say that they say that reading and writing history is like going to a foreign country and i want to thank you all for setting up the passport's here today. for doing that. the comment for hampton is several years ago my wife and i were taking the tour on a beautiful fall they were all the trees were yellow and the tour guide to us by the little gift shop on the way out to the plate -- pueblo and we saw this man chopping wood behind the gift shop doing it very skillfully and forcefully. i couldn't believe for his small size how well he was chopping wood and the driver said that fellow is a survivor of the bataan death march and i noticed the connection between the two books because the arizona national guard i guess excuse me that mexico national guard had gone over to the philippines i
believe for the ghost soldiers -- any way between mexico and the philippines there is a connection definitely. õlest-j5t there's a rumor that custer had two soldiers available after he won the battle of little bighorn to take off to the nearest telegraph station to report his results to the national republican committee who was -- they were starting the convention, i believe. is that true or not? >> well, a man named craig repast wrote a short little book called "custer for president," which he takes on that question. and i think he does a pretty good job of showing that there's really barely a shred of evidence. there's never a mention in any newspaper about custer.
never a mention at the convention. it didn't work like that anyway. and there's a letter from libby custer, who he shared almost everything with, written about a week or two before the battle. he never got it. but she spends a paragraph or two discussing the candidates for president and never mentions, you know, the candidacy of custer. >> yes, sir. >> thank you. . >> i have a question for jeff about his forthcoming book on why it's and tombstone. in your research and writing so far, what has surprised you most about the story as you have uncovered it? >> the things that are amazingly the most are some of the history of the southeast arizona and the absolute combination, it is
almost a drug inducing atmosphere and so enticing of the elegance and decadence at the same time i think so many folks out there have been misunderstanding of what the town was like and arizona territory was like. there was so much more to the story when i ever would have guessed him some that have strong opinions about all of bed and at least half of them will decide by an immediate -- idiot and evil besides. that is what makes it fun and there's so much more to learn that i had originally thought. >> one final question. >> this is for jeff. river since the 1920's people have a right to books about tombstone provide no you had to approach a lot of authors and researchers some of whom don't agree with the others. how did you manage that to talk to those people?
>> my role as i will talk to anybody that might have useful information. a couple people said if you talk to so and so and i will not talk to you then i said i am sorry we will not get a chance to talk. there are many strong opinions in this field. hampton and jim run into this but once you start talking to someone who has a genuine and deep interest interest, they want to talk about it and if your insisted ample light they will talk. only after you are published half of the beside you are in india. [laughter] >> figure for coming in. [applause] >> wrapping of a panel of the festival of books on how to write history for a popular audience with
complete the survey for the session and the festival and please everyone turn off your cell phones at this time. it's >> it is an extreme honor for me to introduce a new york times best selling author, one of america's true heroes, general anthony zinni. general zinni survey distinguish career in united states marine the ku core instead of to speed the review was severely wounded all's well as philippines, iraq, kenya, and the persian gulf. he has received 23 military service awards including the defense distinguished service medal with the oak leaf cluster and also participated in numerous presidential diplomatic missions. the latest book "leading the charge" leadership lessons from the battlefield to the boardroom" includes a visitor approach to
leadership and challenges of the 21st century. this is a book about what future leaders must know and mspb how to be effective to rapidly changing environment. please welcome the general anthony zinni. [applause] >> it is a true honor to be here and i want to commend tucson and the daily star and the university for this unbelievable event. i have spent all the walking around in the number of people that have come out the interest in reading, literature warms my heart and it is great to see the young people out here especially now many of us that our senior would obviously, but to see so many young people interested in books and reading and authors and lectures says something. this book, "leading the charge" came about almost unintentionally. several years ago i wrote a
book called of the battle for peace. it was a book about how the world was changing around us ever since the collapse of the soviet union a confluence of things the perfect storm the soviet union collapsing the rise of globalization the information age mass migrations of people now seeking greater opportunity and a host of things that i watch for my last 10 years in the military then 10 years out of the business world of academia and other placesit struck me when i wrote the book that we were not getting it. the road was changing such drastically in becoming more complex and complicated that we are missing this and still operating under the old ways of the systems and organizations. in the course of going around on the book is "leading the charge" and during the q&a point* i
would get questions and comments about leadership and it struck me the frequency and adjustable people were saying is it is not just a matter of the world changing in our environment changing but the leaders are failing us and don't get it. i walked away from the weeks after the book tour this is an impressive just with a major inconsistency of those comments that i wanted to see if that was just the anecdotal information i was picking up. do people really feel that way? is there a sense of a crisis of leadership? like a good bet right jury research everything. i went on line to a number of organizations that do leadership surveys, harvard university and others that take the thoughts of people in the nine states and globally about their views and every aspect to society.
frankly i was shocked when i found. late 2008 but through the beginning of the century, continuously there has been a rise in the percentage of people that feel we have a crisis of leadership. 2008, 80 percent of americans polled said we have a crisis of leadership and not just in political leadership or where you might expect it. but across the board. as i delved further and drill down into their research, when asked about different aspects of society, the clergy, business leaders, military leaders leaders, in 2008, not one group which you tire kid 50% approval rating. backed struck me that is the first year military leaders dropped below the percentage. i went to look at who
globally people felt about leadership. is it an american phenomenon or the way people feel around the world? several surveys i found out when political head of state had achieved above 50 percent approval rating by his or her constituents. there is a clear sense that leaders are failing us. why? wanted to understand what is happening. we have created such phenomenal leaders in the world of our nation in the past almost every field. not everybody could be failing. obviously there are leaders that are making it and i particularly wanted to look at areas where the vast majority of leadership was rated very low. why do you have the one standout? people feel our strong leaders in what makes them different? the gist of the book was
about my views or observations as to what's mitt -- what makes good leaders today and why other leaders are feeling? i broke it down to "leading the charge" areas. my partner on the book, tony, halfway through said half a century ravenna supposedly there was no you through throw a few of your views. i took him up on it and i put in my own personal experiences of leadership, a good and bad, at trial and error over my leadership over half a century. i thought about leadership in another way. at the same time all this was going on i was asked to teach a class at stanford so i was preparing for the course and i decided to look at how i was trained or educated to be a leader. modjeska the experience is but what did my service due to train and prepare me?
what did i find out? and it caused me to look at leadership development programs in business, i am chairman of the board of the major company and we have a leadership program and have been involved in others. how to redevelop leaders? the other aspect of i found very strange, the history of leadership. something we don't think about but we really decided we needed to create leaders from the masses since the beginning of the last century. that is about the time monarchies and dictators are beginning to fade from most of the world. but the beginning of the 20th century we realize if you have representitive government and everybody is given a fair chance and you can rise in the ranks, then it is not blood line, what do we do about that? clearly you can look at
business, industry, a military, other large institutions and the approach was interesting. in the beginning, we felt if you build good character you go they could later. if you look at our training early on you would see it was character building. boy scout trades. clean, reverend, obedient, i remember i got a first car of a good leader. i memorize those and carried them around. a platoon sergeant will make sure you memorize that or else. but to build good character was first. there was nothing wrong with that. we want good people to be leaders. several decades into this century we found out there's more to it. we began to educate leaders and found toward the end there's a third component and maybe the most important that is giving potential leaders experience. looking at the military and
those of you that served, you know, every couple years we have to pack up and move. you have a different experience come in different assignment, if promoted to a different position and the purpose is to give you a variety of experiences to develop from the few into the senior the addition of mode. and my company we have been extensive leadership program that has been built progressively on the mitt level leaders to the senior leaders and we rotate them around. we have rotational positions in marketing and finance to give them a wide breadth of experience. one of the things we don't want to see is tall thin people. that is not an anatomical criticism of the people that come and do well in one area like an engineer and do see potential of the person they could be a leader out the top level but they stay because they like what they
do in one area. they're severely developed the delicate the breadth of experience you want across the board. so over the last century we began to emphasize the idea of experience. the first problem is how much can you give people? how many different jobs and moving them around and the destructive nature of that sort of thing? we do a vicariously. you know, certainly if you have been in field exercises, tabletop games, and actually other fields have gone into this. how can i create training environments that are not real but temporary and i can exposure to a variety of positions? all of this came into looking at leaders today. what i found, and will go through the things i found that our most significant of success and failure through
leadership today. but i found some of the trades he would naturally think leaders should have been demonstrated in the past due carryover but some of them should be emphasized more and there are other kinds of trades are characteristics or applications that are unique to this new century. first. i want to talk about the leader himself or herself. we have invested a lot lately almost in every field in building leaders. in the past three said the go p pop to the top. there something natural in the leader. give him enough experience third give hurt enough different positions you will see it come to the top. it is the realization it is much more complicated the knowledge and experiences necessary to the requires more than that.
so you are seeing now more investment in what is being termed leader development in almost every field and the field of the places where you don't see that is where you tend to see some of the problems. the sitter development programs are done in a way to expose potential leaders to several things they might not otherwise get. one of it is mentoring, the access to senior beaters to have succeeded that offer their time and offer a relationship to a young reader that helps the leader develop. that is a sounding board that offers a vice vice -- advice. when we look at a young reader that maybe has something he or she needs to work on reassign of coach. we have consulting agencies that do coaching and three specifically select coaches for certain areas we want to improve on. we have a friend of mine who recently retired as the
chief operating officer of the bank of new york. i asked him because of his 40 years in the banking business, i said what is the biggest change you have seen from the time you came and until now? he said the biggest difference is the amount of mentoring and coaching that i had to do as a senior leader and we demanded of the senior leaders and the it up and coming in needed. that is one aspect. another is trying with the program were used by the young leader with a lot of potential to get the variety of experiences. the third part may be the most important part is to provide a means for that leader to reflect on what he or she is. when i taught my class said duke and did leadership counseling, i have a little drill i put my students through and give them a piece of paper and make them believe i will collect that
piece of paper. i say be sure you print your name clearly so i can read it. i have a line to the center of the paper. there will be two questions. one of the top and one on the bottom. first you have 15 minutes to answer, who are you? of course, students look at you like a weird professor. i don't take any questions or comments. tell me who you are. of course, there right away try to diligently right who they are. then i stop. before we get into the second question, i will not collect the papers, i will not, new to answer. that answer could be right or wrong and now you answer the second question. who am i? you are answering this question to yourself and they diligently right.
then i asked them to write about what day wrote down atop the root what they wrote to on the bottom with theron is. we get into discussing the ways you could answer this. you could answer by your set of values, family, a profession, interest, but what does it say? is there a difference in the top when you're selling yourself? your resume and the bottom when you were being honest? these are the sorts of things that allow individuals to understand themselves better. certainly in the military and in many businesses and other areas, we give a personality test. the purpose is for the individual to understand who they are. what are my limitations and strings? heatherette act in given circumstances? water my values?
i think you see in a successful leaders today a much greater sense of reflection and appreciation and a way of constantly improving themselves with continued education. the ability to modify and improve and develop leadership style. in the military we have all of our young leaders, write a philosophy of command and now with businesses and schools were reached leadership we have to write a philosophy of leadership. we encourage them to develop their own philosophy. it is not a rubber-stamp for a template but what do you want to become? where the trades or values? have you run an organization? how will people feel? as i used to tell young officers and those of i have worked with at universities, go back and look at that at least wants a year or more.
syli you have learned, have you lived up to it? could you have done better? part of the leader to the man programs is feedback. it is tough. because when it is critical it is difficult to take. you have to have a safe way to receive that criticism with someone you trust and to necessarily say this is for you. and where that person feels comfortable in expressing themselves. i need to improve in this area. the first thing i would mention of the traits of the leaders that are succeeding and the needs of those that are not is this a sense of concentrating on being a better leader and being part of some sort of development program continuing her education? second, a realization a chapter is called of the lead. who do we the? the whole purpose of leadership is to the people
or an organization made up of people. that is much more difficult today for a number of reasons we're much more diverse and different and there is diversity that we call horizontal diversity with ethnicity, race, a place of origin sexual orientation there's a bunch of things you can see that make us different. and more and more a different group of lead is entering every field of endeavor. that leader has to be sure they can connect and communicate to each person they need who may come from a remarkably different background. besides of horizontal diversity there is a vertical diversity. i am 66 years old that tells you something because i thought he retired as 65 but
not anymore. we're healthier, better, poor so we have to work longer and then the generations in the organization are greater. i am from the silent generation. we were born before baby-boomers them baby-boomers, generation x, a generation y., the millennium announce a new generation. the know we have about the six generations of the work force and they are named because they are exceptionally different. my generation you're the son or daughter of depression-era paris they taught you about financial security, job security, a young person today you're willing to take risks and move and this manifest itself some many different ways. and mention someone i know that works for a major mutual-fund hong company he
had trouble the wars and incentives and he decided he would pull the employees to say what do you want? if you do a good job and we recognize you, what is it that you want? the older generation said put it in my paycheck the younger generation said i want a picture with the boss , a certificate, recognition which is one important. were you can count on the older employees that were settled not ready to move with the job security and believe me i know of this in the last 10 years you could find some in person come in and say i am out of here. i am moving. what do we do wrong? nothing. think i won't go try the west coast. we never would have heard that from older employees who sought security. the approach is different. look at the diversity that comes in many different forms and shapes no later
have to touch every one of those people. east this first track me in a job i got right after retirement and a look outside the hallway and looked at the people that were out there and it looked like united nations. it was so different out there and it struck me you have to be there a person for all seasons and touch all these people. the third thing that is important today that will resonate is the importance of ethics and character and moral behavior there have been so many failures in this area a lot of reasons right now the media the ability to see what goes on obviously there is much more scrutiny.
however hope we're not losing our sense of values are affix. what i find out companies are beginning to realize organizations and institutions could ethical behavior, a good code of conduct and doing things not just legally but he morley is good business but the demand in danger from the customers that want to this and are appalled by what they see are really make this importuned by a sense on boards of directors since i retired know each has a government committee, ethics committee responsible to ensure that this happens. this has become critically important to be a success in business. one is if they cannot get the job done in third
somehow they don't treat their people well everybody that we have fired or that had to quit under pressure because they could not get the job done their lack person behavior and accountability but in some way they mistreated the people they are responsible for those of the three reasons why people fail in a leadership position of responsibility provide noticed in new leaders today they think differently. they now have to deal as a set in the beginning, with very complicated and complex issues and problems. the world has exploded around them you have a problem or an issue every five seconds delivered to your doorstep by the time the problems come to the top they're not easy their salt below you. how do dissect a problem?
we're actually teaching how to think in the military we break it down critical thinking that is the ability to analyze a problem and break it down into its parts then put back together and sympathize in a way that is useful that allows you to approach it. would allow eshoo to look at the problem and hour with its overall everything else that is going on in a complex system and finally creative thinking how to think creatively about solutions are resolutions to these problems. i was an iraq november 1 year ago and there at the request of general odierno and ambassador crocker to do an assessment of an objective said advise on how they would operate in the turnover. while i was coming around with the military organizations, iraqi ministry, i really came
across something that struck me more than anything else. i was sitting at the general's headquarters i said i can close my eyes i would not know i was in the military headquarters. you open the recreational swimming pools, you have these groups that connect to the tribes to hear their issues and concerns to resolve disputes. with very few military things it was all of these things with the social structure and the political structure. yes. dave petraeus would say we can do the military security piece. of nobody else improves, if we're not hearing it this around your neck demonstrating hope then took it upon himself to do it. creatively getting into things i believe with the surgeon may be more
importantly began to turn things around. to see than normal paradigm or the boxy operate and that creative thinking and open mindedness i think is extremely valuable especially in industries and where enormous failure or mediocrity. the other is how decisions are made. we now work on how to make decisions and take the analytical process to work into the ability to arrive at the right decision and find the problem and get it done. there are three decision-makers in my view. first is the analytical decision maker who works hard at breaking things down to analyzing the parts and putting them back together in the right decision the second is the recognition. that leader has been around
long enough and experience these days and the third is the intuitive decision maker almost having a sixth cents. write-off about. when i talk to my students about this i talk in terms of quarterbacks in the nfl. that has the clipboard and a headphones is the analytical decision maker and learning how to analyze and plot teeing every play when a quarterback comes off the listens to the discussion with the coach. the starting quarterback has been around. he is now the starter and a walk on the field and read the defense very quickly and can sense the momentum and does things because he sees patterns part of the third joe montana, dan marino marino, they are the hall of fame and the intuitive decision-makers. they develop the skill they
can see it and sense it in a way nobody else can if they can only be coached to that level. also the ability to think strategically. one of the greatest pride die here is where are the russians? if you think the of the beginning of the cold war, and of world war ii, george marshall, harry truman, republicans and democrats and different views decided we're entering a new phase. we just came from a huge success we are the victors of a major superpower. and the need to operate differently. they do things in her history of to that point* ritually remarkable.
and if we think about it today, purely phenomenal. they national security at the last time we had a major reorganization of government. they created a joke. washington and jefferson had to roll over rejoined an alliance of europe that created the world bank and national security council and structures and organizations to face. along with others with others for deterrence and contain it. it does not happen anymore. if you want to make money go into the business of a strategic consultant to help organizations develop strategies. that art is lost. i had a personal theory why because if you look at the young people they are doing two things. communicating and receiving information. there is no processing.
they're constantly on cellphones, blackberry come at the computer and receiving a flood of information and communicating with their pals. is it a processing going on? that mentality is seeping through and there is so much information to be processed, so much communication, how are you going to take time to say where my? where am i going to be in 10 years and how will i get it? it is amazing how businesses operate day to day and don't have the future orientation we used to have. another part is mastering the organization's. and it has survived to this day and it is so outdated and bureaucratic and bloated that you can be left in the
dust. if you are a block and wire diagram the boss and thus the boss a christmas tree that does not work any more. if you see successful companies that are flat and web organizations and networks and structured much differently and have multiple lines of authority and communication and a more and change when the environment demands it. going back two generations like mine, real-life change we like a clean line of command and know who the boss is. that does not happen anymore. while writing the book iran into an up and comers very successful by a bunch of young people and said their organization was in a large factory the old warehouse, no partitions or walls. all the furniture was on
wheels. the desks, filing cabinets come and every day they came and they decided how they should set torture for the current mission and they loved it. they adjusted and turned things into reporting structures that bird very different. you do that my generation we have sparks coming out of our years. but look at our government look at the bloated bureaucracy it is tough to get things done. it is an arcane piece of structure that is probably one century audit date to do with the problems and speedy and necessity to get things done. said is the speed and this is brought by technology. all of us now have to carry something like this. i have two of them. i don't ever use them. [laughter] my company gives them to maybank at pissed off if i don't answer the phone for i
find out here and i go to the gate and everybody is banging away on some piece of electronic hardware or talking into a. at first i felt there were 90 people talking and l.e.t. the thing in their ear. [laughter] than on the airplane they have all of these instructions what you are supposed to read and which mode and i don't know when when the plane lands point* 1877 more people know we landed moran they do pearl harbor was attacked. [laughter] and then i have to mitt a pullout might act like time talking to somebody because somebody cares that i landed. [laughter] but use today these are people that operate with this stuff. it is dominating our world does not matter fit is good or bad the reality. when i left u.s. central command 10 years ago, i have
forces in hawaii and the west coast and east coast of the united states from the persian gulf and pakistan. i had two communicate we would go on the video teleconferencing you lost the personal touch i don't know which time zone they were in if they were awake and we tried to run a large military organization over that span of time and space and of the electronic assistance to do that which makes everything move faster. we're fighting of bunch of guys that live in caves and have throwaway cellphones and operate off of the internet and can maximize their use of these things. the speed of which to make decisions and analyze problems is greater. the environment we are in as i said at the beginning has changed. i was talking to a group of
people, food distributors from the midwest about how the environment has changed and everybody's world has expanded. you don't do anything now with your private life or business or occupation in a small contained piece of geography and after i describe this i had an individual come up to be he inherited from his grandfather. you can draw a circle around the united states that was my business world. today i get food supplies from all over the road than half customers all over the role. i have now fed in bang galore india that processes that sort of thing. all of a sudden looking at
the political situation, and the economy. he exploded like we all are, globalization end of borders are coming down and tom friedman said the world as what it is complicated out there. very complicated. nothing like it used to be some small thing that happens in the remote part of the road we have never heard of in taxes directly. somebody burns down the rate for a store grows cocoa leaves are poppies and institutions failed to become a extremists somebody says i am packing my bags and coming to your neighborhood. know everything in the world is important. you cannot isolate yourself and if you don't understand their world you live then you have a big problem. the cecil leaders today are great communicators remember when the rehberg -- robert
"barron's" were faces you might see in the newspaper? you did not see them every day. now who do you see? the ceo of toyota coming across the pond to sit in front of our congress or the three automobile makers, makers, though larry and curly. [laughter] all of a sudden is something goes wrong it is the chairman of the board believe me. you are communicating. that is not an external communications but internal. you have to be the face, the personality. leaders today cannot isolate themselves or lead from behind it has to be up front leadership and you have to be able to be skilled enough to communicate with the organization is and who you are and that has to work
inside and outside. finally, every organization in this very complicated world, a very complex world will face crisis and/or change. put them together because changes like crisis. you have to be able to lead through crisis and a change. were leaders fail is they commensurate with their own employees and feel sorry for themselves. or they try to cover it up to delay getting the information i can give you a list of things they will do wrong when they are smacked with a crisis. there are a 1,000,001 consultants out there that will tell them what is wrong and give them the list and they will still do what that way. they still don't learn. wing crisis hits, that is probably the most significant time in the year will mastiff best -- manifest his or her ability to the. how we get through this?
i have one question that i ask anybody i am talking to students or young officers. what is the one most important leadership characteristic or treat that you want in your leader? this is an interesting question because of the company or organization or the unit is doing well, with the answers that come back hard for those that don't have experience, it will come back, i want a leader that cares about his people and is charismatic and approachable. those are all well and good but it is strange. the first semi ask that question of a bunch of corporals and sergeants coming out of vietnam, i said 21 for mirage the tenant or officer the single most important trait, those young marines said i want them to know their stuff. they did not say stuff.
[laughter] almost every one of them. in the and it is competency a lawyer to be a good person and have values and treat people well. but the heart and soul of leadership is that you are confident and know your stuff for by kinky through the crisis and lead this company or unit to success in accomplish the mission and bring you back home and make you successful. and we have too many readers that we either select or ride at a position that all possess that competence today regardless of whatever field you are in is extremely difficult to achieve this virtually every organization an institution and every aspect of our society has become much more complicated and complex and difficult to the. without the experience, knowledge and demonstrated performance to be able to come in to where
we wanted to be. i thank you for your attention i will take questions and answers and thank you for coming. [applause] >> general zinni i am a vietnam veteran, a catastrophic 41 total and permanent disabled veteran veteran, personal bodyguard for lyndon johnson in the issue i would like to bring forward to you that i find to be the greatest challenge as a moral issue in our country that for over two years the average of 20 veterans from this war commit suicide because they cannot take the degradation of what happens to them when they go there and come home and receive said disconnect. the question i pose is what
would you impose that would assist these people because suicide in might understanding is one of the greatest sins a soul can commit. >> this has become it is an alarming problem and growing and the services of the military that have invested to understand and prevent are not as successful as they would like to be. the numbers have not gone down there are some reasons i think that has happened. we're just now beginning within the last decade to a knowledge of these problems if you remember back into the world war ii era my father was a world war i fed to, my cousins work point*
it was battle shock something that was either temporary or looked at as a flawed human being and not looked at as a medical issue or a problem but only recently do we acknowledge the mental strain the combat plus individuals it could lead to treatment and attention just as physical injury does. the second problem is this has continued to grow and we began to see it in a major way in vietnam and others said like different kinds of wars today. it is not a good war or the greatest generation war where if we were attacked but looking at arizona and displaced from pearl harbor and the unconditional surrender, everything went exactly like it was supposed to go and our image of how
we take up arms and defend ourselves. to rebuild the society to where it has never been, everything about that was noble and good and it turned out and away in a general sense it did. and trying to repeat that, the kind of conflict whether vietnam, i spent two tour there iraq, afghanistan, somalia, these are not the same kind of conflicts. in vietnam the soldiers did not come home to grow said appreciated them and give up their seats on an airplane. we could not wear a uniform says you might remember. we've learned a lesson not to turn antiwar into anti-military that happened once to our shame in our
culture and we got our way not to let that happen. but we have to remember the kinds of conflicts today, i sat at a table at an event next amana received the medal of honor in world war ii. the extraordinary here was and that this gentlemen demonstrator was beyond believe. in the course of the discussion, the speakers were talking about somalia, vietnam and others that have come after and he said i could not do that. i could not do what you did reading the young people in the audience. you are kidding me. you are legendary. he said i knew who the enemy was, i knew we're the front line was in when we were going to fight and stop. to know that you don't know, you don't know that
individual is the end of me if there is a rear area or front line and you have the continuous pressure 24/7 nine not knowing, you have the unbelievable feeling when you try to do something good and it backfires are simply does not appreciate your intentions were blows themselves up. you take a young person 17 or 19 years old of any war and expose them to the carnage and brutality that some of us have seen goes against everything a young minds experience and the difference between right and wrong and what is morally correct and incorrect begins to blur and trying to piece it together and understand it. only now reach trying to recognize this and just at the embryonic stages of understanding how to creek -- treated and preventive. we put our young people under tremendous pressure
and expose them to things that are unbelievable and things they could never imagine in their young life they would see. and to try to take them from that environment within hours flying right back and put them back into civilization, and a family, into a normal life, that is tough for a 20 year-old to put together in some cases providing we are beginning to make the right approaches in appreciating these issues need to be dealt with in the chain of command for the leadership. this is not just a doctor or psychiatrist problem but the leaders problem. they have to see the leaders understand and the leaders want them to do well and appreciated there going through because in the past two would mitt to this was on manley were on soldierly. released we have taken that down.
we realize it as much a problem as a physical injury but we have a long way to go. >> you put the question of talking about the management and success of that organization. i have been in management my entire life probably and i can up with the idea that interestingly enough i have not heard that word from you and it is that unless the people working for you can trust you, you will not be able to get your ideas through even if you have great ideas. of the people working under
don't trust and if your boss does not trust you you are doomed in the organization in. i think trust is probably the most important. our more like to hear your views on that. >> thank you. that is an excellent point*. have you build trust? confidence, proper behavior and the right way to treat your people that build trust in those set three things that people fail. if you accomplish those but it begins with confidence i will not trust somebody that is not competent. they may be the nicest person in the world for the most honorable person the good old dog that can time to sow #1 i want that person to know how he or she is doing because the success of the organization and my personal success will be
based on that person's confidence and competence. trust is given a and trust is only given if you earned it. should have used the word. take your point* but i hope the things i mentioned, competence, moral and ethical behavior, doing the right thing and treating people well of the three ways you earned that trust. >> general zinni speaking to your point* of organization, and adapting to the president -- present realities of terrorists or whatever, in terms of roman history from where we switch from a conventional army fighting and that conventional battle now with
the capabilities. then to optimize the structure toward terrorist to lose the ability to fight a conventional war with bombers? >> we were hitting on this one the most significant problems that our military bases because of the budget constraints and other issues of how to get resources. what kind of military should rehab? you never fight the war you prepare for because you are prepared. so the corollary is always prepare for the more you don't want to fight. but in exchange for nuclear weapons we make statements
of policy like first use and created a a tremendous arsenal that was happening. oh my god but it deterred the bad guy the purpose was deterrence and contained a. no one wanted to get into that in the military there facing a decision and you use the term optimizing. you will optimize at one and and hedge at the other. where do optimize our heritage? if you optimize and invest in the conventional and because you want to ensure you do not have to fight it to have that capability from potential enemies it will leave you're not as prepared at the other end. so you will be doomed to fight to those kinds of wars. you go back to the cold war, the way hour enemies, the communist wintering gauges through surrogates for crow he