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tv   Jerusalem City of Faith and Fury  CNN  August 1, 2021 7:00pm-8:00pm PDT

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because the medium is a cultural mirror. it needs to reflect all of our experiences. these shows are what we need. the jokes disarm you and you can see the human behind the humor . jerusalem is the universe city, the chosen city. the holy city. that's just blessing but it gives you its danger and ugliness, too. because it means that people believe that they must possess it absolutely.
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>> the conflict we are experiencing today, you see it experienced in jerusalem for thousands of years. for the jews, where solomon built the holy temple. >> fo for muslims, where muhammad made the journey. >> no other individual changed the landscape in the way herod the great did. at a time of islamic rule, the british badly wanted to control the holy land.
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fo for israeli, -- >> the past is never dead. if there is a city in the world to which it applies, is jerusalem. ♪
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over a thousand years have passed since the time of herod. by 1187 ad, the world is a different place. the jewish people have driven from jerusalem and now living in exile across europe and africa. as two new religions dominate the middle east. christianity has its beginning as the break away movement within judaism. this center figure is a jew. jesus is the person who begins to talk about different ways of practicing the faith. islam started. when the prophet of muhammad emerged.
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gradually he built it himself, a group of followers became stronger and stronger. after 629, he was able to concord meccah and control much of the western. >> jerusalem is a holy city for christians chltd this is a place where jesus died. he was crucified outside of the city. >> jerusalem is portrayed as being right at the center of the world. you have africa to the south, asia to the north and europe to the west, they literally imagine jerusalem to be the naval of the world. >> for muslims is the size of the prophet. >> from the dome of the rock. the prophet ascended on a horse with wings to heaven where he builds several prophets.
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he received the commandments of how muslims should pray. that's very symbolic and it showcases how important jerusalem is to muslim worship but also muslim identity. muslim leaders ruled jewrusalem from 638 until the first crusade. >> juthe aim is to recover the crisis city from the hands of the muslims. >> they were able to control of the huge part of palestine. essentially, they banned the
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muslims. >> the muslims of the city wants the throw out the werner werner. solodun is famous for his generosity. his administrator says we got to hide money from him because if he got it, he'll give it away. in order to conquer jerusalem, he's first got to unite all of the desperate era of armies into one. meaning, he spent a lot of his career fighting against other muslims. >> he would say i don't want to fight you, you should come on my
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side. we need the combined strength and recover for muslim. many choose war. so one of the tensions in solodun's life is the fact he spends quite a long time fighting his fellow muslims in creating that empire. >> he said to his son later, don't get used to killing. don't get into killing and don't believe in killing because blood never sleeps. you should not confuse our desire to transform solodun in to this age.
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he used his diplomacy and violence. the crusader kingdom is in turmoil. >> the politics of jerusalem are horrendously complicated. we have different factions and vendettas and worrying families. an easter mass all rolled into one. >> a new ruler emerged on the throne. ghee --
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>> he became ruler of jerusalem. >> king ghee's in experiences quickly put to the test. solodun was very shrewd, provoking the christians to come out and meet them first. he felt it was his chance to strike him once and for all. if he could win, it would be a huge victory and if not it could be disaster. "jerusalem: city of faith and fu fury" brought to you by xiidra. differently,
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king guy rallied his army outside the walls of jerusalem and marched north. while he has less experience as a great muslim leader, king guy believes his army is invisible. >> when the crusaders captured jerusalem, they discovered the relic of the true cross. >> a small cross that people said it was from jesus crucified. >> the cross was supposed to have miracle power that would give soldiers and anyone who would carry that into battle the power to win over the enemies.
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as the crusaders set out, solodon is very prepared. >> this was july. the wind was blowing west ward so all the smoke and the heat went the direction of the army. >> thus causing them to choke and swelter and suffer even more and to add and compound to the chaos and beating the drum really loudly.
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>> it was catastrophe for the crusaders. the king of jerusalem was captured. >> solodyn had king guy brought before him and he's certain that he's going to be killed.
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but, he does not do that. he's well aware that something the christians really want back. so i don't think you can equate of any loss of money because it surpasses any money you can imagine. >> it is vital to have it as a good bargaining tool. it will be used in negotiations between muslims and crusaders for decades to come. solodyn decided to free g guy solignan. >> this is the 2nd of october,
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it happens to be the anniversary of the muhammad of prophet. >> anyone living in the city of jerusalem must have feared for their lives. throughout the period of crusades, there had been members of sieges and battles and mass slaughters. there were definitely fear of retribution and any transfer of one city to another would be accompanied by a massive bloodshed. they did an astoundingly terrible thing. they killed every man and woman and child in an orgy destruction. they be headed them. they literally road their horses deep in blood in their legs. it was the most unforgivable moment and crime.
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>> but, solodyn did not go in and slaughter all the christians in there. he was a noble warrior, he allowed all the christians to live. >> he decides that christians would be allowed to leave on payment of a ransom. anyone who can't pay would be enslaved. some of the church carrying enormous amounts of valuable objects, jewelry and precious of objects and a lady is worth a lot of money. >> those church leaders only interested in carrying as much as they can and they left the food. that made solodyn very angry. he just let them go and gave up on collecting any of that.
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>> his main priority after finally conquering jerusalem is to reclaim the haram with the mosque at its center. >> haram packed into the islamic space and repaired. >> rock descended from heaven and coverered with marble and stripped off of images of religious figures on the wall, they were removed and covered. there is a big cross on top of where the dome of the rock is. they climb up and pulled it down. you can see the berlin wall and toppling of the statute of sudan hassan. solodyn got down on his hands and knees and cleaned the temple
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mound to pure fide as an islamic shrine. >> while he focuses on jerusalem, the crusaders have regrouped under the command of king guy. >> solodyn allowed king guy to go freely on the condition he goes back to france. guy is not so naive. he recognizes that he still has another card to play. >> in allowing him to live, he allowed him to reinstitute his army. >> king guy is about to be joined with history's most ferocious warriors. ♪
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♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ solodyn reclaimed jerusalem. in focusing on his city, heover looked a crucial threat.
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solodyn did not kill every jerusalem. he allowed them to go back from the port where they came in. the city of acre. it was capitol of the crusade project in the middle east. it was important for them because the port was huge. the city is large. king guy has not got many men but he knows he needs to give them a target to fight for. he decides to attack acre. without acre they have little hope of doing its. >> learning the attack.
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solodyn marched to acre. what he's not counting on is european crusaders on ships coming towards him in troves. with one of those soldiers being one of the most ferocious warriors of all time, richard the lion. >> he kills and leaves dead bodies around so that other people are afraid of him. >> he's fearless and incredibly energetic and he's efficient and he's a flamboyant character. >> he has the irony of being a bad son, brother and an absent king but a brilliant military
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strategist. it was much more of a kind of person that would react on the bases of instincts rather than thinking. this is why he's called lion hearted. he fights ruthlessly. he was a very powerful figure. king guy became a footnote. nobody bothered or worried about who he was because it did not matter. >> both king richard and solodyn believed that jerusalem is a place for faith. >> the crusades are often remembered with the bravery of all the nights but it was the least romantic event of those
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time times. how do you sell an ugly war? you have to tell stories of how noble it is. you tell people the city were jesus being raised by the dead. >> the people in the west, the son of satan. >> that drove of the heart of every christian. hey, i may not understand economics and i may not understand politics but you start messing with jesus and now i am going to go fight. >> the third crusade was carried out mostly by men who had grown up on stories of the first crusade. they grown up on stories of daring and commitment to the cause and service to god, service that was heroic and larger than life. also, if you went on one of
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these crusades, you can have an indulgence. that's something that forgives your sins on earth. for many it became an important piece of why they went on crusades. it was like let's go take back on the holy land, the land that jesus walked on and secondarily i can get all my sins for given. >> richards descends on acre with 8,000 soldiers. he sees the control of king guy army and launches the third crusade. >> richard the lion heart is an impatient man. he's not going to hold the city under siege and wait for the people to starve out. what he does is he swings around the backside of the city and bust in. by doing this, he's able to drive solodyn's forces out of
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the city. >> solodyn leading from the front but he's unable to breakthrough into acre. >> the result of the battle of acre is that richard the lionheart does something no one else able to do. he hands solodyn his first loss at the hands of crusaders. so solodyn is forced to retrieve and now the crusade everies almost being wiped out of the holy land are recons substituted and reinvigorated and they are ready to recapture jerusalem.
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solodyn had no choice but to negotiate and surrender. they we released of large number of prisoners and arms the ships they had. so solodyn wants the muslims return to him safely and we are talking about 3,000. richard's army traveled long and far and they were tired. richard himself realizes he can't stay in the holy land forever, by stalling and not paying the ransom, solodyn is hoping some of richard's army would return and go home. >> the longer this goes on, the
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more suspicious he gets. he flew into a fit of rage, something that he was known to do. he took the hostages and he marches them out acre and he had them executed in cold blood. it is a terribly ruthless and brutal thing to do. >> it is something utterly devastated solodyn completeliy and he tries to rescue the people but too late. he's devastated. his secretary says he cries. richard turns his full attention to jerusalem. >> richard realized that his best bet to build an attack against jerusalem is to march
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further south and try to take. this way he can block from any kind of enforcement from the west. >> as richard the lionheart and his army moves off the coast, solodyn loses battle after battle. for solodyn is another setback. you can imagine a man used to winning victory after victory finding himself losing and losing to this small, rag tag army of crusaders. the best thing he can do is retrieve and guard the city of jerusalem. the crusaders is all about recovering jerusalem.
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. what worries richard is when you capture jerusalem, what do you do with it? one of the challenges that richard and his army faced, was that jerusalem has these big defending walls. if they destroy the walls of jerusalem, who's going to defend it. richard recognizes it may not be the best interests to bust through the gates and tear down the city walls. >> richard surprises solodyn by wheeling a new weapon. diplomacy. >> richard sent a message to solodyn. and solodyn refused. they're making that claim to one another citing their scriptures and explaining why the city of jerusalem is so deeply important to each side. it is a great example of how
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important the city is symbolically and emotionally to christians and muslims. then negotiations of some of the most fascinating negotiations take place. they are exactly alike. peace negotiations between israeli and the palestinians. they say essentially you think jerusalem is yours and we think jerusalem is ours. solodyn declines to meet richard in person. it is not proper that leaders should meet. if we don't make an agreement, we may then fight again. >> so the person who tries to negotiate was the brother of solodyn. the name is aladdin.
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by all account, he's equally skilled as solodyn. he's a man of courtesy and culture and he enjoys talking with richard about music and singing and hunting and a positive relationship that's formed between the two of them. >> and in course of negotiations, there is a solution put forward by richard and that's his sister. >> joanna is richard the lion lionheart's sister. richard stops on sicily and picks her up. joanna is a bargaining chip. much like the woman of the old testament, the way women are treated are about which
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marriages can achieve alliances. richard proposes to offer his sister joanna in marriage to solodyn's brother. the muslims would have gotten the hinder land and the capitol jerusalem would be jointly ruled by joanna and aladale. it all hinges on solodyn agreeing to compromise.
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. richard proposed a radical part partition of the holy land where his sister will married solodyn's brother, aladal. we have a deal. >> before it could be finalized, the crusaders' camp learned of
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the agreement. everyone was shocked by it. the two people that really accepted were richard the lionheart and solodyn himself. people believed, it makes confrontation or discussion even that much sharper. >> in order to save face, richard feels it is important to add apart of his demand for solodyn to convert to christianity. the treaty fell apart and no peace was made. >> it would have been obviously
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an event if the two were married. that was a great idea and that is coexistence. it would have played today and the way republican yans negotiate the faith of jerusalem. >> any hope of compromise gone and conflict is inevitable. both sides prepare for battle. solodyn personally taking charge, being involved in moving stones to help prepare the walls. he polluted all the wells around the city, he's very worried indeed. >> the loss of acre was a big blow to his ego and his reputation. if he were to lose to jerusalem, everything would be lost
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richard received an alarming message. >> his brother is conspireing with phillips to become king of england. richard is essentially pulls into two directions. either he reclaims his throne from john or he solidifies holdings and maintain his defenses. he can't do both at the same time. he recognizes if he stays one moment longer, he'll be out of a kingdom. so he decides to go back. >> it is a course of great anger among the troops but as he sees it, it is the only realistic option. >> richard retreats to acre to begin the long voyage home. leaving the crusaders who remain in the holy land leaderless.
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solodyn took advantage of that and when richard had to go back to england. solodyn realized that was the chance to strike and launch an attack. solodyn goes down to javer. >> he decides he must return to the holy land once more. >> and the gars sonrisons are a point of surrender. . he picks up any weapons he can find and begins battle with solodyn and his army.
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richard is outnumbered, 3-1. you can have 20,000 but you may defeated by 200 soldiers. he's a fighter. >> the way to imagine the end of the battle is the scene at the end of rocky where they just punched each other out and they're both exhausted and
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the battle hof jaffa defeatd the army of king richard. both armies are exhausted. let's come to a resolution. solodyn writes back to him sas saying, fine, i can't give you jerusalem. jerusalem will never forgive me for that. after all is said and done and all the bloodshed, we are going to have to agree to sheer the casharethe
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city of god. that's what they agreed on. >> an agreement is made. >> solodyn realizes that the element to power and war, whatever the muslims at that time had control remains in the muslims' lands and whatever rae ma whatever remains in crewcrusade hand. the treaty of jaffa, the first in history. richard rushed back to england to rescue his kingdom. finally, 1197, in the middle of the battle, he was hit in his
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chest and ultimately killed. richard was a great king who lived by the sword and died by the sword. >> solodyn is able to return to damascus where he's given a hero welcome. he spent years and years fighting, physically and mentally he's shattered and sisix or seven months solodyn came home, solodyn fell ill. this was a man who united all of these muslim roots and took back jerusalem from crusaders. and now what's going to happen to all these muslim groups that solodyn united? >> his army is passed onto his
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sons and his family descends into internal warfare. when solodyn dies, muslim unity dies with him. >> i don't think the struggle between solodyn and richard was ever a struggle. it was a struggle for what jerusalem presents and what also the role. >> with solodyn, the desire to conquer jerusalem really did come from this deep conviction to control jerusalem, to control this holy site and control the dome of the rock and would move is islam forward. >> the legacy of the crusades and jerusalem among arabs is a
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horrible legacy. we have a way that the arabs or the muslims remember it as a form of modern attack. >> jerusalem is a site that believers fought over whether those believers have been muslims or christians for years because they believe that holding that land is important to their faith. >> if you are a believer, you believe absolutely your faith is the truth. so that's why in the case of jerusalem apply city, people are abso absolute, it is the only city on earth exists twice and it gives it as special nature but it also gives its danger and ugliness because it means that people believe they must possess it
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absolutely and that's jerusalem's tragedy. >> the british was half a world away. their fascination of jerusalem only begins with king richard. it will be 725 years before they get another chance to stake a claim to the holy city. you guys are working hard for once. >> the american workplace is our home in many place. >> where is my sandwich? we all need a reason to get up the the morning. >> the american office is iconic. >> how many people can i fire? >> none. >> you are picking healthcare plan. >> okay, we'll table that for the time being. >> terrible bosses. >> you got spunk. >>


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