tv Anderson Cooper 360 CNN December 23, 2021 5:00pm-6:00pm PST
hundreds of witnesses have cooperated, even as a handful fight in court. >> we won't stop fighting for democracy. we won't stop fighting for rule of law. we're not going to back down. we won't be intimidated. we will keep going. >> reporter: jessica schneider, cnn, washington. thank you for joining us. "ac 360" starts now. the definancense said a mis is not a crime. the jury said it was mansl manslaughter. when kim potter shot and killed daunte wright in april, she had 26 years on the job. they had countless hours of training as any officer does on her duties, on the law, on when to use the taser she carried on the left side of her body and when, if ever, to use her handgun on the right. on the 11th of april, in the middle of a traffic stop, all
that training broke down. this is what happened. >> i shot him. oh, my god. >> kim, sit down. >> oh, my god. >> it was the worst mistake anyone entrusted with using deadly force can make. during her cross examination, potter admitted that wright never threatened her or the other officers. >> never saw a gun? >> no. >> he never threw a punch? >> no. >> never kicked anyone? >> no. >> never said, i'm going to kill you? >> no. >> never said, i'm going to shoot you? >> no. >> never said, there's a gun in the car and i'm coming after you? >> no. >> yet, she fired and wright died.
>> i'm sorry it happened. i'm so sorry. >> her show of remorse did not, in the end, move the jury. at least not enough to acquit. >> we the jury on the charge of manslaughter in the first degree, while committing a misdemeanor, on or about april 11, 2021, in the state of minnesota, find the defendant guilty. we the jury on the charge of manslaughter in the second degree, culpable negligence on or about april 11, 2021, in the state of minnesota, find the defendant guilty. >> the judge then polled the jurors and revoked her bail. she was taken into custody where she will await sentencing in
february. as a first-time offender, she likely faces between 6 and 8 1/2 years in prison. joining us now, jonathan masson, a mentor to daunte wright. thank you for joining us. you have spoken to us over the last year. i really appreciate your insight. what's your reaction to the verdict tonight? >> i'm very pleased with the verdict from the jury. like the judge told them, they are heroes. this was the verdict that i know everybody in minneapolis was hoping for. the jury did come up with the right verdict on this one. >> is it justice in your mind? >> no, it's not. it's accountability. for justice would be him being here with us. but this does show law enforcement and systematic -- people who are in these positions of power, when they
make these mistakes or cause these ultimate deaths to our people within our society, you will be held accountable. in minnesota, with george floyd, we had that happen. now everybody was awaiting this verdict. it was the right decision. >> i understand you were in downtown minneapolis when you heard the verdict. what's the mood there now? >> you know, everybody -- there is a sigh of relief for our community. but many people are saying, you know, there's many families like this in the same position. right? kimberly potter, this is not her first time in this situation. she was involved with another shooting. we felt that that was covered up. for us, it's a sigh of relief. we got, i guess, a bad officer off the street. moving forward, i think this will be the model. not only for minneapolis,
minnesota, but hopefully for all of our society. >> one of the things that's most painful for you is you had conversations with daunte in the past about how to interact with police. what were those conversations like? what did you tell him? >> you know, working at the school with him, i would tell him and all the other kids how to behave, how to interact with police. because me being a man of color, being from minneapolis and having several encounters with the police, i know that your life can be taken from you within a second. sometimes, it won't be -- it won't be held into account. we don't see this type of accountability. i tell kids how to behave, how to act. daunte was one of the kids. unfortunately, you know, this officer made a mistake that cost him his life. ultimately, the jury said, it's manslaughter.
you know, as a mentor to these kids, this is -- on all angles, i think this will be an example for people to say, man, things could have been different on his reaction, her reaction. but ultimately, this is what happens in our society when these type of things happen. >> lastly, what do you want people to know about daunte? how do you want him to be remembered? >> well, you know, he was a father. right? he is a son. he was a part of our society. he had friends. he was a brother. so people to remember him as a human being. that we all have to guide and mentor and stand up for and ultimately we did this here. i'm just -- i hope everybody understands that his life mattered as well. >> jonathan masson, we are sorry for your loss. nice to speak to you tonight. thank you so much. >> thank you. omar jimenez has been
covering the trial. talk to us about the reaction in the courtroom when the verdict was read. >> reporter: when the verdict was read, his mother burst into tears as former officer kim potter stood there motionless. it was an emotional moment. at one point, one of the jorz ap -- jurors appeared to be struggling. potter's husband yelled, i love you, as she yelled, i love you. daunte wright's father and mother were embracing in a long hug with the prosecution. wright's mother later said that today we got accountability. that's what we have been trying to get from the very beginning. this is the second jury to convict a former minneapolis area police officer, the first was earlier this year with derek chauvin. minnesota attorney general keith ellison said this sent a clear
message that juries want to hold these police officers to high standards. for law enforcement, this shouldn't be a symbol of shame but instead as a moment to restore trust through accountability. he added, as we heard frank masson say, this isn't full justice. at the end of the day, potter still is able to correspond and speak to her family. daunte wright cannot. >> in terms of sentencing, when does that happen? any indication what the judge will do? >> reporter: so sentencing is set for february 18. potter is currently being held without bail. she's been seen smiling in some of her latest mugshots that were taken after she was convicted of manslaughter on both -- on two counts for the killing of daunte wright. in the sentencing, because she has no criminal history, she will likely look at a sentence range between a little over six years and a little under nine
years. in between, the prosecution will argue for aggravating factors to tack on to the recommended guidelines within the state of minnesota here. along with we will hear victim impact statements. people that were -- who had their lives changed from this, who will argue that the sentence should be more severe than what the guidelines show. another note that i want to make known was daunte wright's mother today said that his favorite number was 23. here comes this conviction on the 23rd of december. >> omar jimenez, thank you so much for being there. two criminal defense attorneys, sara, were you surprised by the verdict? we were all together last night talking about this as the jury finished for the day. no questions yesterday. there had been some notion they might be hung. >> good to be with you. i was surprised and not
surprised. i was surprised because as we spoke about this, 26 hours of deliberation, an entire day with no questions, clearly a jury that was struggling with the idea that she may be guilty under the law but they couldn't find her guilty. we thought -- my tea leaves were aligned with mark's that this was going to be a hung jury and a mistrial. in that sense, i was surprised. but i'm not surprised because this jury basically set aside bias and heart, applied the law to the facts and most definitely potter was guilty and guilty. as someone represented officers and civilians, i will tell you three to five years ago, this would be a full acquittal, not even a concern over a mistrial. the fact that we are now seeing more accountability for officers, the idea they are not above the law, if they do the crime, they do the time, it's not systemic change, but it's definitely a changing trend. this is not something that would
have happened earlier. we have to remember that intent was never an element to these crimes that were charged. mistake was never a defense. this was the just verdict and the right outcome. >> mark, what do you think did happen in that jury room now that you heard the verdict and saw the reaction from the jurors themselves? >> well, they did struggle. i really thought after -- i acknowledge i was rung when i thou -- i was wrong when i thought it was going to be a hung jury. there was so little anger. i understand the law. you don't have to show that. but we as people and therefore jurors look at a case like this and they want to see that feeling, they want the animosity to try to convict somebody like miss potter of this. i was very surprised that it went towards conviction on both.
i understand that they wrestled with it long and hard. i guess there were a couple that were holding out for acquittal. the other -- the ten or nine or whatever it might have been were able to convince them that this should be a conviction. i have to tell you, realizing that daunte wright's family feels justified and this is the right verdict, i don't know this is a good verdict for the criminal justice system if we hold cops to this level of criminal liability with what was obviously a horrible and tragic mistake but one with absolutely no animus. >> well, but based on what the prosecution said there and the law, a mistake is not a defense here. >> it's not a defense. i really believe that when we look at -- it has to be criminal negligence. it's not -- it's gross negligence. it's that negligence where you act in such a bad way that you
should be held criminally responsible. obviously, i respect the jury's verdict. i still don't think that grabbing a gun, believing it to be a taser, saying that it's a taser, not having any prior bad acts that you could go back and say, this is a bad seed, it's all of that that i'm concerned about that we are holding cops to that responsibility. >> do you agree with sara this would not have happened three or five years ago, this verdict? >> i do. we are finally in the days of floyd and now this case and some others that we have been involved in and have talked about. we are without question holding cops more responsible for their actions. they don't get a free pass. i do think we need to talk about where had came from. i think this is an implicit bias reaction that we now need to truly train cops and law enforcement how to rethink their perspective of young black males. there's no question that something in kim potter's -- the
back of her brain said, this is more dangerous than it actually was. >> sara, what was the one key piece of evidence or the one key moment of the trial then that you think pushed this toward conviction? >> i think -- i don't know exactly what changed the trajectory of obviously a struggling jury. i do believe that the ability to compare the weapons and just see how grossly negligent she was or criminally negligent she was given the vast differences between these two weapons. so although i see mark's point, this was just a very egregious case. it's not every day an officer with 26 years of training and certification mistakes a gun for a taser. i think that the jury's ability -- i mentioned that the other night. that could potentially change a trajectory of this struggle that
they were having and being deadlocked. >> they could hold those items in the jury room. they had access to them. they could touch them. is that something that happens? >> no. it doesn't. typically, with a case like this that turns on those pieces of evidence, of course, it would be allowed. it was safe. it was critical that this jury got to see for themselves and feel for themselves how incredibly negligent she was. >> mark, you say you were surprised by this verdict. was there something the prosecution did well you think that got the conviction here? was there something that the defense didn't do well? >> i thought the defense did a good job. the prosecution did a good job. they got their conviction because they were able to show exactly what sara just said, that this was not an easy mistake to make. this was not you grab one gun that looks the same or feels the same but it was in the wrong holster. they did a good job of saying what they needed to to get the
conviction they got, which is, it is so negligent, it is so unusual to grab a taser and think it's a gun that that act itself evidences recklessness. when you drive a car and you do 70 miles an hour through a school zone. it's so, per se, reckless that you have to be held responsible. i'm concerned but i respect the jury's verdict. i think the prosecution did a good job of separating out her behavior, her rehomorse and sayg we have to hold people responsible when they do something tragic when it's so unbelievably negligent. they did a good job with that. >> sara, what do you think about sentencing? >> just to mark's point, i think the prosecution -- the idea that they hammered in the mistake is not a defense. the defense got to get in an expert who was talking about the reasonableness, the consciousness of potter about the mistake. i think that was really key to
remind the jury that, forget the noise about a mistake, because it's not a defense. sentencing, i think we will expect aggravating factors to be argued by the prosecution. we will expect mitigating factors in response by the defense. the idea that she has a family. she's had 26 years with law enforcement. she never had any record of discipline or criminal record. of course, that mistake which was not a defense could potentially be a mitigating factor for the defense in sentencing. the prosecution will argue she violated public trust in such a horrible way and that she violated department policy by not practicing with her taser. it will be interesting to see what the judge does. the judge can go from zero to max on count one. >> thanks for being with us and helping us understand the trial.
>> have a great hole diidays. covid cases skyrocket as well as something almost unimaginable. doctors and nurses facing hostility, threats, violence from covid patients and their families. with his old boss talking about boosters, we will talk with dr. jerome adams. that ahead. [ chantell ] when my teeth started to deteriorate, i stopped hanging out socially. it was a easy decision -- clearchoice. [ awada ] the health of our teeth plays a significant role
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as we go into our second christmas with covid, there were no shortage of developments today. the fda approved a second day for treating it. merck joins pfizer. from the fda, word that one of several antibody treatments on the market is likely to be effective against the new omicron strain, which continues to surge. look, cases are averaging more than 180,000 a day. new york state and washington, d.c. both shattered case records. more than 70,000 hospitalized today. deaths up over 14% from last month. the cdc put out new guidance cuttincut i cutting quarantine time for medical professionals. think about what too many are facing. in addition to everything that comes with fighting a pandemic. they are up against an epidemic
of hostility. >> my name is jack. i'm an icu doctor. >> reporter: this doctor spends his day treating covid-19 patients fighting for their lives in minnesota. like so many other doctors, he feels the strain. what's it been like to work fwh t -- work in this atmosphere? >> exhausting. frequently heartbreaking. it's demoralizing at times. >> reporter: he says it's also getting hostile as patients are demanding bogus medical treatment. are people treating these like they are picking items off a menu? >> absolutely. folks act as if they can come into the hospital and request any certain therapy they want or conversely decline any therapy that they want with the idea being that somehow they can pick and choose and direct their
the therapy. it doesn't work. >> reporter: that's putting health care workers at risk, hospitals are facing a slew of lawsuits, demanding risky treatments. across the country, there are reports of growing hostility between medical workers and patients and their families. it's a daily dose of threats. >> insult your intelligence, your ability and most hurtful they say that by not using the therapies you are intentionally trying to harm the people that we have given everything to save. >> reporter: what has been the worst experience you had? >> the most difficult experience we had was a patient and family who under a pseudonym made threats against the hospital. there was a reference to making sure the hospital is locked and we have people coming for you. >> reporter: a death threat? >> i'm not sure how a person would take, we're going to march on the hospital, we're coming
for you as anything other than a death threat. >> tensions are high. >> reporter: this woman is a nurse practitioner and works at the university of texas at tyler. last summer, she started a hotline offering teachers and health care workers mental health support. >> i used to think of it as being overwhelmed. that doesn't even address it. the way i address it now with folks when i talk to them is, i refer to it as moral injury. >> reporter: what do you mean? >> we want to help folks. now that folks aren't getting vaccinated, they are not believing us, they are questioning our education and our background. it's hurtful. we are exhausted. we are tired. we have been morally injured. >> reporter: she says some nurses have endured so much abuse that even getting them to walk from their car into work is a challenge. >> it's like when a veteran comes back from the war. he may be out of the war, but he hasn't left that war.
>> reporter: it's crazy that you are talking about a health care job as if it was walking into a battlefield. >> it's a battlefield. it is a battlefield. >> reporter: the doctor thinks of the pandemic's early days, when grateful communities banged pots and pans to honor front line health care workers. >> the vast majority of patients we take care of now come to our interactions with distrust. >> reporter: that feeling of good will is gone? >> long since dissipated. >> it's disheartening to sear our front line workers under attack. ed, why do the tdoctors tell yo they are not agreeing? >> everyone we spoke to on the medical side said they sympathize with people seeing their loved ones in their final hours and they are desperate. but they say they are relying on a wide body of information, misinformation, bad information that exists online.
they are demanding all of that. they insist they are sympathetic to all of this. but they have to follow their oath. that oath, the medical pr professionals told us, is to do no harm. in all the treatments, ivermectin is the most popular, that there is no proof that there is any up side to this. there's only evidence of a negative side effect. because of that, they simply in good conscience can't prescribe those treatments. >> like i said, a disheartening report. we give our gratitude to the medical workers on the front lines still as frustrated as they are. thanks. just ahead, the former president is singing a new tune on vaccines and boosters, something a lot wish he had done early but are glad he is doing at all. we will discuss it with the surgeon general of the previous administration next. they give their customers seven days. and if they don't like it, they give 'em their money back.
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former president appears to finally be urging people to get vaccines and boosters. listen to how he pushed back on the suggestion during an interview that vaccines may not work. >> ones that get very sick and go to the hospital are the ones that don't take the vaccine. it is still their choice. if you take the vaccine, you are protected. the results of the vaccine are very good. if you do get it, it's a very minor form. people aren't dying when they take the vaccine. >> earlier this week, he took boos from a crowd when he announced his booster shot. both are at odds with how he previously avoided talking about it.
in september, he said he probably wouldn't get a booster. in march, fauci said it was a lost opportunity when the former president was quietly vaccinated away from the public eye months earlier. his public endorsements come after a new report from a house select committee hammered his administration's covid response. among the source it quotes are emails sent by a top health official and she calls the herd immunity proponents a fringe group. we want to focus tonight on the former president's most recent comments in support of vaccines and boosters. joining me is dr. adams who was u.s. surgeon general under the former president. nice to see you this evening. it wasn't that he came out in support, it's he pushed back hard during that interview saying that they are effective.
what's your takeaway? >> absolutely. we have known donald trump for 75 years. we have known joe biden 79 years. we know the president's love language is words of affi affirmation. to me, what was most shocking, what was most telling wasn't that donald trump came out and supported vaccines. it was that it took joe biden 11 months to finally do what he has been known to do for 79 years. that's to reach out across the aisle. once he gave president trump the words of affirmation, you heard trump say, thank you, i appreciate that. he applauded it. i hope we see more of that. i have been calling for it. i've been telling people, we can't reach the conservative parts of america if we only use and only reach out to and engage liberal voices. >> come on, dr. adams, you are telling me donald trump didn't praise vaccines until joe biden
decided to thank him? that's what he was waiting for? >> i am a psychiatry major. people have different words of affirmation. that's when you saw donald trump change his tune. i'm not saying it's right or wrong. you can't deny that that is when he changed his tune and came out and supported vaccinations. regardless, that's a good thing. the point we should be discussing is how do we get more people out there on both sides of the aisle talking about vaccinations and boosters? too many people are unboosted. 30% boost rate, that's not good enough. we are not near herd immunity. that's why the virus continues to torment us. >> i will take nisanything that helps get people vaccinate and boosted. if it just took a thank you to get trump to do it several hundred thousand deaths later, it's pathetic, isn't it? >> well, we can say it's
pathetic. we can debate it. we can say it's pathetic it took this long for the new administration to reach out in any way, shape or form. i talk to people in the white house. i can tell you from inside the white house, there's a political pushback at engaging anyone from the trump administration, acknowledging they can anything right. i'm hearing this from inside the white house. i have always said, democrat, republican, biden supporter, trump supporter, we need cooperation. the enemy is the virus. at the end of the day, we can make a political story about this or we can say kudos to biden and trump. >> given trump waited so long to say this, will it have an impact do you think on those holdouts? >> well, we know -- we saw he got booed by some people out there. i have to feel like if the two presidents can come together -- i talked to my fellow surgeons general. if we can come together, if people on both sides of the
aisle can come together, we can break down partisan divides that are between us and make the enemy the virus and not each other. >> there is news tonight the cdc changed guidance on how long health care workers have to isolate after getting covid from ten days to seven days. do you think that's a good decision? >> it's a decision that's been made necessary by the fact that the virus is spiraling out of control. it does follow the science. seven days but you have to test negative. we are seeing more and more that the virus -- you don't need to be isolated for a full ten days. to me, what bothers me is what you talked about earlier. we are stressing out our health care workers. look, we will have a different set of rules for you. not necessarily because of the science. because we have let the virus run rampant. we don't have enough support to let you stay out as long as we tell everyone else to stay out. there is science behind it. i think that what led us to it is the fact we don't have enough
people boosted, we don't have enough testing, we don't have enough high quality masks out there for people. we are seeing this omicron variant really rip through america. >> do you think that other industries should join suit here? the airlines, delta, has written a letter asking for guidelines to be changed to get workers who are vaccinated and testing negative even if they had omicron, if they can get them back? united had to cancel 100 flights on christmas eve. clearly, there's a need. >> again, the science suggests we can shorten that window somewhat. we need to continue to follow the science. i don't understand why you would have a different set of rules for health care workers than for other people. i think the real key is something that they missed. again, we need to be promoting better high quality masks everywhere. a single layer cloth mask isn't cutting it against omicron. we need more testing, better masking. that's how we get through this, not by cutting out guidelines
and making shortcuts to get people back to work. that's not going to get us through this. it's just a band-aid. >> thanks for joining us. have a happy holiday. >> thank you. get your booster. get your flu shot. get your vaccination. >> done it all. and i'm wearing the good mask. thank you so much. >> take care. the january 6th committee and the former president escalated their fight over his white house records all the way to the supreme court. details just ahead. 's up there. hey joshie... wrinkles send the wrong message. help prevent them with downy wrinkleguard. feel the difference with downy.
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today, the january 6th committee investigating the riot asked the supreme court to decide whether it will take a white house records case brought by the former president. the request came hours after it asked the court to block the committee from getting 700 pages of records. this follows losses in two lower courts that did not agree with his claims of executive privilege. t they are seeking this from mark meadows as they look into the former president's role in trying to overturn the election results. j what's going to happen here? do you see the supreme court taking up this case? >> nice to see you. it might be one they can't resist. this is a major constitutional battle. it's a separation of powers
issue. we have never had the supreme court rule on the question of a former president versus current president over a claim of executive privilege. the question is huge for the justices and for the country and for future presidents. you are right about the hand that donald trump goes into this with. a losing hand. the precedent on this question from the 1970s, when nixon twice had issues involving executive privilege, went against him. they led the two lower court sets of judges to go against donald trump. i could even see under a scenario, if this were normal times, a unanimous ruling against donald trump. but that would mean they would take it. one last thing i would mention is that in the request that you mentioned from the house select committee, it almost had the tone of accepting the fact that
the justices might want to weigh in, but with the caveat, if you are going to weigh it, do it sooner rather than later. the clock is ticking how long that select committee will be in power. >> how quickly could they do it if they wanted to? >> well, what both sides are saying is, take it up in your january 14th conference. they could schedule it then for the end of january or early february. the justices usually take a four-week recess in february. they could hear it early february. they could then decide it in a couple weeks. back in 1974, the justices decided the nixon tapes case just in a couple weeks in july of '74. they could do it. we could know about the archive being able to turn over the documents to the committee by the end of february, if the court takes it. if it doesn't deny it outright, which is dicey here. >> margaret, obviously, the time frame here is that the democrats on the committee and liz cheney and adam kinzinger want or need
this to happen before next year's elections when the republicans might take over and make this committee go away. the supreme court -- it's interesting here. there are people who say, it's a 6-3 done servi conservative cou. they will side with trump here. but there are legal questions they may want to address. >> the court isn't so crassly political. this is one argument you hear the judges making, even as you listen to the most recent c controversial hearing on the planned parenthood abortion case that they most recently heard. the justices to themselves and to the american public are arguing that this court is bound by precedent and bound by legal rules and the constitution that have nothing to do with who appointed each justice. i do think that it's right that they very well -- especially in
the roberts court, a man who seeks to preserve the respect -- the remaining respect the country has for its institutions will try to forge a consensus and unanimous decision on anything that comes before him but particularly something as controversial and as political and prone to partisanship as this. >> how important do you think these records are at this point? to me, especially after we have seen these mark meadows texts, ones he willingly handed over, the idea that there are 700 pages of things the former white house didn't want anyone to see, there could be a lot in there, margaret. >> it's enormously important. the reason has nothing to do with partisan politics. it has everything to do with what was happening in the three plus hours. what was the president of the united states thinking, doing and telling people as violence was unfolding at the capitol? we know they were trying to mount what effectively is a procedural coup.
they were trying to slow down the counting. what did they think about the violence? did they think it was helpful to them? was there potentially a legitimate dereliction of duty, which from the outside certainly seems obvious? what was happening on the inside? we won't know until we see those documents. this is a matter of maintaining our constitution, our uning at the r-- our integrity as a country. it's fundamentally important to our country, to our future. we need to know. >> thanks to both of you for join ugs. h have a wonderful holiday. millions of americans are traveling for the holidays this year. numbers not seen since before the pandemic. as you travel and gather with loved ones, a report on what we know about how the virus behaves as well as what mask to use and which to avoid.
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this holiday season, travel is nearing pre-pandemic levels. according to tsa, today is set to be one of the busiest of the holiday travel period. they're anticipating 20 million people will fly between today and january 3rd. the uptick in travel comes amid fears of the omicron variant spreading rapidly across the country. in addition to those 100 united flights canceled earlier, we just learned delta has canceled 53 new year's eve flights, due to multiple issues including omicron. what do we really know about the virus and how it's transmitted? "360"'s randi kaye went looking for answers. >> reporter: inside this lab at atlanta university, scientists are measuring how coronavirus can spread through the virus of a cough. they fill a mannequin's mouth
with a mixture of glycerine and water, then use a pump to force it to cough. then they wait and see how far the droplets travel. the droplets fill the air, made visible with a green laser light. holiday travelers take note. the droplets expelled advanced a distance of three feet almost immediately. within five seconds, the droplets had traveled six feet, then nine feet in just about ten seconds. remember, nine feet is three feet beyond the recommended social distancing guidelines. >> it's already reaching roughly nine feet now. it's still moving farther, slowly. >> reporter: the fog of droplets lingered in the air and can do so, the professor says, for several minutes. it took about 30 to 40 seconds to float another three feet. >> it's getting closer to 12 feet now. >> reporter: yes, he said 12 feet. over and over again, the simulated droplets blew past the six-foot mark, often doubling that distance.
in fact, while the cdc says it's less likely, infections have been transmitted to people who were more than six feet away, even in people who passed through the area after the infectious person had already left. it's all part of why the cdc still insists on keeping your distance from others while traveling and wear a high quality mask. our professors tested masks too. and it's easy to see why some experts say cloth masks and anything that's just a single layer offers so little protection. first we tested a single layer g gaiter. >> it tends to let anything through without any stoppage. >> reporter: next up, a single layer bandanna made of 100% cotton. >> this is cotton, one layer. it performs a little better than the gait er.
you still get some leakage coming through. it filters some of the droplets but some escape through with a single layer. they don't go very far, probably about six inches from the face when you're talking. >> reporter: this double layer mask made of quilting cotton also spread respiratory droplets when the mannequin talked and caused but not as badly as the gaiter and the bandanna. >> it doesn't go very far, probably two to three inches from the face. significantly better than the other masks. >> reporter: what about those blue surgical masks so many people are wearing on airplanes and airports? they did well, but there's room for improvement. when the mannequin caused, not much went through the mask but quite a bit leaked out the stop. bottom line, experts suggest grabbing a kn95 or n95 mask if available on the road.
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finally tonight, remembering a literary giant. joan didion chronicled for decades the simmering tension of american life and became a cultural icon. she died from parkinson's disease in new york, her publisher says. her numerous bestselling books included "slouching toward bethlehem" and "the year of magical thinking," following the death of her husband, writer john gregory dunne. she wrote, we mourn for ourselves, as we were, as we are no longer, as we will one day not be at all. let's hand it over to michael smerconish and "cnn tonight." >> john, thank you. i am michael smeonh.