world. he said and he did say that he wanted to be remembered in different ways. he didn't want to prescribe it. he understood that through the ages or through the generations or with different people,
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different parts of him would be more important and that it would be an or began ec legacy and that he wouldn't say this is what i want to be remembered on. this is what i want written on my tombstone. so he was very visionary, very forward thinking in understanding that each and every one of us when we listened to these stories of him, when we read now and when we contemplate his life, whether it's today or tomorrow, or in ten days time when it's his funeral or whether it's in 20 years time when we talk about this day and his life to our grandchildren who have no sense of who he was, you know, i think each generation, each person should look and study him and feel and acknowledge that in a different way he meant a different things to everybody and what a great legacy is that, isn't it? it's so personal. >> it is. it is a wonderful legacy as president obama said, he now belongs to the ages. our robyn curnow joining us.
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thank you. >> south african archbishop tutu led nelson mandela in capetown a short time ago. here's a little from that servic service. >> god, thank you for the gift of my giver, thank you for what he is and has enabled us to know we can become. >> the archbishop was one of mandela's biggest supporters. he called the mandela a eun fire from the moment he walked out of prison and a global icon, a symbol of reconciliation. >> he was a symbol of that and so much more humility and dignitary. he was a great man. you are watching special coverage of the death of former south african leader nelson mandela. >> a lot more after we come back after this short break.
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. >> everybody needs to stand in respect for the life of nelson mandela. >> in l.a., australia, a moment of silence before the test between england and central australia. >> well, every living former u.s. president has come forward to share their thoughts on
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mandela's passing, jimmy carter came forward saying human rights advocates around the world lost a great leader. he created new hope for oppressed people world wide and because of him, south africa today is one of the world's leading democracies. former president george w. bush said mr. president mandela was one of the ghat forces of freedom and equality of our time. he bor his burdens with dignitary and grace and our world is better off because of his example. this good man will be missed but his contributions will live on forever. here, former president bill clinton, today the world lost one of its most important leaders and finest human beings and hillary, chelsea and i have lost a true friend. we will remember him as a man of uncommon grace and compassion, abandoning bitterness and embracing adversaries was not just a political strategy but a way of life. it proffered there is freedom in forgiving that a big heart is
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better than a closed mind and life's world victories must be shared. flacks are at half-staff at the white house in washington. here's a look at the white house and the flags at the u.s. capitol are also at half-staff, a mark of respect there. it is 16 minutes past 2:00 in the morning on the east coast, actually just turned 17 minutes. now, princeton is a former author of partner to history, transition to democracy. by now he is traveling through israel. he joins us on the phone. princeton thanks, for being with us. i guess is question is why is mandela so different to most of the leaders across africa? >> well, he brought to his path years and years of thinking and strategizeing in his mind about how to free the country and that
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made him a great leader because he understood that it is within the end has to be a negotiated settlement, but to make that possible, he had to mobilize not only the people of south africa, but he had to start an armed movement to put further pressure on the government and yet when the time came to negotiate, he was ready to do that. when people talk about mandela and winston churchill, they say the one person is he is more like is george washington. why didn't people follow his billion? >> well, i wish more would. i think it was an extraordinary step by president mandela at the time to say one term was enough and to turn it over, he set that precedent. i think in south africans, while in exile, the anx people and
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nelson mandela in prison saw what was happening in other countries of africa that wasn't working, both economically and politically. also, you have for the understand, too, the anc was a very strong long-standing political movement and had a very strong political character and it wasn't just one man or a group of people, but it was a movement that had matured over many, many years. and i think he was very loyal to that move him and he wanted it to succeed as a political movement, not just dependent on one man. >> and i guess while he didn't really have, i guess, from a leadership point of view that much of an impact on africa, he did have a profound effect on the united states when it came to its relationship between the u.s. and south africa, indeed, the continent. >> well, he did, he thought very strongly, and he talked to me
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and to vice president gore and others about how strongly he felt about the need for south africa and the united states to have a productive relationship. he was very pragmatic. he said you are extraordinarily and powerful and important country, we need to have a good relationship. but he said many of my team were trained in the soviet union and they saw you coming late to the anti-apartheid struggle, so we have to work together to convince them about the importance and the relevance of the united states to a free south africa. i'd also say his influence on the rest of africa, his coming out in south africa becoming democratic set off the democratic revolution across much of the continent. and today most african governments are elected, whereas at that time, most were not. >> i guess the last question for you is if we look toward his legacy. there are so many things we can
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talk about with nelson mandela, all the questions are over multiracial democracy. why has it proffered so much harder and far less equal than many had expected? >> well, this is 21 of his most singular contributions. he really believed in non-racial democracy. >> that came clear. it wasn't the slogan. this was something he believed in and the anc statement that south africa belongs to all its people was extraordinary because other movements like the penn-african congress did not believe that. and he set that forward bus of that extraordinarily pragmatic character he had. he managed to combine a revolutionary leadership with a pragmatic view of what works best for people. and that i think is an example. we don't see enough of the practicing mattism and hpracti*
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pragmassism. >> what was your most memorable moment when you met him? >> most memorable moment was with my wife. we were at a rally in which there was enormous, enormous tension. one of the mandela's closest aids had been assassinated. people wanted to go out in the streets. it was a very intense time. i had met my wife. we were at this rally and there was a lot of tension and as difficult and as busy as he was, he turned around, he saw my wife, he went over and put a hug, he put his arms around her and gave her a hug. she just was a friend of his life after that. >> wow, thank you for sharing that, princeton lyman a former envoy for south sudan. traveling to israel right now. we appreciate your time.
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those are the words, generous, forgivebling pragmatic. >> and people were to endorse him and never forget him. none of us ever will. it is about 9:20 in the morning in south africa. our special coverage of the death of nelson mandela continues after this.
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. >> it's 25 minutes past 2:00 friday morning on the east coast of the united states and a look here at the south african embassy in washington. a little earlier people were placing flowers at the statue of nelson mandela and flags at the bass have been lowered to half-staff in mourning for the former south african leader. >> earlier, the united nations security council held an announcement and moment of silence on the moment of
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mandela's death. a fitting tribute to the man. he spent numerous years on the notorious robben island located off capetown. their cells were a few meters apart. a few hours ago, he called in and explained how mandela was able to win over his wardens. >> i want people in south africa and the world have lost a formidable leader, i must say a leader of freight fortitude, nelson mandela, it is not about power but on the career, it is ability honor, about suspected love for the people. that's what he we learned from nelson mandela, that god stays with him on robben island. today he is seen as an icon of
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the world whose teachings as well as principles need to be embraced by all, but nelson mandela was embraced by even white jailers ob robben island because he demonstrated that through the power of dialogue, through the l. and too many of reconciliation, people on both sides can come together. that's how we in south africa were able to dissolve our indistractible problems and created by the racist system of apartheid, we concluded in order for us to create a democratic society for a non-grashl in south africa will go to embrace all people and that was seen
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right through the the years we spent with nelson mandela nelson mandela was known by many names. isixhosa, the name is troublemaker. nelson is the name given to him on the first day at school by his teacher, giving african children english names. the practice was influenced by british colonials who could not or would not pronounce african names. it is not known why the teacher chose than name. mandiba is a member of a clan, it is much more important than a survey, balls it refers to the ancestors. mandiba was a keefe who ruled in the 18th century. it is considered very polite to use someone's clan name.
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>> indeed, it is known he preferred to be referred to, you know, addressed with mandiba. >> we have been hearing that with colin powell and a lot of people who had contact with him over a period of time. paul clinton called him mandiba as well. >> something that struck me, if he truly wants to know who he is or his character was to hear him speak, you get a real sense of who he was came out. he was so tried to his traditional rural roots. he was a complex man, a deep man. we will continue our continuing cover annual of his passing when we come back. stay with us here on cnn. as
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. >> it's just after 9:30 in the morning in johannesburg. this is the scene there in the market suburb of johannesburg. we have been watching this the
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last few hours ever since news broke mandela had died, people have been gathering outside his home there. of course, as the day goes on and word spread, we are expecting the crowds to grow as many decide they want to pay their respects in their own way. you can see some people dancing there. they have been sing, chanting. others are laying flowers as well as other tributes. as a mark of respect to a man who has been seen widely as the father. >> they indeed refer him to the word for father, it's more than just a term of endearment, this is how people feel of him, he is, indeed, their father. they feel a connection to the man who has now parted. >> what we can see in these pictures, these live images from johannesburg, black people there, there is white. there is a real mix of this country which is known as the
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rainbow nation. these people have all come together as a mark of respect to this man two had this absolute commitment to racial equality as his vision to south africa, the simplism has played out. on this day, he is being remembered as a great man. >>. >> we hear the singing. i'm trying to make it out. >> it was jacob zuma. >> we both thought it at the same time. it's just the been confirmed to us by producers, that is the current president of south africa, jacob zuma in that shot. it is important to point out to our viewers from around the world, you can hear the singing there and see the dancing. it may seem a lig jarring, but south africans sing, they sing whenner that happy, when they're sad. they sang a great amount for nelson mandela in prison and they are singing many of the
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same songs. >> listen to what they are doing now. [ music playing ] i guess one thing, too, south africans have had 26 weeks upset by the news mandela has finally passed away. as they are saying, 26 long weeks he has been gravely ill. he spent that time in hospital, three months in hospital. then they finally moved him to his home. he was under medical care. in many ways, he was on life support machines at some stage, he was taking a lot of drugs. he was on a dialysis machine. the news has been constantly in the headlines in south africa.
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so they had 26 weeks really to prepare for this moment. does it lessen the pain or the loss in anyway? but it does take the surprise out of it. >> i was in south africa to cover his hospitalization in june. i stood outside that hospital in pretoria. the class gathered and made cuddly toys and portraits. you say, john, he had been ill for quite some time, even before this latest hospitalization in june that they didn't want to let go. they knew, because there is so much fear attached to him departing, what that means for the country going forward, personal attach. to the man, himself. >> correct me if i'm wrong, but south africans don't often talk about death or dying. they talk about transition. >> absolutely. they do not. especially when the bern is still alive. no matter what condition they're in. it's disrespectful. it's something the mandela family took great issue with. for sankens, they wanted to live
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in the present. if fact that he still remained with him as a living embodyment of all that is good in their country and forgiveness. >> of course, this is the first day of ten days of official mourning. we understand that mr. mandela will lie in state for a period of time. then we'll be taken around the country surrounded by tribal elders. finally, there will be a state funeral. he will head back to his village. >> indeed, we expect to see thousands of his traditional villages out lining the streets there to say good-bye, because he was a man who wassed a much as he embraced being a western gentleman, you always saw him in his early years in his finely tailored suits, he was in africa. he was a proud african. he will go out as a proud elder of his clan. >> absolutely. >> all right. we will continue to bring you these live pictures in johannesburg as the crowds gather and they build. let's move on and continue to
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tell you about the reaction to the passing of nelson mandela. joining us is one man who understands the south african leader's saifice. he spent six years imprisoned on robben island with mr. mandela. he later established the nelson mandela foundation. he joins us now on the line from johannesburg. you heard us have the conversation that mr. mandela had been sick for such a long time. but that hadn't lessened the shock for some and certainly the great sad inside at his passing. tell me what went through your mind when you heard he had died. >> it was a very sad, i knew that mr. mandela was in poor health, for some reason, i expected him to live longer. i don't joined all the people around the world at his passing. >> yeah.
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as we told our view ertz, i were imprisoned on robben island with him. you are one of the few that saw him and knew of his time, while incarcerated. share us your memories of him during that time. >> the odd thing is that when i met him for the first time, this was in 1987, i didn't recognize that i was reaching mr. mandela. i thought i was just meeting one prisoner who obviously was there, the pictures i had seen before my imprison. and the man who was standing right in front of me went the same. it took about ten days in different sections. he was in a section. i was in e section at the time and people in different sections at that time weren't allowed to meet, even though i had spoken to him via writing and i stressed stuff written by him, i hasn't met him and one day in
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1927 when i met him, i didn't get the license for mr. mandela, of course, after that, i was able to recognize everybody that said he is my leader before my arrest. >> i want to pick up on something you said. you said when you met him, it was obvious he was important. tell me what you mean by that. i pick up on that, because i read so much about him and heard people say that when he walked into the room. i seen it myself, he carried himself with such dignitary, you knew he was someone special. what was it that struck you about him? >> whafrls so 1r50iking about him at the time was -- what was so striking about him at the time was his stature. he stood upright, very straight, as if he was making a conscious effort to be upright. that was the one thing. the second thing was that he just would not be -- there was a dozen of us, we came from the one section, we met him at the
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corridor and he greeted each one of us. i was surprised at the behavior, they just didn't want to have him. they waited for him to greet us, all of us and, obviously, he met with the president. that was not normal behavior. the third striking thing was that he was seriously spruced up, our appearance generally even the time they were there, straight from the lean, mr. mandela was there, he was well polished. he was and that struck a very striking chord. >> sister striking in the way he carried himself in the way he appeared and also as you said, the interaction with the people. he made a point to treat them with kindness and intent.
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he believed that would be a break through and they, inturn, would treat the back prisoners in the same way. indeed, we saw it paid dividends. it's important to point out to our viewers who may not eno this, that strategy didn't fit well with all the of the prisoners, certainly not the younger ones that came to robben island after him, correct? >> that's absolutely correct. there was a generation that came after the 1973 uprising. i was a part of that generation. it triggered a bit of time for the generation to be socialized into prison life and to pace themselves carefully like being there for a while have been able to do that said, we were unable to adjust to prison life. we were unable to think everyone with a different time in prison just have to have, but that being said, it's important to understand the fact that even though we were treated
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eventually with respect, mr. mandela was in a league of his own in respect with how he was viewed by the people. >> 27 years incarcerated. he came out and became the country's first black president. as my final question to you, how will you remember this man? >> i will remember mr. mandela as a tap tain who gave his all for his people to lead a better life. >> indeed. i think that's how many will remember him, too. thank you for joining us. we really appreciate your time today, you sharing your peopleries and your insights on nelson mandela, thank you so much. >> let's go back now live outside nelson mandela's home. we can see the memorial now growing as people bring flags, flowers and other tributes to this man who has now been dead for i guess about 12 hours or so right now. the news broke just before midnight local time, but we know
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that mr. mandela died a few hours before that. so madiba as he is known has now left this country if you like and they are essentially remembering him. >> yeah, they r. they will bring tribts, which either we have seen before as when he was hospitalized in pretoria, those should grow. john, uma id the point earlier we see white people and black people and people of different races and of all ages. >> different religions, too. he was a reconciler. he brought people together. he did it in lieft. he is doing that as we see here on our screens in death. >> what people have been telling us, it wasn't because he was idea logically pure, testifies a practicing mat pragmatist and he thought that worked. you are watching live coverage of the death of nelson mandela. she loves a lot of the same things you do.
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. >> they are rejoiceing what many would believe would have been a life well lived equal to few others. >> it was a moment that people of south africa and the world knew would come one day. he had been ill for such a long time. even as we speak to the people of south africa, they are still shocked and greatly saddened at the passing of one of their country's most beloved sons. >> of course, this is just the start of the morning. there will be ten days of official mourning across south africa with a funeral service coming up, not this weekend, but the next there will be many scenes like this across the
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country. they called nelson mandela a truly great man who stood against the injustice of apartheid. julie bishop is australia's foreign minister. she joins us from our bureau in beijing on official visit. thank you for being with us. what is australia's message at this sad moment for the people of south africa? >> reporter: our hearts go out to the people of south africa for nelson mandela was a towering figure of our times. he was a powerful advocate for human dignitary and freedom. he was not only a great political leader, he was a courageous moral leader and was respected and admired around the globe. he not against apartheid and he inspired us all with his capacity for forgiveness and reconciliation and through his personal commitments and energy, he transformed south africa and turned it into the democratic
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and secular nation that it is today. for that, we are all grateful. >> i asked one of your predecessors a little early, he was with the labor government. are you with the coalition, so differ parties across the aisle. i did cc ask him on this day, the person that inspired people to think more of themselves in trying to lead and inspire. do you think now with nelson mandela gone, do you think that maybe for just a moment that politicians around the world and there is still some game of politics may actually try to aspire to be a little better? >> reporter: i believe that nelson mandela was always an inspiration and he will be remembered for his sets of justice, for his courage, for his decency and commitment to humanity and, of course, on a day like this we all stop and reflect on his greatness but also his community and his
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capacity to bring out the best in others. i believe his capacity for forgive inside, his capacity for reconciliation after such a long struggle reminds us all of what a great bhan he was. >> and, of course, throughout this struggle and apartheid, australia in the '70s and ''80s played an important role, not just with the government but the phrase of government as well. >> reporter: that's right. we supported the anti-apartheid struggle. we supported it at the united nations and we were proud to welcome nelson mandela to australia after his release from prison and at one point he spoke at the sydney opera house, 100,000 gathered to hear his words and see him, such an inspiring figure he was in centralia, in south afri australia, around the globe. >> wherever he went, congress
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went on a little earlier saying they filled the coliseum in los angeles. he was this rockstar wherever he went and it was more than just being, you know, the apartheid leader, more than just being the president of south africa. what do you think it was? >> reporter: he kept something in everyone. in australia, we awarded him our highest civilian honor, the companion of the order of australia. so he was considered to be not only a globalal leader, he made a remarkable difference to our times. but he was seen as a leader for us all and australia responded accordingly. i am sure there will not be another like him. he was truly remarkable and his resilience, his courage has not been seen before. i think that today is a very sad day, but nevertheless, it's a day for inspiration, a day for us to respect his courage and
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his ability to up the people wherever he went around the world. >> and apart from that inspiration that you speak of, what will his legacy be when you think about mandela and his place in history? >> his transformation of south africa into a pleuralistic free democratic society was significant, but i think it's his lasting legacy will be his global reach, his focus on the next generation on the transformative nature of education, his capacity to forgive, his commitment to reconciliation, all incredible lessons that we should adhere to. i believe his legacy will be remembered for generations. >> maybe that legacy could find its way into australian politics if only for a moment. foreign minister, thank you so much for being with us there from by a jenning.
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we appreciate it. thank you. >> we are just getting news from the united kingdom that the flag at buckingham palace, the official resident of queen elizabeth, ii and union flag will fly at half-staff in memory of nelson mandela, that will occur when queen elizabeth leaves on friday. that's coming into us here at cnn. currently it is flying the queen's flag, when she leaves in a couple hours, i understand when she leaves on friday morning, they will fly the union flag at half-staff. the relationship between nelson mandela and queen elizabeth, ii has been quite do you meanled. he has been referred to herbie her first name. there were no heirs in grace. he called her elizabeth. they had a genuine leaking of each other. it has been written about this is a fitting tribute to the man that she knew and by all accounts liked a great deal. >> okay. with that news, we will take a
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short break here on cnn. our special coverage of the death and remembrance of nelson mandela will continue after this.
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. >> welcome back, everyone, to the death of nelson mandela.
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despite his hardships, he was well known for his sense of humor. >> also the laughter, that infectious laughter. as robin kurnow report, he inspired a famous south african cartoonist. >> reporter: the broad smile, the floppy 30s i hits the goofy dants. nelson mandela was a cartoonist's dreams, he documented mandela's political life on paper, cartoons mandela so enjoyed he once phoned him up to complain when his drawings were no longer printed in the newspaper he liked to read. >> i sat at the phone, i was busy drawing. then this woman says, hold on for president man dell louisiana i thought, no, this is a joke. i waited a bit longer, his voice comes on, hello, is that zapiro? i said, yes, i said, is it him? sit him?
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this is president man dell louisiana wow, it sound like you, so it must be you. >> reporter: he says it was mandela's next comments during their telephone conversation that said so much about mandela's leadership style. >> i just want to say something else, i will say that i'm amazed you are doing this when you would have seen that cartoons have been getting a lot more critical. i had to take a critical step back and do things that are critical of the government and the anc. he said, oh, but that is your job. >> reporter: those who knew him understood mandela understood the need for satire in society. he wasn't threatened by critici criticism. >> very good. >> reporter: and he used humor to make people relax around him. >> i'm going to look like peacock. >> reporter: he was a master of self deprecating humor.
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listen to him tell a story about a child questioning him about his time in prison. >> and he said, how long did you remain there? i said i can't remember but it was a long, long time. again two years and so on. and i said, no, longer than that. but she insisted. but how long? i said well look i can only tell you that i can't remember. and she said you are a stupid old man. >> his delivery, dry wit and biting one-liners were honed in prison. he was jailed with mandela affect natalie known as mandiba on robben island. >> it was key for nelson mandela. some will say if you are not who you are, you should have been a friend of bill cosby, that is
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bill cosby, himself, he says, well, now, you have taken my profession. >> reporter: despite all of mandela's achievements, many will remember the warmth in his heart and the twinkle in his eye. cnn, johannesburg. >> good stuff there. you are watching the special coverage of the death of nelson mandela. >> we will continue in the hours ahead to reflect on the man, himself, his life and legacy as we go to break, let us bring you these live pictures from johannesburg, showing you the scenes outside the suburbs in johannesburg where the crowds are growing leaving a tribute for the great man of their nation. stay with cnn. we'll be right back. of course you can! .
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. >> hello, everyone, welcome to our special coverage of the death of nelson mandela. >> we'd like to welcome our viewers in the united states and around the world, flags across south africa and in many cities around the world are at half-staff, a tribute to a man be call a giant for justice. the former south african president and nobel peace laureat died thursday at his home in johannesburg age 95. this is a live scene outside of nelson mandela's home the home where he passed away more than
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12 hours ago now. the crowd have been growing steadily after the morning. just after 10:00 a.m.. they are lighting candles, rather. they are bringing flowers. earlier, they were chanting. they were singing anddanting. mandela's body is now at a military hospital in pretoria ahead of his state funeral a little more than a week from now. many south africans, no matter how inevitable, death is not something to be planned for. cnn has exclusive details on the exclusive mourning plan for mandela. plans call tore a ten-day mourning period. with no formal public event held until the fifth day at soccer city stadium in soweto. mandela's body will lie in state upon the three days. on the tenth day the funeral and bur yam will be held in the remote village where mandela spent his boyhood.
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thousands are expected to attend, while millions watch around the world. now, south african ashch bishop desmond tutu led a churf service in capetown. >> that happened earlier. here is a little from that service. >> god, thank you for the gift of man mandiba. thank you for watching him to see what all we can become. help us to become that kind of nation. >> the archbishop was one of mandela's biggest supporters. he called the mandela a eun fire from the moment he walked out of prison and a global icon of reconciliation. well, millions of people
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around the world are mourning the loss of nelson mandela and the tributes are pouring in for the nan who reconciles his country of south africa and became an icon for reconciliation and forgiveness and who helped restore democracy there in south africa. i want to take you to johannesburg where we find our own robin kurnow who covered nelson mandela all his life and works for such a lodge time. robyn. he were speaking to someone in prison on robben island for six years in the last hour. he said when he heard the news, he was still shocked even though he had been ill for such a long time and he along with many south africans knew this day would come, but it has not lessened the shock or the pain. >> reporter: you know, i think it's true. even us journalists have also prepared for this. we also knew in the last 48 hours he had really taken a turn for the worst and we were prepared for this in many ways.
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and throughout this year, south africans have consistently heard how he's deteriorated, you know, by middle of weren't, by june, he was on a ventilator. then his kidneys failed. he is on dialysis. he was constantly on antibiotics trying to fight infections. despite all of that, south africans still had this sort of programs naive hope that he would never go and i think there is that sort of mystical sense to him that this was a man who created miracles. the miracle nation in 1994. so there is this romanticism around mandela even when he was here. so i think the myth of mandela, you know, the essence of him will continue even more now and as he said, it was still a shock to all of us. whether you were journalist itself or whether you were south africans, whether you were too young to remember apartheid or
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you had borne the scars of the apartheid. i think every south african took a deep breath and thought, oh, no, it's here. it is, a lot of people get all lipped about it. this is a man who defines us, i'm a south african. he defines this nation. we have looked to him as sort of a mirror. his life is mirrored, the political struggle here. so this is not the end of one man's life, it's the end of an era. it's the end of a defining moment in this democracy. i think one newspaper headline this morning sumles it all up. in zulu, it means go well. it gives that essence of him programs moving on to a different journey. take a look at this peesz, piece, you get a sense of that remarkable journey 95 years ago in 1918. [ music playing ] nelson mandela struggle for
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freedom defined his life. he was born in the remote hills of south africa's eastern cape. he was given a name which means trouble maker. he was only given the name nelson by a school teacher later on. after going to school and law his trouble making began. as a boxer, he bill adept at picking fights and sparring with the apartheid authorities which increased suppression against the black population. it was then mandela made the crucial decision to take up an arms struggle, launching african national congress's right wing. he defiantly burned his passport, a dreaded document the apartheid authorities used to control the movement of south africa's black population. >> the africans require, want, the temperature on the basis of one man one vote.
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they want political independence. >> reporter: that simple demand and the methods mandela took to fight for democracy eventually saw him and others tried for treason and sabotage by the apartheid government. punishable by death. they were banished to life instead. another political prisoner remembers the first time he saw mandela in a prison yard. >> i could see from the way he walked and from his conduct that here was a man already stamping his authority on prison regime. >> reporter: mandela was released 27 years later. >> i have spoken about freedom in my lifetime. your struggle, your commitment and your discipline has released
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me to stand before you today. >> reporter: and his lack of bitterness towards the apartheid authorities helped to him lead one of the most remarkable political tran sicks of the 20th century. mandela, the trained lawyer and life long rebel outmaneuvered the apartheid leaders and he steered south africa's peaceful tr transition to democracy. emet with the leader f.w. de klerk. >> the one thing of the republic and all his people. >> reporter: then he became south africa's first black president in 1994. >> so help me god. >> what marks mandela's career as president more almost more than anything else, this is after five years, he stepped down. there have been very few presidents in africa who have ever given up willingly.
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>> don't call me. i'll call you. >> reporter: his retirement years were busy with fundraising for charities close to his heart. he celebrated his 90th birthday with much fanfare. and told cnn in a rare interview that looking back, he wouldn't do anything differently. >> i don't regret it because it ankted me were things that pleased myself. >> reporter: now those who loved and respected him look to his legacy. >> and if we want to learn from him, learn that life is not made up of straight victories, it's made up of mistakes, zigzags and stumbling, pecking yourself ick dugs off the dirt and walking forward. >> that is what mandela is.
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>> good-bye. >> we know in the hours after his death, traditional ceremony called the closing of the eyes has been taking place. this involves the elderings, the tribal leaders from the eastern cape region. they would have been up there from johannesburg to be with him along with his family. they would have basically helped him, talked to him, helped involve the ancestors in terms of helping to bridge between this life and the after life and these tribal leaders, these men, all elders of this tribe will be with him the next ten days and journey with him, telling him
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where they are, where they're going from the mort weuary and lying in state three days in pretoria then we will see his body moved from pretoria to his ancestral home where he will be buried in ten day's time on saturday most likely and all the way along that journey, he will be accompanied by the traditional keepers of his tribe and i think that is also important not only for mandela but this mixing of when and african traditions and rituals will play into his legacy. this is a man who brenled differences on all sorts of levels. >> yeah, indeed. you know, it is important to understand the man is is to really you must take into account his western division and he was so deeply rooted in his
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tribal customs. we were discussing last night how it has been written robyn to get a stens of his personality to hear him talk and in the xhosa. >> reporter: absolutely. remember, he came from royal stock, so he had the bearing and the language and the status of an aristocrat and he carried that and he always knew that he was born into the royal house. so there was this innate sense of self-confidence, his wife once told me sort of vaguely exaspera exasperated. this man is so happy with himself. i think that played into the sent he knew he was a deeply traditional african man. he also knew he could be successful in a wasted environment being a top class lawyer and eventually the president. >> indeed, it was an incredible life. you covered most of us.
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we appreciate it. thank you. >> them them was a prisoner a quarter of his life. he intent most of his captivity on robben island. even at that time he won the respect of the prison guard. towards the end of his time in prison, he was visited by malcolm frazier, a former australian prime minister trying to negotiate the anti-apartheid leader's release. he developed a deep respect for nelson mandela and wrote el wantly about his humor and resolve. he joins us on the phone. mr. phraser, good to speak you. thank you very much. we must point out when you visited mr. mandela, he was in a softer jail not like robben island, still not pleasant. you have written about incredible intimate moments you had with nelson mandela that showed off his humor, could you share those with us?
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>> well, he was the most remarkable person with the neck. he always stood tall and straight, even when they had very severe arthritis. but his first words to me were not about apartheid, were not about why i was visiting him in jail, it was asking ability the families abandoned. mr. frazier, he said, is donald dougman still alive? and i had with me a transfer in britain. and he says, i have read somewhere your prime minister has said she could do business with president gorbechev. would you please tell her in all
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sen searty it would be very much easier and far sacred to do business with nel them. >> it's wonderful. it's a great story. if i can ask you when you met with nelson mandela, he had been locked up for 27 years for the prime of his life. he had been cut off from the world almost as if he had been locked away from time, caught in time from a different period. what was your impression when you met with him? >> for some months before we met him, we had access to newspapers and journals, he didn't have access. so he was informed about south african and international events. he, obviously, had a quite remarkable intelligence but where he came through is his convictions, his sense of value, if values which he lived by and
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would not compromise on. the sense of mind that he had, which that which you would have or anyone would have survived. it got bitterly cold and, for one, he had a blanket at night. but if you held that blanket up to the window, you could see through the blanket. so not much warmth. he had endeared great trivial hardship. one of the most remarkable things about mandela is his attitude, mythology, what he believed in, his reputation, his spirit. he hasn't escaped and had invaded, the population of south africa. >> now, sorry to interrupt, if i
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could ask you when you met with him, did you pick up on that sense that he had, that incredible enormous ability which so many people said are forgiveness? >> well, that was one of his major characteristics, but not only a sense of forgiveness, a sense of being able to learn. what is important what you are having tomorrow, next week, next year. let's build for that. he is a fire nation. at one point the anc made decisions to try and take away all the symbols of the springboks. he knew this was wrong, the whites would think they weren't wanted in south africa. and he got the anc to change its mind and he turned the springboks into a team which
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supported by whites and blacks alike. it became a truly national team. this was his way or a small example, if you like, of how to unify our nations. he had a sense of purpose. and i only wish we had three or four mandela's scattered around the world now and then we'd never feel the problems that bedevil us all. >> yeah, indeed, absolutely. prime minister frazier, thank you so much for sharing your memories and your time you spent with nelson mandela. we appreciate it very much. thank you, sir. >> it's wonderful to hear all these stories, all these recollections of these private meetings. >> what people say about mandela is he knew the value of something which is called a teachable moment. something we have heard about of late. he knew the value of wearing that springboks jersey at the world couple. he knew the power of sitting down with the widow of the architect of apartheid. he knew the power of the image.
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>> of leading by example. >> yeah, absolutely. >> we have much more ahead on the legacy of nelson mandela. >> cnn special coverage will be right back after a short break. '04 .
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>> welcome back to cnn's continuing coverage of the death of nelson mandela. we are bringing you live pictures of johannesburg where crowds are forming outside the home of former south african president. crowds gathering to pay their respect to nelson mandela, lighting candles, leaving soft
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toys and bringing picture and united in song to praise their former leader to passed away at the age of 95. mandela spent 27 years in prison for his part in fighting apartheid. he was freed in 1990 by then president f.w. de klerk. the two shared a nobel peace prize in 1939. they spoke ability mandela's passing. >> please tell me and tell the world what you fweel at this moment beyond the sadness and what you can say about the man who became your partner and you became his under extremely difficult circumstances to transform your country? >> firstly, i would like to say i fully associate myself with the dignified and feeling statement expressed jacob zuma every word he said is true and
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he touched my heart. his biggest nelson mandela biggest legacy was his commitment to reconciliation was his remarkable lack of bitterness and the way in which he did not talk about the rec silliation he let reconciliation happen in south africa. he was a remarkable man and south africa not withstanding political differences stand united today in mourning this great special man. >> mr. de klerk, what did, walk me back to when you summoned him from the word prison, when you first met him, why did you do that? what was going on then? what did you think of him when he came into your presence the first time? >> it was that first meeting we
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had was intend to just get the feel of each other. because it was already clear then that there would be negotiation. it was already clear that it would be remiss, no dates were fixed. no specific announcements were made, but he had been talking even in the time of my predecessor, through four important role players within the government and the national party having talks about talks. discussing the possibility of negotiation we are talking about the issues later on. exploring the possibility of negotiation. >> our respective auto biographies that we could report back to our constituencies, i think i can do business for this
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man. there was an immediate i would say a spark between the two of us and not withstanding the many steps we have later, i always respected him and i always liked him as a person. he was a magnanimous person. he was a come spags nat person. not only a man of vision, a leader, but he was also a very human, you man man. >> in the end you both won a nobel peace prize for that work, for bringing democracy to south africa. there you were a vice president of a minority regime and this towering moral figure came into your presence, what did you feel when you first saw him. what did he look like? >> oh, he, i was, i studied a lot about him and i was briefed by those speaking to him while he was still in prison.
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he impressed he tremendously. he was taller than i expected. he was ramrod straight. he looked one in the eyes very directly. he was a good listener. i could immediately see that he had an analytical approach to discussions, which i liked very much. i was very much impressed with him at that first meeting. >> fw. de klerk there. tributes are pouring in at the parting of nelson mandela. pro democracy leader ang sun sui chi called mandela a great human being. >> i would like to express my extreme grief at the passing away of a man who stood for human rights and for equality in this world. he made us all understand that nobody should be penalized for the color of his 16.
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he also made us understand that we can't change the world. we can change the world by changing attitudes, by changing per sessions. for this reason, i would like to pay tribute as a great human being who raised the standard of humanity. >> the woman referred to as the nelson mandela of asia. she spent two parts of a decade for house arrest for her political believes. some say she may lead myanmar. a woman whose inspiration was nelson mandela. >> a nobel piazza prize winner as well. >> after the break, we'll have a lot more reaction and from around the world. you are watching cnn. .
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welcome back, everyone, to a special edition. >> south africa is a nation in mourning. former south african president nelson mandela died tuesday age 95 following years of illness. he was at his home in
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johannesburg surrounded by family. >> it is morning in johannesburg. we bring you live picture. mourners have been leaving candles and fire in tribute. they have been singing many of the songs that they were in prison for those years. let's hear some of the sounds that are coming to us from johannesbur johannesburg. >> the sound of all south africans outside nelson mandela's johannesburg home. he lived in the suburbs and the numbers have been growing by the hour. we are also hearing here at cnn that those people gathered there, nelson mandela's body has been moved to a military hospital ahead of a state funeral a little over a week from now.
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nelson mandela was first and last a leader. he gave his life to leading the people of south africa out of the grips of an oppressive system of government, even when he was among those repressed. robin kurnow, speak if you would about how nelson mandela formed his noex notions of leadership. >> well, i think undoubtedly they were formed under a tree in rural south africa, where he watched the chiefs, the headmen of his village discuss problems. it was a very democratic african way of solving problems. so he became a chief essentially by listening. it was a key in the way he dealt with problems. he wasn't dictatorial or centralize his decisions and instruct people to do them. he has been described he led
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from the back, herding cattle. i think it was critical about mandela's leadership. i watched it many times over decades i reported on him was that on the biggest stage, he was a statesman, he had an aristocratic bearing, it was his understanding of how small gestures could have gestures. he made point to single out, next with touching with somebody or looking in the eye. the people who have forgotten often when great powerful men swept by he wasn't just a leader. he was an ordinary man that chose to connect with many. he gave a piece of himself with everyone and tried hard to be a symbol of that. it really is a streaking part of
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how he led this country. take a look at this story. >> raise your right hand and say, so help me god. >> so help me god. >> when mr. mandela was inaugurated as our first democratic elected president, i said, look here i really don't mind if i di now, i mean, there is nothing to that is ever going to be able to top this. >> archbishop tutu acknowledged when he was elected the president of south africa, it was the combination of decades of planning, negotiating. >> i said to him, did you ever lose hope in the 27 years you were in prison?
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was there ever a moment when you first know? he says, no, i had no time for that. i was confident from the time i walked into policeen that we would be free. i was confidence i would walk out of prison a free man. >> here, mandela is meeting the wife of a former president the architect of a part tied. >> we are now rating. >> it was these keendz of gestures that underscored his understanding of the enemy. here he is scene e seen with the prosecutor in trial that put him in jail. many say he recognized the apartheid state was based on a fear that could be without causing further violence. >> they don't know how to surrender. we must help them surrender. virtually the mandela way, unpresented was one of
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approaching your enemy. you hold his hand. to put it out. he says they are embarrassed to surrender. we are their prisoners. so he went and put it in the hand, they won't raise it. that's how we ended the participation. >> reporter: with his pop you list appeal, historians say he was the right leader at the right time for south africa. a man growing up in a tribal household in these hills of can you new in tqunu in the cape re. >> his sense of sharing, all of it comes. >> so it was here that mandela
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returned to live in the twilight of his life and it was here where he'll be laid to rest. so he can be called many thex, a leader, a worrier, a diplomat, a statesman, a master tactician, this is a man who has a list of descriptions that we can talk about all day i think his father and he is gone. >> the man who came to stress he was an ordinary man, hefrls an ordinary man who did great things. he was an ordinary man to bring about the end of apartheid. that was something he embraced and wanted people to always remember, robin. >> yes, absolutely. i think when i had spoken to him. i know his family is stressed at times, too, he did always emphasize what he called the collector, the joint struggle,
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the anc. always through and through a party man the african national congress obviously deliberation movement he led that is now still in government and he was always of the fact that he was the symbol, the face of this movement, of this liberation struggle, he was cognizant of the fact that many thousand, millions of south africans made sacrifice, programs bigger than his. i think that also should be remembered today he wasn't the only one. he would quite happily say he achieved all of that. >> joining us from johannesburg. his life and legacy for many years. we greatly appreciate the great reporting. thank you. >> let's get a little more on mandela's legacy, the host joins us now from cnn johannesburg. thank you for being with us.
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i guess south africans have had a long time to prepare for this. while it isn't a shock, it doesn't lessen the sadness or the loss in anyway, does it? they spend about three month in hospital. you can see spontaneous support from people to pray and pour their hearts out. in that moment, they can never get prepared for someone so iconic, so special, it's mixed emotions you still feel relieved because you know the suffering they are going through. >> when people come together to mourn and celebrate his life. they will come together i guess more in the spirit in which mandela had hoped they will come together. >> we hope so. he leaves the country and the
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organization that he has been a part of. going through trouble times now. you have been monitoring the news at leadership level. some of these leaders who have been out to start their own political parties, the enfighting that has been going on. the heart of it. it's all about corruption things that he not against during his life because to limit nelson mandela to a politician is like really degrading. he was more than a politician, more of a spiritual walker. you know, humility that he demonstrated demanded from the heart. so i hope it will bring us togethe together. >> i guess if you look at the legacy issues here the future of south africa, one of the problems is that the leaders south africa have had since nelson mandela, well, i guess
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they are lack listeackluster to the lease. >> there is a song that goes on here that the people sing it from time to time when they praise them, nelson mandela, there is no one, you know, as i say that, he was beyond politics, he brought some consciousness into politics. he was, you know, modelled that special kind that comes from timin timing. >> he was making some very interesting points there about this country. he's back now. do we still have lawrence will? okay. lawrence, sorry, pick up where you left off. >> we ask that please, continue. >> i was saying to you, that it
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was always good to be a hard act to follow, because he is beyond politics. more of, you know, your spiritual walker. i think any generation has those, your ghandis of the world, your martin luther kings. we should feel prif leenld, we lived during his time of this iconic figure. what do we take from his life? that becomes a challenge, where do we hand land? >> okay. thank you for being with us. a loo host there in south africa, giving us his thoughts on the legacy of nelson mandela. and how the country i guess will move forward. thank you, sir. >> yes, some very interesting perspectives, he transcended politics. >> we are saying that south africa right now needs another nelson mandela. i think you will agree, there
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will never be another. >> hashtag nelson mandela is a trop trend right now. >> we will look at the outpouring of tributes on social media. that's just ahead. i'm only in my 60's. i've got a nice long life ahead. big plans. so when i found out medicare doesn't pay all my medical expenses, i looked at my options. then i got a medicare supplement insurance plan. [ male announcer ] if you're eligible for medicare, you may know it only covers about 80% of your part b medical expenses. the rest is up to you. call now and find out about an aarp medicare supplement insurance plan, insured by unitedhealthcare insurance company. like all standardized medicare supplement insurance plans,
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>>. >> jason zuma made it at midnight. they come together and praise nelson mandela. welcome back to this cnn newsroom from the white house to buckingham palace. >> the former south african president and peace prize laureat died at his home on thursday following a long illness, he was 95-years-old. queen elizabeth said she was deeply saddened to learn of the death of nelson mandela last night. he worked hire it isly and his legacy is the peaceful south africa we see today. they say, inpart, mr. mandela
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was a man of great humor and there will be an immense void not only in his family's life but also those in all of south africans and many others whose lives have been changed through his fight for peace and justice and freedom. >> let's listen to nelson mandela in his own word. the former president talked about his imprison. and fight against apartheid. >> i am part and parcel of the team which had taken part of the anti-apartheid move him in this country. there are many men and women from political ages who have contributed. i will like to be remembered, not as anybody unique or special
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but as part of a great deal in this country that have struggled for many years to bring about this. they say they spent several years of their life you have wasted your life. but the greatest thing for the politician is where the ideas to write you have committed your life are still alive. whether throws ideas are likely to triumph in air and everything that happened to suit that we have not sacrificed in vain, i did not have this hope because of the fact at the end of our trial, we felt that we were
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victorious. we received the support, massive support from inside the country and from head of states, prime ministers, governments, powerful organizations and individuals and a support report throughout our imprison. . therefore, it was difficult. it is not easy for us to lose ho hope. >> that is what gives us the courage to go.
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[ music playing ] >> when i think of those dates, they arise in my mind. we led them to goal is tragic. at the same time it's an important lesson, human beings are human beings. it's your time. we are thinking about what is happening now and what should happen tomorrow. >> mr. nelson mandela a free man taking his first steps into a new south africa? we have the saved emansuation. we have pledged to deliver all our people from the continued poverty. deprivation.
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discrimination. never, never and never again salute. when i came of spirit the oppression, of one by another and suffer the indignitary of being discussed with the world. >> they wish to live in armny and with equal opportunity it is here which i hope to live for and to o'keefe, what is anything it is an idea for which i am
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prepared to die.
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. >> we are bringing you live pictures 'from johannesburg, south africa, where crowds have been growing in number. they come together to learn the passing of nelson mandela. we have seen them singing and now they are dancing. and as you see, great energy a great man deeply loved by an entire nation and admired around the world in very much so. that is what is cap cured there in the energy and spirit among those mourners there. i am anxious to say we are bringing you special coverage of
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the former president and anti-apartheid leader died thursday at the age of 95. he had been seriously ill for severals. well, tributes to nelson mandela are pouring in. we are tracking them from london. good to have you with us. tell us some of what you are seeing there online. >> one of the tweets with the most retweets is a message from former us president bill clinton. a simple message he posted on twitte twitter. if you look close toly, he is grabbing mr. clinton with both hand. many retweets is from the current u.s. president. he posted, let us pause and give thanks to the theft that nelson mandela lived.
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david cameron tweeted this miami last night. nelson mandela was a hero of our time. i've asked for the flags at number so downing street to be flown at half-mast. a retweet is a message from nelson mandela. he gave an interview talking about death at the nelson mandela twitter account. he said in 19 necks, death is something inevitable, a man considers to do his duty to his people and his country. then he can rest in peace. so many celebrities are taking to twitter to post their remembrance. oprah when free took to her facebook account. a number of years ago, he said it was one of the greatest honors of her life to be invited to spend private time in africa. also, american film director
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spike lee posted this miami, this photo on his inthat gram account. that picture with him and mr. mandela there. so often we talk about the declean, it's irresistible for twitter users to post messages on the front pages from where they are. in south africa, we see many people posting coverages on the twitter accounts. the soweto had this good-bye, the united states th washington post had this image a nation's healer, into the prison cell on robin island from the daily telegraph, a simple image, 19 earnings 2013. i want to show you a report. a group gathered for their annual office party when the news of mr. mandela's party
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broke. they gathered around to watch the news on television. they came together and began to sing the south african national anthem. take a listen. so they said they all came together to began to share memories, all they had of nelson mandela at south africa there together at that holiday party. >> very moving indeed, joining us from london pouring in on social media. thank you. we appreciate it. >> for more cover annual on the life of nelson mandela, go to you can find a whole lot more. stay with us on cnn. our special cover annual on nelson mandela's death continues with michael holmes after the break. >> much more on his life. >> that is reaction pouring in from around the world.
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