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tv   Fareed Zakaria GPS  CNN  September 29, 2013 10:00am-11:00am EDT

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"fareed zakaria gps" and his interview with national security adviser susan rice is next for our viewers here in the united states. >> this is "gps." welcome to all of you in the united states and around the world. i'm fareed zakaria. we'll start with an exclusive interview with president obama's national security adviser susan rice. on iran, syria, the middle east and more. then, the terror attack in kenya. a somalia based terror group carried it out. i'll talk to that country's president who says al shabab is a threat to the entire world. and then to syria. i will talk to one of the most concerned parties, president gul of turkey, which is of course syria's neighbor. and you might have heard that in iran's delegation to the new.
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was t was the only jewish member of parliament. we'll talk to him. here's my make it. for the past self-years, the president of iran has held a breakfast meeting with a small group of journalists during the u.n. general assembly. in recent years, that event was a depressing routine. mahmoud ahmadinejad dressed in his shabby suit would saunter in, ramble and rant about the dangers of america and deny the holocaust and taunt us, his invited guests. rouhani arrived eloquently attired and he spoke intelligently and precisely on every topic discussed. the meeting was off the record but we were allowed to share some observations. i was struck by rouhani's optimism on the nuclear issue which he said could be resolved
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in a short time. the world wants to be assured that our program is peaceful, he said, and we want to help them gain that confidence. rouhani admitted that economic sanctions against his country have taken a heavy toll on its citizens. he was hopeful about better relations. i came away willing to believe that rouhani is a pragmatist and wants to end his country's isolation but it remains unclear whether he has the authority to act on behalf of his government. consider what happened on tuesday when the iranians turned down a white house offer of a brief meeting with president obama. rouhani explained that he had no problem in principle with handshake but said this is a sensitive issue and it would have been the first such meeting in 35 years so steps have to be taken with proper preparation. one still has to wonder if rouhani does not have the
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freedom to shake obama's hand, does he have the freedom to negotiate a nuclear deal with him? the tehran government, remember, has another side. made up of the revolutionary guard, the special force whose political influence has grown over the past decade. these people are hard line on all foreign policy issues. they also profit from the sanctions because their businesses have become the only paths for trade and smuggling. america doubts about rouhani's power can be addressed only over time and through iranian actions but iranians probably have doubts about obama's power. after all, the new iranian president appears willing to cooperate on the nuclear issue in return for a relaxation of the sanctions crippling his country. but can president obama provide any such relief? iran has dozens of sanctions against it. some are based on u.n. security council resolutions. others are decisions by the
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european union. others are acts of congress and still others are executive orders of the u.s. president. obama can unilaterally lift only the latter which are the least burdensome. the ones passed through acts of congress are the most difficult to lift. there requires concrete actions by iran and verification by inspectors and then easing by the united states but that would require congress to behave in a rationale manner which is a fantasy today. the most likely scenario is any agreement with iran would instantly be denounced by republicans as a sellout. the obama administration is conscious of this other side of american government. much of the macho rhetoric emanating from the united states have inoculated from charges of
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being soft. it remains unclear whether iran can say yes to a nuclear deal. and it remains equally unclear whether the united states could say yes as well. rouhani and obama are each looking at the other and thinking the same thing. can he deliver? for more go to cnn.com/fareed and read my "washington post" column this week. let's get started. joining me now is president obama's national security adviser susan rice. welcome, ambassador rice. >> thank you, fareed. good to be with you. >> so the president has now spoken to president rouhani, john kerry has met with his counterpart. do you think that the iranians are negotiating seriously? >> well, it's too soon to know that, fareed. what happened earlier this week
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is that secretary kerry joined by the foreign ministers of russia and china, the u.k., france and germany met and of course the eu chief negotiator met for the first time at the foreign minister level with the new iranian foreign minister. that was a constructive discussion. but it really was a scene setter in which the iranians underscored their commitment not to pursue a nuclear weapon but peaceful nuclear energy. where we and others underscored that iran had to meet its international obligations under security council resolutions and that the sanctions would remain until those obligations were satisfied and yet both sides also committed to continue the diplomacy. next month in mid october in geneva where the negotiations will begin in earnest and the sides will have the opportunity to pick up where they left off
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some months ago hopefully with a new iranian negotiating position and one that is consistent with the message that president rouhani delivered across new york this week, which is that they sense a degree of urgency to resolving this and they are indeed committed to doing so at the negotiating table and that they only seek nuclear power for peaceful purposes. obviously we and others in the international community have every reason to be skeptical of that and we need to test it and any agreement must be fully verifiable and enforceable. >> the president said in his remarks on friday that he respected the united states -- the united states respects iran's right to access peaceful nuclear energy. that wording made me think it's not clear that he says he respects their right to actually enrich uranium which is part of a peaceful nuclear energy
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program. is it the position of the united states that iran cannot enrich uranium? >> the united states has not spoken about a right of iran to enrich. we have said that as a man of the npd in context of iran meeting its international obligations, that means fulfilling its responsibilities under the iaea resolutions and the u.n. security council resolutions that once it has done that, we would recognize that it, like every other nation, is a good standing member and has a right to the use of peaceful nuclear energy. now, that is obviously very long held position and it's not a new position expressed by the united states or by others but we're some distance from that being achievable obviously because right now iran remains in noncompliance with its obligations under the security council resolutions. >> prime minister netanyahu of israel set out conditions that he believed iran would have to
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fulfill for the sanctions to be lifted. are those conditions also the united states'? are they similar? >> obviously we are in constant contact and communication with our israeli allies and other key allies in this process and we have been largely united in agreeing on the process going forward and on what is necessary to give us a shared degree of confidence. when i say us, i mean all of us in the international community have shared in that confidence that at the end of this process that iran's nuclear program, if there is to be one, is only for peaceful purposes. i'm not going to get into the contours of a negotiation that hasn't gotten under way in any meaningful way but rather to say that we have been on the same page with israel and other partners in the region that the
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entire community is insisting on the steps that need to be taken. >> one thing the president talked about on friday was also congress in dealing with some issues. wouldn't it be fair for iranians to look at all of this and say even if we were to comply, the iranians, president obama will not be able to get congress to lift the sanctions. there are ten acts of congress and those are the most harsh sanctions on iran. will congress lift the sanctions if president obama says iran has moved in negotiating in good faith. >> we have worked in good collaboration in congress on the issue of iran over the course of several years. there are multilateral sanctionses that we worked hard to achieve and achieved unprecedented degree of pressure in the united nations security
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council and there are sanctions on a national basis legislated by congress but also a number that have been taken on the basis of executive action so we would obviously be working very closely with congress through the course of any negotiation and if it were to bear fruit, we would work to bring congress along with us. the goals have always been the same. the goals of our national sanctions and multilateral sanctions are not an end in themselves but to supply sufficient pressure so that iran feels compelled to give up its nuclear program and any ambition for nuclear weapons at the negotiating table. i would think that if that goal were achieved in a verifiable and sustainable manner that congress would be able to see that it had contributed very significantly toward getting to that place. >> quick question before we go to our break. is this just a nuclear deal with iran or is there a prospect of
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actual normalization of relations between the united states and iran? >> i wouldn't want to get too far out in front. just on friday the first conversation between president obama and the new president of iran, first communication in almost 35 years, secretary kerry met with his counterpart first meaningful exchange at that level in the same period of time and negotiations really have not even begun in a substantive way under the new leadership in iran. it's way too soon to presume either the prospect of an agreement on nuclear program, which we hope to be able to achieve but we're quite sober about the potential for that and that obviously would need to be a first step before going on to discuss other aspects of the u.s./iranian relationship which has a long way to go to get to the state of normalization. obviously ultimately if we could get there, that would be in the
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interest of the iranian people whom the united states and the american people have had long standing respect for and it's a very talented group of people in a country with a rich history. and if we could have peaceful resolution of the nuclear program and end to iran's support for terrorism and other behavior that is concerned us over many years, then we could begin a serious discussion about the future. >> susan rice, stay right there. we'll be right back in a moment to talk about syria and what's going to happen there. later in the show, two exclusives with two presidents from turkey and somalia. stay with us. [ male announcer ] let's say you pay your guy around 2% to manage your money.
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and don't get heartburn in the first place. [ male announcer ] one pill each morning. 24 hours. zero heartburn. >> we are back with susan rice, president obama's national security adviser. ambassador rice, the president said that if syria does not comply with the u.n. resolution about chemical weapons, there will be consequences. there are no consequences mapped out in the resolution. that was something the russians did not agree to. does that mean the united states would take unilateral military action if syria does not comply? >> it means certainly that we reserve that option, fareed, to take whatever enforcement action
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we deem appropriate whether military or otherwise. i think it's important for people to understand what this resolution accomplishes. in fact, it does say in very clear cut terms that if there is noncompliance on the part of the syrians, there will be action taken under chapter 7 of the united nations charter. chapter 7 is the only chapter of the charter that calls for and allows for enforcement action. obviously in any circumstance we would need to come back to the security council if we sought multilateral endorsement of such enforcement action and in the circumstances have a negotiation about that what that action ought to be. it's very significant that this strong and binding resolution, which holds syria to the obligations that the united states and russia negotiated in geneva will in fact envision
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explicitly further consequences in the case of noncompliance. that was a very strong element of the resolution that was negotiated by secretary kerry with the russian foreign minister going back to geneva a couple weeks ago. >> inherent in this resolution is the necessity for president assad to be a partner in the sense that he'll have to implement this resolution and cooperate with the u.n. inspectors and yet the position of the united states government as expressed by the president is regime change. assad has to go. how can you do both at the same time? partner with him to destroy the chemical weapons and at the same time be trying to get rid of him? >> first of all, fareed, the position of the united states has been and remains very clear and that is that assad must go. he has lost his legitimacy. he's gassed his own people.
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he's inflicted horrific violence on his country that spilled over into the region. there isn't a viable future for syria that is governed by assad. it speaks about the requirements and obligations of the syrian government. and that's an important distinction. whatever syrian government is there, near term or in the future, will have the same obligation to implement these commitments and this resolution faithfully. this is not specific to assad. it's specific to what is now the srian regime and those obligations would wind down to a successful government. >> there are reports that key rebels groups in syria, have broken ties with the moderate political position and have cast their lot with the al qaeda
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affiliates. does the administration still believe that the vast majority of the syrian rebels are moderates and democrats eve as somef these groups are announcing the need for an islamic state? >> well, fareed, there have long been significant divisions within the opposition as you well know. there are those that are moderate in our judgment and those that are extremists and someone in between. and that remains the case. the u.s. policy has long been to support the moderate opposition and we're wrapping up our support little, economic and otherwise to that moderate opposition including its military component on the ground. we've been very careful to try to avoid strengthening the extremist opposition. the fragmentation that we're seeing adds to complexity on the ground, in some respects it's clarifying and in some respects
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it makes it easier for the united states to ensure the support we're providing is going exactly to those people that we intend it to go. >> if assad does not comply and if congress does not pass an authorization or approve a resolution approving of the strike as seemed likely the last time around, would the president still use his powers as commander in chief to authorize a strike? >> the president has been very clear. we remain postured to act if the choice is taken by him and if the necessary arises. we're not taking any options off the table. the president has been very clear that as commander in chief, he has the authority to act in the interest of the united states and to use force if necessary. >> ambassador susan rice, thank you so much for joining us. the national security adviser to the president. >> thank you, fareed. >> we have two exclusive interviews with two presidents from turkey and somalia but up
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right next, a unique perspective on iran. i caught up with the only jewish member of iran's parliament. what are his politics and what is life like for a jew in iraq? right back. dad! dad! katy perry is coming to town. can we get tickets, pleeeeease??? tickets? hmm, sure. how many? well, there's hannah, maddie, jen, sara m., sara b., sa -- whoa, whoa. hold on. (under his breath) here it comes... we can't forget about your older sister! thank you, thank you, thank you! seriously? what? i get 2x the thankyou points on each ticket. can i come?
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now for what in the world segment. this is usually part of the show where i offer a take or something that caught my eye. we're going to do something different this week. it's an interview because the thing that caught my eye this week was a person who accompanied iran's president to the united nations. he's the only jewish member of parliament in iran. you remember that iran's last president, mahmoud ahmadinejad, fame l famously denied that the who will cast after happened. what is life like for jewish in iran. i asked ciamak morsadegh. thank you for being here. >> nice to be here. >> let me start by asking you, do you have any concerns that president rowhani does not acknowledge the holocaust or is in some way hostile toward jews?
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>> overall there is no specific concern because we are part of an iranian nation. we are iranian such as other iranian people. of course the first day of questioning about holocaust by president mahmoud ahmadinejad, there was some problems iranian/jewish society and some of us say to him that you are not in a correct way and you must change your view and ideals about holocaust. >> what did he say? >> i think he changed is it step by step. in the early days there were some problems but after that -- >> in the early days of ahmadinejad's presidency? >> yes. after that there was no problem. day-to-day life does not have a specific change during the ahmadinejad period. >> do you feel as a jew in iran,
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do you feel more secure in any way? >> in a religious country have some problems. bad. after the revrevolution, step b step problems are being solved. and today our conditions are much better than years ago. >> are you able to worship freely? go to synagogue and observe religious days and holidays? >> you can go to synagogue. we have have our own ceremony. in tehran there are more kosher restaurants. >> do you believe that the jews need and are entitled to their own state? the state of israel? >> i think that there is a
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difference between our region and race. and i think that all countries in the world must be in a democratic way selected by the people of the country. if most of the people are jew and they want to have a jewish country, there is no specific problem but me having a jewish state, must respect the rights of other people to have a country for themselves and live in peaceful condition. >> so what does that mean? if you were asked a question, are you a zionist, how would you answer? >> no. it means that i am not in complete direction of what israel regime allow me to do. and there are some problems with behavior of zionists. >> do you believe israel has a
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right to exist? >> i think that every country in the world must follow the way of democracy and democratic procedure and every country that goes in a human rights behavior has the right to exist. >> what do you think of the israeli's government attitude toward iran. there is talk israel might attack iran's nuclear facilities. >> i think that every man and every political man who have complete wise does not want to start a war. because everyone who starts a war in the middle east, cannot finish it. starting a war is an unwise procedure. for example, myself was the volunteer for more than 80 months in the war. i'm sure if anyone want to
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attack my country, i am ready to donate my blood for my country. >> do you have a message for jews in america and around the world? >> my message is that all of us as fell followers of moses that most important point is specific sentence which says that you must like your brother and your sister such as yourself. and we must like each other in the world and each human kind such as ourselves. >> thank you very much. pleasure to have you on. >> pleasure to be here. >> iran's population is about 75 million according to the latest census. 99.4% are muslim. less than 9,000 iranians, that's .012% of the total are jewish. lots more ahead on the show
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today. two more exclusives with two presidents. turkey's abdullah gul on the conflict next door. his country shares a 500-mile border with syria. he tells us what his government is doing to stop the civil war there. but up right next, the president of somalia. he tells us about a terror group that was born in his country and is now a threat to the entire world. the al shabab group. stay with us for both of these exclusives. when we made our commitment to the gulf, bp had two big goals: help the gulf recover and learn from what happened so we could be a better, safer energy company. i can tell you - safety is at the heart of everything we do. we've added cutting-edge technology, like a new deepwater well cap and a state-of-the-art monitoring center, where experts watch over all drilling activity twenty-four-seven.
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>> i'm candy crowley in washington with a check of the headlines. the u.s. appears headed for a government shutdown. house republicans push through a bill early this morning to keep the government open but also delay implementation of obama care. that makes the measure a nonstarter for the senate and the white house. if a deal is not reached by midnight tomorrow, parts of the federal government will close tuesday. syria's bashar al assad says he'll agree to relinquish his country's chemical weapons. he says he's committed to finding a political solution to syria's civil war. friday the u.n. security council unanimously approved a resolution urging syria to eliminate its chemical weapons. authorities in india now say
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they know what caused a deadly building collapse. police charged a director with homicide for removing the building's central wall and supporting beams without permission. 66 people were killed in friday's building collapse. new and disturbing details are emerging about the terrorist attack in kenya. some hostages were tortured. militants severed hand and in some cases hanged victims. officials were warned a year ago about a possibility of an attack of the jihadist group al shabab which claimed responsibility for the siege. "reliable sources" is at the top of the hour. now back to "fareed zakaria gps." the world watched in horror this week as an upscale kenyan shopping mall became a war zone on regular saturday afternoon
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militants stormed nairobi's west gate shopping center spraying restaurants and shops with bullets. dozens were killed and many more were injured. the group that claimed responsibility was al shabab from neighboring somalia. i have a unique perspective on what happened. joining me now is the president of somali, hassan sheik mohamud. welcome. >> thank you. >> let me ask you about your own background. you are a human rights activist within 48 hours of becoming president you have survived an assassination attempt and there have been several more. were these all by al shabab? >> yes. they were all by al shabab. what they do usually is to try to stop any hope that's coming within the society so that the center of destruction will be moving away they were taking
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them toward the beginning of somalia which we initiated. >> people had thought that al shabab, this movement, was losing ground in somalia and that the army with the help of some african union forces pushed them back and in fact there were kenyan forces as part of this. were we wrong? did we misunderstand the strength of al shabab? >> you did not. the world did not. al shabab lost the military front but when they lost the military, they melded into society and they started from there watching the people and vulnerability and they attack. >> why does it grow? >> it's not a local agenda. this is an international jihadist agenda which claims
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that they are talking about islam and they do not recognize borders. they do not recognize sovereign anything. it's not a local agenda. it only happened because of the circumstances in somalia supporting them to have foot in somalia. >> just poverty? >> poverty and on top of that the most important one was lack of function state in place that controls the territory. >> why do they have some support? >> let me give you a little example. the lost generation that are frustrated and they cannot offer so they are vulnerable to al
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shabab and at the month you get $100 so the bulk of the forces that are fighting for al shabab are desperate boys. top leadership are motivated people that have been brainwashed. this is a major source of al shabab. this does not mean that they have their support but the young boys go into al shabab and this is one major region. >> you believe they're a threat to the world. >> of course. they prove that they are a threat to the world. they claim it with what's happening today and many more times different parts of the world what has happened. they are not a threat to somalia only and not at region only but worldwide. the ideology is threatening the
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world. >> how will you deal with this? >> the war against al shabab, the one we now come to close is military one deliberating the territory control followed by preparing the ground for those defe defectors working with community leaders and civil society to call back those boys so that we prepare for them and rehabilitation and retraining so they can be even today somalia there are employment opportunities. many are not employable because they lack skills so the government is working on that. on top of that, a functioning state in place that controls the territory is prerequisite. it will be very, very difficult to defeat completely. >> are you getting the kind of support from washington that you want? >> yes, we did.
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i came here to washington in january, beginning of this year, met with president obama and secretary of state and they promised they would support somali and they delivered on their promises. we come with a new momentum and new plans to the united states government and response are positive and promising. >> best of luck. thank you. god knows you need it. >> thank you, thank you very much. it's a pleasure. >> up next, the president of a country that shares a 500-mile border with syria. turkey's abdullah gul on the country next door. [ male announcer ] what?! investors could lose
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when it comes to syria, one country has been arguing for military action for a long time. turkey. a country shares a 500-mile border with syria and had to absorb an influx of half a million refugees from that country. some neighboring states accuse turkey of allowing jihadieses to
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run rampant. in june the country was convulsed by days of protests. what started as demonstration as plans for a protest in a local park, the government responded with force by which i asked the president did they go too far. you'll be fascinated by abdullah gul's answer. listen in to our conversation. mr. president, welcome. >> thank you. >> we have to start with syria. are you disappointed that president obama has chosen not to do some kind -- take some kind of military action in syria? your government has been urging military action for a long time. >> military action is the last resort but we insisted there should be a comprehensive political strategy first. this is missing from the very
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beginning. >> a lot of people look at turkey's policy, which has been support for the rebels, very tough against assad, urging that he leave and say that you have not been able to help create a real political opposition, unify the rebels, find the moderates for two years this has been the effort, there's not that much to show for it. >> i have to remind first that at the beginning we work hard to find peaceful solution for this. six months we worked hard. unfortunately there was no response. there was no real response that time. it's not the problem of turkey, first of all, but we are the neighbor so what's happening in syria is having consequences that -- immediate consequences on turkey. that for turkey is very active in this issue and this should
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not be misunderstood that turkey wish war or turkey wish to attack on syria. that is not correct. what we want to see is this situation should not continue like this. >> you want assad gone? >> we want a very sound well calculated political solution for there. >> do you think that these current efforts for assad to get rid of his chemical weapons, will they work? do you think there needs to be a threat of military force to implement these agreements? >> we should not fool ourselves. is it really going to be real cleaning or not? if it's going to be real cleaning, that will be wonderful and good for everyone.
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but if it is going to be some time, still at the end there will be some chemical weapons there so it would be a loss of time. >> i have to ask you about turkish politics. many say that turkey lost the bid for the olympics because of the way the government used force in the protests and that this was part of the mishandling that resulted in istanbul which was the favorite to lose the olympics to tokyo. >> i don't think that was the only reason. >> the demonstrations? >> well, demonstrations, i mean, you see the demonstration and it's not changing the life. at the end, the demonstrati demonstrations -- you can see see the same demonstrations in london and washington. >> you don't see as much force
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used against the demonstrators. >> at the beginning what we saw there, there were similarities. the government got the message at the end. but later on some radical groups hijacked this and definitely the police has to protect the life of the others. there were some overreaction. our legal system is going through that. and those that had overreaction will be punished definitely. >> mr. president, pleasure to have you on. >> up next, how to write a new constitution. the founding fathers would have loved this new online project. ♪
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with the 68th session of the u.n. general assembly in full swing, world leaders have been giving back-to-back speeches which brings me to my question
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of the week. who delivered the longest speech ever at the united nations? was it, a, india, b., cuba, c libya, or d, america's own bill clinton? stay tuned. we'll tell you the correct answer. this week's book of the week is "unthinkable, iran, the bomb and american strategy." if you wonder how to deal with iran and its nuclear program this is the most careful, thoughtful and intelligent book on the subject. i hope people in washington are reading it. now for the last look. egyptian lawmakers have announced that a final draft of their new constitution will be ready by november. that's actually quite quick. after all, you can't just google how to write a constitution and get the answer. or can you. google launched a website called constitute this week with the comparative constitution project. the site is a digital archive of constitutions and other founding
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documents from more than 175 countries. one of its goals is to assist countries like egypt that are emerging from political crisis to amend or replace their constitutions. there's more demand for this kind of thing than you think. every year approximately five new constitutions are written and as many as 30 are amended or revised. more than 900 have been written since 1789. if you want to read all of the constitutions in full, you can. additionally passages of each constitution have been tagged with a topic. interested in freedom of religion? looks like you have 167 choices. the right to bear arms, many fewer options. that's where america is exceptional. the correct answer to our gps challenge question was, a. np 1957, menon delivered the

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