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tv   The Sixties  CNN  June 26, 2014 6:00pm-8:01pm PDT

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sally omally. i could watch that clip for the rest of my life. congratulations to donna lou stevens, anyone that doesn't love them will top the charts on "the ridiculist" that does it for us. see you again at 11:00 p.m. see you again at 11:00 p.m. good edition of 360. -- captions by vitac -- all people should obey just laws, but i would also say that an unjust law is no law at all. >> i say segregation loud and segregation forever. >> america is not living up to the dream of liberty and justice for all. >> primarily with a politician. >> we're willing to be beaten for democracy. >> they would give anything in the world if we have trouble here. >> would you be willing to go on
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a demonstration again? >> we want our freedom and we want it now. >> open hostility towards the civil rights. >> black power! this is the wrong way! ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
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we talk about it as separation of the races, customs and traditions built up over the last 100 years that proved for the best interest of both, the colored and the white people. >> it was almost 100 years after the emancipation proclamation and america is still racially segregat segregated. black people couldn't vote in the south. they couldn't even go into the public libraries. the public libraries were segregated. the churches were segregated. ♪ ♪ >> we are in atlanta, georgia the baptist church where the father and son are co-pastors. >> frankly, as others have said, i don't know what the future holds but i know who holds the
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future. this is our hope. this is that something that keeps us going. >> martin luther king was immensely frustrated by the end of the 1950s because he had become famous. he's preaching all over the country. he knows that's his gift but he says people cry at my sermons but the next morning, it's still segregated. >> martin king called about 50 ministers from across the south to start a non-violent movement. the understanding of teaching non-violence was clear but there wasn't anybody that could teach it like jim lawson. >> james lawson has been to india and comes back with this storehouse of tactics. >> martin king said come to nashville now, we need you now. so i went to nashville and organized other people. >> now tonight we have a most important business to try to accomplish, and that is to try
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to have one major role-playing experience, which sort of tries to set the stage for an actual demonstration for an actual sit in. >> he talked about the civil rights movement in the '60s. people talk about beirmingham bt james lawson taught about none violence. teaching people like james louis and diane gnash how to not swing back if somebody hits you with a night stick. >> we actually practiced sitting in some took the role of students who were sitting at a lunch counter and others took the role of white thugs. we were practicing how to remain non-violent even in the face of
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violence. >> there had been other sit ins in those early months of 1960 but no one is centrally organizing or coordinating this like the student group from nashvill nashville. >> it was on february 13th and we had the very first sit in in nashville. i took my seat at the counter. i asked the waitress for a hamburger and a coke. >> the students sit down at the lunch counter asking to be served, knowing full well it's against the law. >> we were prepared to be arrested and go to jail and if necessary, stay in jail. >> well, it was a moving feeling within me that i was sitting there demanding a god given right. i could no longer be satisfied
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or go along with an evil system. >> the big surprise for them was that they weren't arrested. they sat there all day and realized that white people were floored. >> it is creating bewilderment and confusion among the white and negros themselves. >> when this disciplined platoon comes into a store and occupies the seats at the lunch counter, they move, they put on a bullish exhibition of what seems to be bad manners and crashing into a place where they are not welcome, i submit it comes with poor grace where their spokesman charges the store owner with bad behavior. >> mr. kilpatrick you have to agree with me all people should obey just laws but i would also say an unjust law is no law at
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all and when we find an unjust law i think we have a moral obligation to take a stand against it. >> during the weeks after the sit ins began, opposition in the white communities of the south solidified and the first signs of violence appeared. >> the man came out and said that there was a fight down the side. there was a bunch of colored people on the stools of the counters so i instructed the men to put them under arrest.
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>> on february 27th, 80 nashville students were arrested out of 300 participating in the sit ins that day. as the students were confronted with the choice of paying a $50 fine or spending over a month in jail, each of them chose jail. >> i felt free. i felt liberated. i felt like i had crossed over. >> while we were in jail, black women got on the phone and organized an economic withdraw. >> the negro has a purchasing power. the merchants of course were feeling the pinch because they were definitely not coming downtown to spend the money. >> the next day in nashville tennessee in the newspaper had a headline, mayor favored
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desegregation. was a great victory for the city of nashville. >> for economic boycott was withdrawn and nashville became the first major city in the south to permit whites and negros to eat together in public places. >> a remarkable group lawson brought together. >> we all applauded and here was the situation that turned out right. >> the ideas that they promoted very quickly spread across the region and across the nation. start with the best writing experience.? make it incredibly thin. add an adjustable kickstand, a keyboard, a usb port, and the freedom of touch.
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>> the sit in move the challenged concepts of law and shaking the predictions of the south in an entirely new way. >> extremely pleased with the emerging of the student sit in movement in early 1960. there were sit ins in atlanta where dr. king is living by that time. king himself gets arrested in one at rich's department store. king is kept in jail when everyone else is released. >> and that's when it got involved in the presidential campaign. >> john kennedy, the presidential candidate calls mrs. king to express his concern very unexpected public gesture. >> within 24 hours, robert kennedy called that judge and asked that he get king out of jail. next thing we knew is king went
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public and said i was against having a catholic for president, but if he can wipe the tears from my daughter-in-law's eyes, i have the courage to vote for kennedy for president, and i have a suitcase full of votes. >> dr. king, have you heard anything from vice president nixon or any of his supporters? >> i've been confined and i haven't talked with anybody from washington or from the campaign. >> do you know of any efforts made on behalf of the kennedys? >> well, i understand that the kennedy group did make definite contacts and did a great deal to make my release possible. >> it turned out that phone call was given credit for kennedy's victory in one of the closest elections in modern history.
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king said, i hope that at last we have a president with the intelligence to understand this problem. i'm convinced he has that understanding and now we'll have to see what his passion leads him to do. >> what together we can do. >> kennedy in his inaugural speech did not have a single mention of a domestic issue. they said all these people out there, in particular black people who voted for you and you've got to give them something. what they did then was add two words talking about freedom and human rights abroad and at home. that was the only mention. >> kennedy's administration is trying to keep a lid on the civil rights issue, and civil right activists are determined to push ahead. >> brave blacks and whites rode into the deep south together on
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gray hound and trail ways buses to challenge segregation as freedom riders. >> the freedom ride started with two buses, 13 people going from washington d.c. to new orleans. >> the concept of the freedom ride was to show that the segregation laws were not being enforced in the south. >> even though the law the man says that a passenger can ride inner state and participate in lunchrooms and waiting rooms and bathrooms, the law says this, everyone cannot, particularly the negro. they are buying tickets from town to town and getting off in each down, going into waiting rooms, restaurants, cafes that are segregated in such a manner to enrage them and provoke them. that's what they are doing.
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>> we were abroad a gray hound bus going to birmingham and surrounded by a mob. he followed us for about four miles until one of our tires went flat and finally threw a bomb into the bus, the bug filled very rapidly with black smoke. >> meanwhile, when the bus got to birmingham it was even worse. >> they dragged about six of the passengers out, both negro and white and took them into allies and began beating them, began hitting them with lead pipes. they knocked one man, a white man down at my feet and beat him and kicked him until his face was a bloody read pulp. >> the riders were severely beaten, could not continue. the nashville movement decided that we had to take up the freedom ride where it had left
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off. >> groups would be dispatched. >> she said we will not allow to destroy non-violence. this is the test. ten of the kids said we will go tonight and that's the stuff that makes you free. that's the stuff that is freedo freedom. >> a group of them got on a bus in birmingham. when the bus pulled into the montgomery station, john louis could see hundreds of whites headed towards them with baseball bats, bricks, rocks. >> an angry mob came out of nowhere. i was hit with a wooden crate.
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beaten, left lying in a pool of bloo blood. >> before police finally broke up the crowd with tear gas, they beat and injured at least 20 persons. >> after the riders are attacked and brutally beaten, the freedom riders essentially become trapped in the first baptist church. >> the church was surrounded and people were setting fire to cars. >> it is a very dangerous situation. no one could leave the church. >> dr. king had gone over to montgomery from atlanta to lend support to the freedom riders and so king, too, along with the riders is trapped at this church. >> it's very easy for us to get angry and bitter and violent in a moment like this but i think this is a testing point.
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i hope that we will remain calm like we have done in touchy difficult moments. >> he place as call to robert kennedy and said to the attorney general, something must be done. >> we are planning doing things this afternoon several hundred more u.s. marshals from around the country to help. >> president kennedy called out the united states marshalls,
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placed the city of montgomery under marshall law. >> this situation, i want to make this announcement that the city is now under marshall law and troops are on the way to montgomery. [ cheers ] >> now this thing with king and all of the so-called freedom riders is to return to the homes, go back to the books and mind their own business. >> finally, with federal intervention the freedom riders were put on a bus and headed to jackson.
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we pull on into jackson. the wagon was waiting for us. >> we didn't know it at the time but the kennedys had agreed that the freedom riders could be imprisoned. >> the kennedy administration makes a deal where by the miss mispoli -- mississippi police units agree every freedom rider in jackson will be arrested. >> officials in mississippi think they found a legal way to circumvent desegregation. their method calling defiance of segregation a threat to the
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peace in an area where popular feelings run so high. >> the freedom riders included james bevel, john louis, james lawson, among others were sent to the state penitentiary. >> so this guy takes me back to the jail cell and prison doors slam, it has an affect on you. the sound, you thought you would never get out again. >> as soon asing a day tors leave and get tired of stirring up trouble, we're going back to the same old way of living that's made our city such a wonderful place in which to live. thank you very much, mr. mayor. >> this attempt to stop the freedom rides only served to fuel the flames of the civil rights movement. >> i would like to see the hands
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of those of you who will continue the freedom ride in our future. >> freedom ride after freedom ride would come through and get arrest in jackson and go to jail and get moved to the penitentiar penitentiary. >> during the time they spent in prison, a bond formed and they came out of prison more dedicated than ever and began to fan out across the south. >> james h. meredith, grandson of a slave and applicant for administration tiad admission to the university of mississippi. what do you want from the university of mississippi? >> i think every citizen should have the opportunity to receive
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an education in his state. you should have an opportunity to receive the best possible education. >> mississippi air force veteran james meredith insists on being admitted to the university of mississippi and ross barnett, the government of the state he's not going to let this happen. >> we here by deny you admission to the university of mississippi. >> and it becomes a crisis. >> ross arnett with drew local police and allowed the campus to become a war zone. >> please, teaching order. >> how can i remove him governor when there is a riot in the street and step out of the building and something happen to him? we got to get somebody up there now to get order and stop the firing and shooting and then we'll talk on the phone about meredith. at first we need order.
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>> finally, the army arrives from memphis and comes rolling on the campus and stops the riot at that point. >> i deeply regret the fact that any action by the executive branch was necessary in this case. but all other avenues and al alternatives have been dried and exhausted. >> james meredith went to school at old miss today but his travels to and from classes were not those of a regular student. >> go on now. >> for everywhere meredith went, so did his escorts. >> there is no country where the violence of sunday and monday is unreported. the example of the biggest story in the london everything standard was the violence on the miss m mississippi campus. it was humiliating for a democracy and embarrassing.
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>> i think my father and uncle were forced on the policy issues of america's leadership in the globe and saw the civil rights movement in our country as kind of a distraction. >> i think this is a charge before the president. he must start now making moral decisions, rather than purely political decisions. [announcer] if your dog can dream it,
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in the name of the greatest people that have ever walked this earth, i draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet and i say segregation now, segregation tomorrow and segregation forever. >> george wallace became a figure for white southerners and when he promised segregation forever to the resistant white south. >> i'm sorry mr. wallace, god has spoken to me. that he wants freedom for his people. it may even mean physical death but if it means that i will die standing up for the freedom of my people, god has spoken to me. >> king very wisely sees an
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opportunity to give more exposure to the sieve rights movement and prod the kennedy administration. >> martin luther king decided that they should have major demonstrations, only in areas at local law enforcement would react violently. >> do you think you can keep burning him in the present situation of segregation? >> i may not be able to do it, but i'll do trying. >> bill conner has a well-known identity as one of the hardest hard liners in defensive segregation. he encouraged the hiring of clansmen on his police force. >> king is assuming that bill conner is going to provide the pictures and footage they need to outrage the country. >> commissioner conner used mass arrests, fire hoses, police dogs to break up the demonstrations. >> the demonstrations continued for weeks.
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you've got 12, 14, 20 adults max much marching and the movement was on the brink of extinction and said i got plenty of teenagers in my youth workshops willing to go to jail. >> i was on the phone constantly with jim, with diane and others about making it happen. >> there is an understandable reluctance on king's part when their parents are going to be furious for putting their children in the line of fire. >> finally, it's king who makes the decision to send the children into the streets. >> will you use the hoses and dogs? >> we will use the dogs if they draw knives again and throwing rocks. we'll use the hose if it becomes necessary to stop the mob. >> most of the pick pets and
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marchers were juveniles instead of adults. officers quickly moved in to make arrests under the direction of conner. police overflowed juvenile hall with the joyouthful demonstrato. all kinds of vehicles in service to house them. the sheriff's department estimated upwards of 400 had been arrested. >> instead of 14 adults, you had 600 teenagers and the next day a thousand and that's when the dogs and hoses came out. >> of course what he was doing
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what the head of the civil rights movement wanted him to do, create the theater that would broadcast how bad things were. >> they were as young as six, eight, nine years old. >> why did you want to take part in the demonstrations? >> just all the color folks get together and take part in certain fights for freedom maybe they will get some, but if they don't, they won't get nowhere. >> birmingham was the soul of the nation was being forged. >> negro drive for equality gathered momentum this week. the supreme court sanctioned sit in demonstrations, another court removed the government of bi birmingham dominated by conner. >> all i can see is i enjoyed my
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22.5 years as public safety commissioner. i don't believe i owe the taxpayers of birmingham anything. they will owe me two and a half years back pay. >> don't shop for anything on capitol street. these are stores that helped to support the white citizens counsel. >> he is operating in and around jackson, mississippi, the heart of resistance to desegregation. the nbc network affiliate was notorious for features segregation speeches and become such a problem that medger evers demanded equal time. >> they found themself on the threat from the fcc they agreed to allow medger evers to go on television and make a statement about the goals of the movement.
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>> you black son of a [ bleep ] on television, god dang more than 17 minutes they better get his black behind off or i'll get him off this is below the mason dixson line. you don't have to put the black jungle bunnies on tv. >> to many right mississippi people it was an outrage. that's the first time a black man had been allowed to appear on television in mississippi. certainly, to argue, against segregation. it made him in someways a marked man in mississippi. >> we'll be demonstrating here until freedom comes to negros here in jackson, mississippi. [ applause ] spokesperson: the volkswagen passat is heads above the competition, but we're not in the business of naming names.
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. our guest today on "meet the press," next week two negro students will seek to enroll at the university of alabama. governor wallace will bar the entrance despite a federal court
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order and the threat of troops. >> would you believe the negros in the south are human beings created by god. >> of course, they are. i said so in my campaign address. >> do you think they should be discriminated for obvious reasons? >> can they be enrolled? >> well of course, we'll just have to wait and see what transpireds chanc transpireds on that occasion. >> at the focus are two though gr fee grows, she's 20 years old and attended a home school in mobile, alabama. he's 20 and president of his class at gadsden, alabama. >> what is the general feeling around the campus concerning the agreement to admit the negro here this summer? >> well, all the students i've talked to and my friends feel there is not going to be any repeat of mississippi situation. there is not going to be no violence. >> well, i feel like it won't be
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as much trouble as, you know, has been on other campuses but will be bad news when the me gr -- negro comes in. >> does the government plan to use federal marshalls to prevent the negro students from entering? >> there is opposition in alabama or any state to federal marshalls and federal troops, and i would be reluctant to see us reach that point. >> you know, kennedy up there in washington and his brother the president, they give anything in the world if we had some trouble here. now georgia ask him to do one thing, tell your friends between now and tuesday, don't go out
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there. leave it alone. they going to handle this situation. >> governor wallace ordered 500 alabama national guardsmen in. they are under his control. it would require more than the pen to place them at the disposal of kennedy. >> national guard units are commanded by a governor unless they are federalized and the president becomes their commander in chief. kennedy had to make the decision what to do next. >> president kennedy has done some significant things in civil rights. at the same time, i must say that president kennedy hadn't done enough, and we must remind him that we elected him. [ applause ]
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>> under a siring alabama sun that has the temperature above 100 degrees, the waiting continues. the direct confrontation with federal authorities and negros students is believed to be moments away. they are on route from birmingham to the campus. wallace about ready to make his appearance on campus. >> coming into it, the justice deputy doesn't know what wallace will do. wallace doesn't know whether he'll be put in jail. >> as governor and chief magistrate of the state of the alabama, i deem it to be my solum obligation and duty to stand before you and represent the rights and solven tvereignt
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constitution out state of alabama and seeking to preserve and maintain the peace and dignity of this state and the individual freedoms of the citizens thereof, do here by denounce and forbid this illegal and unwarranted action by the central government. >> governor wallace, i take it from that statement that you are going to stand in that door and that you are not going to carry out the orders, is that correct? >> i stand upon this statement. >> you stand upon that statement. governor, i'm not interested in a show. i don't know what the purpose of the show is. i am interested in the orders of these courts being enforced. that is my only responsibility here. the choice is yours. i would ask you once again to responsibly step aside. >> remain on the campus.
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>> the justice department says the negro students will be enrolled sometime today. >> after ole miss, the >> after all this, the kennedys learned their lesson about negotiating with the southern governor. kennedy decides to just go ahead and federalize the guard. he is not going to play games anymore. the national guard general henry graham goes up to wallace. he says "it is my sad duty to tell you to step aside." >> we shall now return to montgomery for the purpose of continuing this fight, this constitutional fight, because we are winning. >> governor wallace moved away from the door and has left after being confronted with about 150 federalized national guardsmen. >> assistant state attorney
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general nicholas kesenbach all smiles as the two negro students are to enter the building. >> each time the issue came up, the president and the attorney general did everything they could to not have to get involved. and it was after the encounter with wallace that civil rights became top priority. >> this is not a sectional issue. difficulties over segregation and discrimination exist in every city, in every state of the union. but love alone cannot make men see right. we are confronted primarily with a moral issue. it is as old as the scriptures and as clear as the american constitution. >> and that was the first time the president made the question of ending racial segregation not because it's politically expedient to do so, because it is morally right to do so. >> next week i shall ask the congress of the united states to act to make a commitment it has
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not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in american life or law. >> it's his most eloquent speech in some ways, most heartfelt speech. >> and this nation for all its hopes will not be fully free until all its citizens are free. >> there is a kind of bitter irony in that within hours afterwards, medgar evers comes home and his wife and children are up because they want to tell him about the president's wonderful speech. >> shortly after midnight, medgar evers steps in his car in this driveway. then evers was murdered. the fatal bullet was fired from a vacant lot across the street from his home, crashing through his body and the window of his home. he was 37. >> i was appalled at the cowardly ambush of him at his
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home in front of his wife and children. said something about how far we still had to go in reaching any semblance of social and civic justice. ♪
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we're going to washington to
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urge the congress to pass strong civil rights legislation this year. >> the nationwide response to the power of alabama supplies the energy that allows the march on washington to start coming together. >> we will keep this demonstration nonviolent. it will be peaceful. it will be dignified and disciplined. and i think it will have a great impact. >> in my judgment, there was perhaps only one man or woman in america who could have put that march together, and it was bayard rustin. >> we need the movement of best minds many of which are white as well as black. >> rustin was simply an organizational genius. he was the best and the brightest. >> do you feel that the president's civil rights program is actually not needed? >> i don't think it's needed.
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and furthermore, i think it's unconstitutional. >> segregationists senators like strom thurmond are attempting to trumpet the fact that bayard is known to be gay as a way to undercut the march. >> there was an effort to block rustin being selected. and martin king said let he who has not sinned cast the first stone. dead silence. i recommend very strongly rustin. he designated as the director and chief of staff of the march. people around him said i second that. >> freedom now movement, hear me. we are requesting all citizens to move into washington, to go by plane, by car, bus, any way that you can get there. go to washington. ♪ >> pass them down.
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>> the white house, the washington police department, the defense department were all drawing up these tremendous contingency plans for mass violence. >> you have any questions, be sure you contact your captains for anything, and they will take it from there. the whole thing is an orderly march. >> they came from all over america, negroes and whites, white house wives and hollywood stars, more than 200,000 of them came to washington this morning in a kind of climax to a historic spring and summer in the struggle for equal rights. >> the march on washington was probably the most joyous protest march i've ever seen. ♪ >> this turned out to be a huge
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interracial gathering that clearly did send a national message that there was tremendous support for racial equality. >> i admired the people my age, and i knew that jonathan was the youngest speaker at the march. >> as a student, and as a participant in an international movement, i was ready to go. i wanted to push. i wanted us to stand up and speak up and speak out. >> we're tired of seeing our people locked up in jail over and over again, and then you holler be patient. how long can we be patient? we want our freedom, and we want it now. [ cheering ] >> and i would never forget the speech of martin luther king jr. on that day, dr. king spoke out of his soul. and he used that day and the steps of the lincoln memorial to preach a certainly man, not just to america, but to the world.
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>> i am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. [ applause ] >> as he is speaking, mahalia jackson shouts to him, "tell him about the dream, martin, tell them about the dream." and i see him take a written text, and he slides it to the left side of the lectern, looks out on the 350,000 people there, and then he speaks. >> i have a dream that one day this nation will rise up, live out the true meaning of its
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creed. we hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal. i have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. i have a dream today. let freedom ring for every hill of mississippi, from every mountainside, let freedom ring. when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to feed up that day
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when all god's children, black men and white men, jews and gentiles, protestants and catholics will be able to join hands and sing in the way of the old negro spiritual, free at last, free at last, thank god almighty, we are free at last. >> i don't think they quite anticipated just how successful it would be. it represents the civil rights movement and a kind of high watermark. >> the momentum of change seems to be accelerating, and the hearts of 21 million american negroes, i'm told millions of sympathetic whites, they're meeting tonight in the hope that negro equality was at last overtaking the reality of history. ♪ ♪ freedom, freedom >> in the immediate wake of the
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march on washington, the civil rights movement has a national glow to it that it never before had had. but that glow tragically lasts hardly two weeks. >> the bombing of this birmingham, alabama church claimed the lives of four little girls attending sunday school. >> that was the church out of which all the kids had marched. so it was clearly a punishment. >> we felt like we were involved because if there had been no movement, chances are that bombing would not have taken place. >> kids were murdered in birmingham on a sunday and in sunday school in a christian nation, and nobody cares.
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white house press secretary malcolm kildare has just announced that president kennedy died at approximately 1:00 central standard time which is about 35 minutes ago. >> after being shot at -- >> after being shot -- >> by an unknown assailant. >> by an unknown assailant. >> during a motorcade drive through downtown dallas. >> during a motorcade drive through downtown dallas. >> what are you feeling right now? >> i really couldn't say. really. right now i just don't know what to do.
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i don't even know where to go, what to say. this is nothing for me to say. >> it is said that the human mind has a greater capacity for remembering the pleasant than the unpleasant. but today was a day that will live in memory and in grief. >> no words are strong enough to express our determination to continue the forward thrust of america that he began. >> lyndon johnson wasn't that widely known in the country at large. johnson's aides say to him in this speech don't fight for
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civil rights. that's a noble cause, but it's a lost cause. you know what johnson says to them? well, what the hell is the presidency for then? >> no memorial orration or eulogy could more eloquently honor president kennedy's memory than the earliest passage of the civil rights bill for which he fought so long. >> johnson gets that civil rights bill moving in the first few weeks after kennedy's assassination. >> dixiecrats led by richard russell announced a filibuster. that is they would continue to talk and prevent the bill from coming forward for a straight up our down vote. >> this bill which we feel is a perversion of the american way of life and a great blow at the right of dominion over private property that has been the genesis of our greatness. >> lbj and his allies knew they
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were short. so thus began a 24/7 campaign. he bullied. he cajoled. he made deals in order to get enough senators on board. >> surprisingly, after a year on capitol hill, this bill is stronger than the one president kennedy first requested. president johnson should have the bill on his desk by the fourth of july. >> we hope to send in to mississippi this summer upwards of 1,000 teachers, ministers, and students to open up mississippi to the country. >> freedom summer, an operation to flood the state of mississippi with volunteers white and black students. >> we were there because we could assume that if the white mississippians mistreated us the way they mistreated the black people, that would be the basis on which to mobilize national opinion. >> we will treat anyone with
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great respect here in mississippi, but we will treat the people who come here, these children like any other backward children should be treated. >> and here is the news. >> there is some mystery and some fear concerning three civil rights workers, two whites from new york city and a negro from mississippi. police say they arrested the three men for speeding yesterday, but released them after they posted bond. they have not been heard from since. >> they paid the fine and i released them and i escorted them to their car. and that's the last time we saw any of them. >> we got word that mickey and andy and james had been
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arrested. and there was no word what had happened to them. >> mr. president, i wanted to let you know we have found the car. >> yeah? >> now this is not known. nobody knows this at all, but the car was burned and we do not know yet whether any bodies are inside of the car because of the intense heat. it is merely an assumption that probably they were burned in the car. >> or kidnapped and locked up. >> i doubt people down there would even give them that much of a break. >> we believe that all men are entitled to the blessings of liberty, yet millions are being deprived of those blessings. not because of their own failures, but because of the
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color of their skin. we can understand without rancor or hatred how this all happened. but it cannot continue. our constitutional, foundation of our republic, the principles of our freedom forbid it. and the law i will sign tonight forbids it. [ applause ] >> senator hubert humphrey has called the civil rights bill the greatest piece of social legislation of our generation. >> tell somebody my stamp, make sure we get some more hands here. >> the civil rights act of 1964 is not going to create instant brotherhood. no one pretends that.
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but the attorney general gets new power to bring suits against racial discrimination in voting, in public accommodations, in education, in employment. if a court finds you guilty of violating some part of the civil rights law, and if you continue violating the law, you can be fined or put in jail until you stop violating the law. >> three civil rights workers have disappeared in mississippi. they have not been heard from. so far only one clue, the burned out station wagon in which the three were last seen riding there is little hope that they are still alive. >> schwerner, channey and goodman were found shot to death at the base of a recently built dam just six miles from the city of philadelphia. their bodies wrapped in plastic bags numbered one, two, and three were taken to the state
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medical center in jackson for identification and examination. the two white boys were shot once each through the heart. james channey, the black youth had been beaten with chains until every bone in his body was broken, then he was shot three times. >> the finding of the bodies of the three mississippi civil rights workers is a saddening and shocking reminder of the brutality of race hatred. we naturally expect that those responsible for these terrible murders will be brought to justice. ♪ we shall overkcome ♪
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>> we know they're going to say not guilty. no one saw them pull the trigger. i'm tired of that. don't bow down anymore. hold your heads up. we want our freedom now. i don't want to have to go to another memorial. i'm tired of -- >> the arrests had started before dawn. in all, fbi men picked up 21 men. included in the group were the
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chief law officers sheriff lawrence rainy and cecil price, they were murdered by ku klux klanmen with conspiratorial help of the local sheriff. >> bond was set. but less than a week later the accused were set free, their bond lifted. for james chaney's mother it was a shock, a disappointment. of her son's murder seemed farther away than ever. [ whirring ] [ train whistle blows ] she makes trains that are friends with trees. ♪ my mom works at ge. ♪
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i have the great honor to hand over to you the insignia of the nobel peace prize and a gold medal. >> some critics have charged that the nobel peace prize was not appropriately given this year. what is your reaction to that one? >> well, first i want to say that i don't think the peace prize was given to me personally, and i don't accept it as a personal honor. i think it is rather a tribute to the wise restraint of discipline and dignity of which negroes and white persons of good will have carried out the whole struggle for civil rights. >> by the end of 1964, dr. king is aware that the one major southern civil rights challenge that had not been dealt with in the 1964 civil rights act was
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voter registration. >> a hodgepodge of election laws from state to state prevents many from voting. political machines disenfranchise others by downright fraud. the negro citizen may go to register only to be told that the day is wrong or the hour is late, or the official in charge is absent. >> there are five counties in mississippi, each at least 57% negro in which no negroes at all are registered. >> today marks the beginning of a determined, organized, mobilized campaign to get the right to vote all over this state. >> king chooses the city of selma because it has the worst record of any southern city on black voting.
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>> we will seek to arouse the conscience of the federal government by marching by the thousands on places of registration all over the city. >> now move. move. move. >> student protesters had already had a presence in selma going back to 1963, but had found it exceptionally tough going because the dallas county sheriff, jim clark, was an even tougher version of birmingham's bull conner. >> is not in session this
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afternoon as you were informed. you came down to make a mockery out of this courthouse. this courthouse is a serious place of business. you seem to take it to be just a disneyland or something on parade. >> we have had numerous negros that couldn't read and write come down and say they were told to come, and if they didn't come, they would lose their pensions from the welfare department or the social security. or have their land confiscated if they didn't show up to register to vote. and when they came down, they had no idea then what they were supposed to do. >> you are breaking the injunction by not allowing these people to come inside this courthouse and wait. this courthouse does not belong to sheriff clark. this courthouse belongs to the people of dallas county, and these are the people of dallas county. and they have come to register. and you know this within your own heart, sheriff clark. >> clark, he knew what he wanted to do to me, but he couldn't do it in the open because of all those cameras, right.
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>> we have come to be here because they are registering at this time. and i can't enforce the law. >> we have come to register. and this is our reason for being here. >> you're blinding me with that light. move back. >> if you want to arrest us, arrest us. >> why don't you get out in front of the camera and go on. >> facing your sheriff and facing your judge. we're willing to be beaten for democracy. and you misuse democracy. you good people that they will not have the privilege to vote. >> i'm here to tell you tonight
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that the mayor of this city, the police commissioner of this city, and everybody in the white power structure of this city must take a responsibility for everything that jim clark does in this community. >> we're marching today to dramatize to the nation, dramatize to the world the hundreds and thousands of negro citizens of alabama, but particularly here in the area denied the right to vote. we intend to march to montgomery to send our grievance to governor wallace. >> governor george wallace's head of the alabama state patrol in tandem with his good buddy sheriff jim clark thinks that
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what these marchers deserve is a good beating. >> we arrive at the highest point on the edmund pettus bridge. down below we see a sea of alabama state troopers. opposing the protesters was a force of alabama state troopers, sheriff clark, and clark's private army, the so-called posse men. >> we saw these men putting on their gas masks. they came toward us. >> it will be detrimental to your safety to continue this march. you have orders to disperse. go home or go to your church. this march will not continue.
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this is an unlawful assembly. you have to disperse. you're ordered to disperse. >> i thought we were going to be arrested. the major said "troopers advance."
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>> they used electric cattle prods, bull whips, wooden clubs wrapped with barbed wire. >> i was hit in the head by a state trooper with a nightstick. i thought i saw death. i thought i was going to die.
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>> sheriff clark and his volunteer army, the posse men sent 80 men, women and children into the hospital. abc broke in with this footage. it was now being called bloody sunday. and white middle class americans sitting in their comfortable living rooms suddenly had the whole racial ugly mess thrust into their face. it was a watershed moment in television, a landmark moment in the civil rights movement. >> for the first time since birmingham, that footage sets off a national firestorm. >> in our country, we don't tolerate police by terror taking
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the law into their own hands. this is unacceptable, and just not american. and i believe the time has come for the president to step in. >> the pettus bridge incident is one of those seminole events that helped create a groundswell for lyndon johnson to quickly and this time without nearly as much opposition as the civil rights act of '64 to push through the voting rights act of 1965. >> the president of the united states. >> johnson feels that he needs to go before the country in a joint session of congress about why this should be done. >> i was in the home of a local family in selma with dr. king, and we watched and listened to president johnson. >> at times history and fate meet at a single time to shape a
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turning point in man's unending search for freedom. so it was at lexington and concord. so it was a century ago at appomattox. so it was last week in selma, alabama. there long suffering men and women peacefully protested the denial of their rights as americans. their cause must be our cause too. because it's not just negroes but really, it's all of us who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. and we shall overcome. [ applause ]
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>> so hear lyndon johnson, the president of the united states use the theme song of the movement, "we shall overcome," i looked at dr. king. tears came down his face. he started crying. we all cried a little. >> dr. king decided that the only proper response to this was to continue the march to montgomery and a court order forced the state of alabama to permit said march. >> has just ruled that we have a legal and constitutional right to march from selma to montgomery. [ cheering ] ♪
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♪ come and follow me, you know the master said ♪ ♪ don't wait until tomorrow, or you may be dead ♪ ♪ i was young and i wanted to play, said i wait just one more day ♪ ♪ don't you know i would, no, i would, i would ♪ >> now with those who said we would get here over their dead bodies, all the world today knows that we are here, that we are standing before the forces of power in the state of alabama saying we ain't going to let nobody turn us around. i come to say to you this
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the summer of '65, johnson gets that voting rights bill passed. >> thank you, mr. chairman. >> sure, the '64 civil rights act led to dramatic changes. but politically, at least in the
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short-run, the voting rights act was even more dramatic. >> this is an examination room at the central post office in downtown birmingham where under the federal voting rights act of 1965, federal officials are examining people to determine their qualifications to register and vote under the laws of alabama. >> once the voting rights act was passed and people got the right to vote, they stopped sitting in and started voting. and that turned out to be much more effective. >> the number of blacks who began voting across the south, the number of black office holders at the local level, the state level, at the congressional level, one of the greatest changes in american society. >> this is what james meredith intends to do for the next two weeks, march along the highways of mississippi, a state where he is one of the most hated men
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alive. his purpose, meredith hopes to encourage unregistered negroes along the way to qualify as voters. he also by his very presence hopes to dispel some of the fear negroes have in the south. >> in 1965 with the passage of the voting rights act, you'd have thought anything was possible. but then very quickly after that, things start to fall apart. >> james meredith was walking along the highway, a gunman stepped out of the woods and just blasted him with a shotgun. >> meredith was taken to a memphis hospital under police guard. his blood still remains on the highway. >> once he was shot, then there had to be some response by the movement. they had to show that the segregationists can't win that
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way. they got together and decided to continue the march. stokely carmichael and martin luther king. stokely carmichael was very much unlike the national group in terms of his perspective. >> we feel that we must continue this march right now, that it is urgent to do it. and we will be calling on people of good will from all over the nation to join us in this march. >> martin luther king was almost at the level of sainthood. stokely carmichael understood that he needed that symbol in order to provide legitimacy for what he was trying to do. >> we want to put president johnson on the spot. he called a conference two days ago to fulfill these rights. we want those rights fulfilled. they cannot be fulfilled with words. words cannot stop bullets. and we need action and we need it now from the federal government. >> no more questions, gentlemen. >> all right. >> we have the march. >> the most impressive thing
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about this march on mississippi is a developing coalition among civil rights leaders. there are reports of differences between leaders, and they are true. but their organizations have always been divided. a split among them is nothing new. put them all together on march on a highway in mississippi, and frictions emerge because of personal competition and individual ego. >> our sweat and blood built mississippi, and we got to take it over because we deserve to have it. that's what we are working for. >> stokely carmichael started expressing the goal now is black people exercising power. >> let me say first that this march is nonviolent. it is a nonviolent expression of our determination to be free. this is a principle of the march, and certainly we intend to keep this march nonviolent. >> mr. carmichael, are you as committed to the nonviolent approach as dr. king is?
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>> no, i'm not. >> why aren't you? >> i just don't see this as a way of life. i never have. and i also realize that no one in this country is asking the white community in the south to be nonviolent. and that in a sense is giving them a free license to go ahead and shoot us at will. >> if there was a symbol of white anger at negro protest in the north this summer, it was cicero, illinois, a town chosen by dr. martin luther king as the pressure point in his open housing drive. >> dr. king takes the civil rights movement north to chicago. and the issue is housing. >> the northern scene was a far more complicated scene and did not have the advantage of the jim crow law. >> it was one thing for northern liberals when the issue was integration in selma. it's quite a different thing when it was in cicero. >> if let's say 10 or 20 families moved into cicero, which is a town of 70,000?
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>> they'd get killed. >> it was the beginning of serious white backlash against the entire civil rights movement. >> the nation suddenly learned what it should have known, that racial prejudice was not just a southern problem, it was nationwide. whites in the north could comfort themselves by pointing a finger at the south, they could do so no longer. >> once again showing open hostility. these people here are firmly opposed to these marches. moreover, they don't see where they serve any useful purpose. >> most of the national press categorizes chicago as a defeat for king. >> i can say that i have never seen even in mississippi and alabama mobs as hostile and as hate-filled as have i seen in chicago. >> there was a growing feeling
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that king's movement wasn't working. he had lost a lot of support from whites and blacks, martin luther king is a good man. he is my brother. he is still like me. we're all catching hell. he's got his approaches of freedom. he is doing his best. and he is changing now too. he sees now that it seems to be impossible to do what he want to do. >> king was rapidly being eclipsed by a younger and much more militant faction of the black power movement. >> we are not going to let these white people come into our neighborhoods and kill us. we're going to put every cracker in atlanta on his knees. >> there was a lot of disunity because the only thing that had together ironically was mmunity segregation. once that has been overcome, then the question is what do you want? >> i would like for all of us to
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believe in nonviolence, but i'm here to say tonight that if every negro in the united states turns against nonviolence, i'm going to stand up as a lone voice and say this is the wrong way. [ girl ] my mom, she makes underwater fans that are powered by the moon. ♪ she can print amazing things, right from her computer. [ whirring ] [ train whistle blows ] she makes trains that are friends with trees. ♪ my mom works at ge. ♪
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♪ ♪
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i think there is a realization in this country that black power is not just a mere slogan, nationally or internationally. it is real that black people can come together and start determining for their lives how they're going to live and controlling their economic and political lives. so it means you have to build a movement so strong in this country that if one black man is touched, every black man will rise up and let this country know they're not going to tolerate. >> you talk about loving these honkies to death. during these rebellions, bring, you have to stop looking and start shooting. >> black power. >> the issue is one that moves across civil rights, moves across poverty. we get this explosion of violence. you have the watts riots. then subsequently riots in newark, in detroit. >> the riots spring to the
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fore the problems of inner city life. a consequence of a generation of neglect in america's urban centers thinking happened on 12th street in detroit in july. next time it could happen downtown or in your town. >> when you stood on the lincoln memorial, you said "i had a dream." did that dream envision the federal government preventing the society doing for the negroes that what you think had to be done? >> it was a high moment, a great watershed moment. but i must confess that that dream that i had that day has turned into a nightmare. now i'm not one to lose hope. i keep on hoping. i still have faith in the future. but i've had to analyze many things over the last few years, and i would say over the last few months i've gone through a lot of soul-searching and agonizing moments. and some of the old optimism was
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a little superficial. and now it must be tempered with a solid realism. and i think the realistic fact is that we still have a long, long way to go. >> martin luther king jr. was killed tonight in memphis, tennessee, shot in the face as he stood on the balcony of his hotel room. >> martin was gone. and the main part of everything was over. and we knew that the movement would never be the movement as it was, but then the things that we had lived and really fought for was one.
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>> i just want to do god's will, and he has allowed me to go up to the mountain. i've looked over and i've seen the promised land. i may not get there with you, but i want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the promised land. so i'm happy tonight. i'm not worried about anything. i'm not fearing any man. mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the lord. >> there were many kinds of sacrifices made for freedom. most liberation struggle is trying to bring about a better world and a better society.
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>> we had to give everything we had to the movement. we accepted a way of peace as a way of life to wear nonviolence as way of life, as a way of living. >> we forged an agenda in the mind of the country. the movement begins with montgomery, becomes the sit-in campaign, the freedom ride, the birmingham campaign, the mississippi summer, the selma to montgomery march. >> history will record that those singular cumulative acts of courage transformed the south. transformed the country. >> we wanted to change america, make america better, not just for our generation, but for generation yet unborn.
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>> all of the civil rights, all the marches, all the people who have died in the civil rights struggle will have died in vain if once the opportunity, once the doors are open, no one is prepared for it. i know there's got to be several young people here who are like 5 years old, right? it's now becoming a possibility that that young man by the time he is 50 could be running for the president of the united states. hey, good evening. thanks for joining us. we begin with breaking news, breaking news and a story that many people in the country have been talking about, the death of a toddler locked in his car seat outside of atlanta, georgia, left in the car by his own father. the child, 22 months old, is named cooper harris. cooper was left in the back of


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