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tv   Pope The Most Powerful Man in History  CNN  March 30, 2018 9:00pm-10:00pm PDT

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>> against all odds, 2,000 years after the death of st. peter, the pope remains at the head of one of the most powerful institutions on earth. one of the most powerful men on earth holds a position that existed for nearly 2,000 years. as the wld changes,nd faith evolves, his authority remains. what began with one apostle has become 1.2 billion followers under one man. he's the head of the catholic
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chur church, the pope. this is his path to power. ♪ ♪ in this episode, what happens when the pope threatens a 2,000-year old tradition? for the first time in over 500
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years. >> the breaking news this morning, pope benedict the xvi, he has announced he's retiring. >> i was astonished when benedict resigned. it came out of the blue. his resignation was an amazing thing. in the last 2,000 years, only four other popes have resigned. it was comically announced.
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he announced it at the audience in latin and you have to see around the room if anyone understood what he was saying. it was an astonishing thing to do. it raises so many questions. what happens now? two weeks after benedict the xvi's resignation, the peop. >> we have two popes but only one is a pope. >> the problem of having two popes, you have to decide who do you listen to. >> benedict was 85 when he signed. he inherited the financial mess. he inherited the mess of sexual abuse and the administrative chaos. benedict resigned because he realized that these problems were simply too great for him. >> it is not like other human institutions. it is creation that we believe
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by god. this man is resigning from all of that. that's not what a pope is supposed to do. >> for 2,000 years, the legacy, have been passed onto one pope to the next. can two men hold a legitimate claim to one godly office? >> it is natural of this situation where the pope and an extra pope and that's always going to change the nature of an institution. who's the real pope? in 2013 millions watched as benedict the xvi hands over the seat to pope francis. in the past, two living men with claim to one legacy resulted to nothing but chaos. the 10th and the 11th centuries, if you got two popes, you got two factions. >> it is an extraordinary
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episode. benedict, they wanted benedict to be pope for their own financial gains and supremacies. if a king needed a sensation to marry his brother's wife. if people wanted to take possession of a local parish, they would have to get >> 19-year-old benedict has no interest of bureaucracy or public service. he is only interested in the privilege of power. >> benedict is someone who's clearly made pope in order to
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enrich his family on t. on the secular side, not one who has a spiritual authority or spiritual training. >> nepotism tended to produce a group of wealthy parasites who are also clergies. he was incompetent. he was morally compromised in many ways >> he was up to his neck in robbery and murder. he was using his position to gain wealth at the expense of the people of rome. >> by the year 1044, the cardinals are fed up. they decided the church needs a real spiritual and political leader, something must be done. >> the holist priest in rome
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came to him and said you need to step out for the good of the church, what can i give you? benedict the ix. pro >> buying church power considers one of the worst sins there was. the fact that he sold and return for money was appalling to everyone. >> for the first time in recorded history, a pope resigns in exchange for money, it led to the world of dirty politics. the young pope accepts the cardinal's bribe. this is no t tt the last the wo
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just weeks after handing over to sylvester. the former pope benedict the ix and his family decided they want his throne back. >> the awkward thing is now there are two popes. benedict had a wealthier family than sylvester. his family rallied booiied behi and gave him an army. he marched into rome and drove sylvester the 3rd out. >> you find ourself be wounded by this of any christian leaderships be but that was the way the church was. it was about spiritual power uncomfortably mixed with worldly
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power. six months after accepting the cardinal's bribery to resign, benedict the ix is reinstated to be pope. >> sylvester the 3rd is in exile and ben fixed assedict is in roy ebo both claimed to be pope. >> how does one decide who holds the legacy of st. peter? >> the romans will not have long to figure it out. only one month into benedict the ix. he complicates the matter even further. >> benedict decided he did not
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want to be pope anymore. he wanted to get married. he handed it over to his god father. he became pope gregory the vi. then the really scandal thing happened, he decided he want it back. gregory the vi says no, i am pope. don't forget about me. so now we have three popes. we have three popes and no one is to declare which one is the most legitimate. >> benedict, sylvester and gregory all fight in the streets of rome over who is the rightful heir to the throne. in the end, benedict ix wins
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again. >> benedict was pope three times in the end. after benedict's reign sends the church into a tail spin. all this becomes a real problem for the church and you got to sort it out. >> july of 1048, benedict ix is ousted once and for all. the cardinals decide the fairest way to consolidate the power is ignore sylvester's claim to the flow. cle throne. clear the deck and elect a new pope. >> there was no clear way of choosing a pope. >> it was an answer frequently murdered. bribery. also, relationships. the sons of pope sometimes became popes, choosing a pope is
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very confusing and it is never a pretty sight. it is very clear that the office can belong to whoever have the most military might to enforce it. >> the cardinals realized they must solidify rules for paper elections. they convene in an effort to solve this problem once and for all. and the result becomes one of the most iconic similymbols. cainals m what they call a college and after that, cardinals wou choose a pope in public. that sort of regularize things but of course, you can always twist the elections. >> after nearly 200 years of corrupt public elections, what is known today as a conclave is
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designed. the word conclave, a latin term meaning with a key signify that is the cardinals are locked into avoid the interfering of side politics. as of 1274, paper elections are held in secrets. >> cardinals were cut-off in the world and closed and votes and there would be the famous white smoke at the end. >> for the last 700 years, paper elections have been held the same way. cardinals are locked in at the vatican and vote again and again until a two-third majority is achieved. >> each round of balloting is burnt so nobody could see who
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voted for whom. that's what generate generates . >> cardinals added to the burning ballot to create the black smoke signifying that no pope has been chosen. the white smoke that hails a new pope was made by burning the paper alone. today chemical poucompounds are added to the ballot to color the smoke. modern conclave usually only lasts for a few days. but in the 13th century, they could go on for months. >> in the 13th century, briberies would be involved. people were stone walling or philly bu filibustering. in 1292, cardinals elected a new
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pope. they could not reach the two-third majority. the conclave goes on for a full two years. >> without the pope, rome was a mess. >> robbery gains wanted to minate the city without the pope functioning as a saort of local king. >> no end to the conclave insight, it looks as though the resignation of one teenage pope may have unravelled st. peters' legacy for good. we do whatever it takes to fight cancer. these are the specialists we're proud to call our own. experts from all over the world, working closely together to deliver truly personalized cancer care. expert medicine works here.
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comparable bundle, for less. call today. . in 1294, the cardinals are determined to renew by electing the pope through the proper channels. deadlock, rome is left without a leader and dire shape. frustrated by the delay in the state of rome. the monk ageleria writes to the conclave. he was an example ofhese kinds of crazy guys live on beings and read nothing but the
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gospel. >> angeleria warns the cardinals vengeance will follow them. taking his letter as a devine sign, the cardinals decided to elect him as pope. >> in the 13th century, you have great politicians, sort of how this is not what a pope should be. what they did was elect a pope as unworldly as you could possibly hope for. a hermit. they called him the heavenly one. >> celestine the 5th did not
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want to be pope. celestine the v was hopeless. >> during the five months, the frenchman plait french manipulated him to get control and power. and the romans and the cardinals became increasingly alarmed. he was helped to retire by his success successor. it was said that he whispered through the hole and the pope saw where he prayed and he said he was the voice of god and told the pope to resign so he can be elected. >> simply living in retirement for the good of his health. the couple of years before pope
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benedict the xvi resigned, he took a trip. people did not know it at the time but that may have been a signal because a year and a half later, he too would resign. >> but despite the peace which celestine the v resigned. . the new pope must make sure that celestine is never heard from again. >> after celestine retires, he felt it was dangerous to ve two living popes. >> you cannot have another pope knocking about and threatening the other pope. immediately after celestine
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leave the vatican, he was attacked and locked down. >> he did not want to talk to anybody and he did not want to be able to communicate with his supporters so essentially putting him under house arrests in order to protect his own legitimacy as pope. >> so celestine dies in captivity. >> in the 13th century, however, a retired pope is not the only threat of the pope's sitting power. >> kings are just as threatening to people as previous popes. >> plthere were a bit of a probm
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as to who's in charge, was it the king or was it the pope? >> so much of the maneuvering and back and forth and jousting that goes on has to do with the fact that it was in italy. italy is not a country yet. italy is basically up for grabs. the normans grabbed part of it and the franks grabbed apart of it. italy is always contested. if you are going to control any part of italy, you have toll get t the pope on your side. >> you want to raise an army, you need the pope's blessing. >> because of the volatile nature of medieval politics, -- >> the pope did not have an army. he did not have anything other than moral persuasion on his side. what we see early popes doing
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are making these alliances with secular leaders. >> at the end of the 13th century, the most powerful monarch europe is king phillip the iv. he manipulated king celestine. the new pope bonaface the viii. when he became pope, he saw the french went way out of bound so he positioned himself as the anti-france pope. phillip the iv has this real clashes of fire. >> bonaface began harsh language. >> he says listen, son. literally that's how he begins
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it. god has sent us over kings and kingdom. let no one persuade you that you have superior authority. it is this very explicit language that says the pope has control over the king. >> king phillip has androgen da and he does not attempt to let one subordinate pope stand in his way. >> to severe crohn's disease. then i realized something was missing... me. my symptoms were keeping me from being there. so, i talked to my doctor and learned humira is for people who still have symptoms of crohn's disease after trying other medications. and the majority of people on humira saw significant symptom relief and many achieved remission in as little as 4 weeks. humira can lower your ability to fight infections, including tuberculosis. serious, sometimes fatal infections and cancers, including lymphoma, have happened; as have blood, liver, and nervous system problems,
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. after the resignation of
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celestine the v, king phillips is determined to reassert his power. the new pope bonaface the earth refuses to give into the greedy monarch. >> pope the 4th comes to the thrown. he like other monarch needs more money. >> when boniface dies, the pope will give him what he wants is elected. >> e exprehe expressed clearly cardinals that he prefers this pla particular candidate. it was not an easy election. ultimately, the french side were strong enough to win.
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>> he takes the name clement v. >> he's been king phillips has hold on pope clement the v. clement was notorious, he just did what he was asked. >> he also sociobiologigned of x expulsion of jews as a danger to the church. in knowledge the wealth is going to go to phillips. that's very blatant. >> by 1309, king phillips turned pope clement v.
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>> peter is buried at the vatican hill and st. peters basilica is built over his tomb. his tomb, the foundation chart. >> king diphillips demand to lee it to france. the pope will end upsetting up quarters at avignon.
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>> rather than being a landscape where the pope could actually act as an independent power and make alliances with anyone he who he is. she w chose. >> he was clearly under the control of one king. that's what warped the pavacy. >> how manhattan is going to be the capital of the united states. >> for the first time of the invention of the conclave, the one that's true power over the church is not the one chosen by god. but a power hungry monarch instead. >> it is a dream of all great rulers to control. >> phillips actually got pavacy into france. once you have done that, the pope can become a puppet of what you want to get done.
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>> that was a moment for the church that becomes very troubling. >> you are advocating where the church is supposed to lie. if you leave the bones of peter behind and you are not moving them. you are moving to this other place and what you are saying maybe this is not important to the church as we have thought it was previously. that becomes a really dangerous situation for holding not just the pavacy but the religious of the church. >> once the church becomes established, pope clement v
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found out -- >> the college of card dminals which became center on this was absolutely notorious for luxurious living and banquetban. >> that's in southern france, it is central to europe than the italian peninsula. it was efficient and it had a decent bureaucracy. it is actually a good case for the avignon. >> big problem though, it does not have the tomb of peter. what is the point of the pope who does not sit at the tomb of peter. >> pope clement the v remains to continue to live at the church. the successor continues in
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avignon as the pope is over him. >> the paper was captured by the king of france for a long period of time. it was completely the instrument of the french crown and almost every cardinal who was appointed to the college of cardinals during this time was french. >> it appears that it has become an armed of the french crowd for good. at we can't guarantee you'll find gold
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i in the mid 1360s, the pavency has left rome. the cardinals are almost all french and become accustomed to the luxurious lifestyle. outside the walls of the castle, the rest of the europe is a waste land. setting the stage for what will be the last people's resignation for 600 years. >> black death.
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this contagious dreadful disease, devastated europe. pret >> pretty much the entire population was wiped out. >> in wake of the plague, the pavacy is forced to reevaluate and abandon the city. >> with the absent of pavancy from rome. now, this now, they're going to go into france. law and order became very, very shaky. pickpocketer pickpockete pickpocketers. >> to become anything more than just a bit of a wreck.
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fed up with the shelter of avignon. he must return to the bones of st. peters in rome. urban v. he was appalled by the self indulgence and avignon. he announced that you can only have one course at dinner. it becomes clear that as long as the pavacy is tied to the for chu fortune to any country. it was not an easy transition. >> the cardinals become used to their indulgence lifestyle in
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avignon did not appreciate the run down condition in the city. >> pope urban v and gregory xi remains firm. >> there is a lot of resentment about them having sort of come down to the worm. it shows what a cushion isolated existence they were living in avignon. you have a europe that's devastated by the plague and the entire structure of europe has changed and 90% of the population have died. the primary concern for the cardinals is they are not getting enough forces. its gotten so out of touch with what the church is supposed to be doing. >> when pope gregory die in 1378. many of the cardinals prepares to move back to the avignon.
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will return to the principles of the church they once knew. >> the rural population who were all very volatile and regularly intervene in paper elections. after a long string of french popes, we determined to have an italian pope. >> the conclave of 1378 is met with angry mobs chanted outside and demanding for investment for their beloved city. >> although the cardinals missed their lifestyle, they're worried or what may happen if the roman's demands were not met. but, he seems to be inhinge to
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become the hope. >> instead of being a unifying figure. he becomes this division. >> half of the cardinals stand behind pope urban the vi in rome. while the other half panicked and flee back to rome. >> clement, the vii. catholics are torn between two different popes running two functionally church bro bureaucracies from two different places. >> there is an election of the pope and some people did not like it, some people say we are going to set up a church place itself. this becomes a big battle. >> so you are solving one
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problem. getting the pope back created a much worst one. >> we went through a long period when there were always two different people claiming to be pope. this unprecedented break in the church is what catholics referred to the western skittism. you got popes who say i am pope. who's the antipope or who's the real for nearly 40 years the church is divided. kath libs are forced to choose the true heir to st. peters legacy. >> where's the place we are centered? that needs to flow from the pope. what do you do if you have two popes. then is becomes a problem for the church and you have to sort
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that out. >> if there's one st. peter he can only have one legacy. held by only one man. two popes become a clear sign that the spiritual source of pay pel power had been abandoned. >> having two popes is impossib. you have to dohing somet about this. the future of the church hanging in the balance. and 1415, cardinals on both side look for a solution. they convene in general counsel. and con stance. and popes involved are summoned and either deposed or invited to resign. >> both the roman pope gregory the 12th and the pope benedict the 12th are forced to resign.
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last time the pope resigned happened just about 600 years ago. that would be pope gregory xii back in 1415. >> throughout the history of the catholic church, only four popes have ever resigned. when pope benedict xvi is the only one who has ever done it peacefully and of his own volition. but what does it mean to have two living pes? how can twn ld one legacy of st. peter? >> everyone was surprised. catholics were surprised, non-catholics were surprised. it was a strong contrast to john paul ii who insisted on remaining pope until his dying gasp. >> in 2005, after reigning for 27 years, pope john paul ii passed away after a long and public battle with parkinson's disease.
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>> in a way, the act of resignation is a devastating comment on the last three to six years of his predecessor. of flight in the face of the whole theology of the papacy as it devolved in modern time. the notion that john paul had propagated that the papacy was a cross which was laid on your shoulders and you could not shake it off, benedict said, well, it's a job, and if you can't do it, you should let somebody else try. >> by resigning in the face of old age, pope benedict xvi has made a clear statement about the divinity of the papal office. >> i think that was a reminder to everybody in any position of authority or power that it's not just about me. it's actually about am i being effective. am i really serving the community and serving the church properly? >> what benedict did in
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resigning was to make it easier for successive popes to say, i'm 80 years old. i'm not going to stay till i fall down dead in this office. that's thinking more legacy than anything else. >> alighting from the helicopter, francis then seeing his predecessor goes toward him to embrace him. this is a historic moment. >> there's not any kind of precedent. benedict's resignation really did do it voluntary and of his own vow. >> today pope benedict xvi lives in a quiet apartment in the vatican. he has passed the holy office peacefully down to pope francis, leaving the power struggles of the past behind. >> the biggest gift that ever happened to the papacy is pope benedict xvi resigning because he allowed the papacy not to become a trap.
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>> in terms of looking to the future, as any pope begins to get older or begins to have any difficulties, the question of resignation will be on the horizon. >> frances has also talked about resigning, and you don't know how serious he is. he's a mischievous man, he's old and he's got an agenda, and he's an old man, he may want to see that agenda out first. but he maybe. he watched the lesson of pope john paul ii collapse into hopelessness. >> it would be interesting if popes said, i've done my bit. someone else can have a go. >> in announcing his voluntary retirement, pope benedict has shaken the foundation of the papacy.
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if pope francis retires as well, a 2,000-year-old institution could be fundamentally changed forever. one of the most powerful men on earth. holds a position that is existed for nearly 2,0 years as the world changes and faith evolves. his authority remains. what began with one aposle. has become 1.2 billion followers under one man. he's the head of the catholic church. the pope. and this is his path to power.


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