>> welcome everybody and please take your seat. i am nicholas lemann, this is event to celebrate the publication of sub one. i'm certain it will soon be if it is not a data standard issue as american journalism for many years to come by this gentleman, christopher b. daly, professor of journalism at boston university and an old friend of mine. to give you some idea of how far back we go, when a new chris, there is a lot of harriet pierre and no hair down here. ..
trying circumstances as a recruit to the union army in the middle of this over what -- civil war and the army was so desperate they took just about anybody. they took one of promising soldier with or eyes sight. after the war he was in the german-speaking part of st. louis and a through a tremendous effort he was part owner of a newspaper and started to remake the world of journalism and a willingness to experiment
who would serve could try anything to break through to the mass circulation. and one of the first to publish regular sunday comics and wearing a yellow nature to the phrase of the yellow journalism. he discovers -- should get the credit for discovering women. you was trying to commercialize the paper to work closely with advertisers. many of the purchasing
decisions are made by wind. close, but sheets, soap, the seventh things retailers wanted to publicize. so he thought how could i connect their readers and retailers? to come up with maybe i should hire some women. we're sitting in a building we owe to his legacy. we just announced and much to everybody surprise at
that time it was not known and in nearly 89 these starting siskel of journalism coming to columbia and they turned him down. added to a 10 years for columbia to take the money. and the school says it should bear the name of the donor. tying 1911, of the school opens 1912, the building opens 1913 it has the name journalism.
[laughter] there is speculation why that was. but we rectified that. and then it is the pulitzer there are so many things to talk about but i don't know if anybody has seen the museum which is a monument when there wasn't enough resources but there was a stone tablet that makes the ten commandments look like an asterisk with the first
is. it is a process becoming increasingly political. by 1770 they are expressing themselves on the issues of the day with a reconciliation if we break what do we have? it becomes quite polemical. the products are produced anonymously and people who did not want to be known. that is the nature of the
benjamin had that penny press newspaper. he went way down market so both to do that he did to fill up with amazing things. from the police station, anything he could find. he wore himself out with a full-time reporter i will try to do something about that. >> win did journalism become a business? how o did it supported self? >> most were created for
those seven others trade. they were printers to bring customers into the shop to sell the of stationery or a book, they hit upon the 80 as a perfect device. most of those were a sideline as someone who is a job printer. during that revolutionary period you see this side by this appears and the newspaper is the focus. once the city's rs certain
density, population density, population, they get going and take off in the 1830's. >> it is fair to say for the first time is a business? >> is clear by that time. >> thinking of ourselves as a professional school. [laughter] and when did the notion of a journalist as a professional come to the scene? >> that is still contested. >> we were in the newsroom that they guys were upset kids we're going to do the lonesome school. [laughter] >> right kind of a person
can get to enter give it away over the business and -- necessity of tribalism of instruction. but our bottle was thrown overboard. almost nobody can afford to have someone on the payroll while being instructed. a lot of that training role was exported from the newsroom. only the schools could pick that up. >> as that exalted member of society he encountered that
when? >> mr. pulitzer made a forceful argument in this series of articles in the late 1890's. with the urgency to train journalist. society was becoming complicated. they needed those who could understand the bigger complement. he described the journalist comparable to a sailor on the ship keep being the eye out for the dangers of society. there is a debate whether journalist need to go to school to learn other things.
economics, chinese, six or the mysteries of the trade? >> talk about the role of government and journalism to stay away. the first amendment. is it useful to think of the direct or indirect subsidizing? >> that is a shifting relationship. some of these things start to reveal themselves. i see it period in their early years government was
powerful. right after the post office was organized, congress authorized it to to allow newspapers to exchange one copy for free at no cost that allowed editors to swap and borrow from each other. of great way to fill the paper. also early 19th century the federal government did not have their own printing capacity. everything had to be given to a printer. the printer on this side of the party in power were would get to the contracts and print everything. currency, lottery tickets,
they were given sa political favor. there was a mood varying from day-to-day panic, excitement but generally appealing everything in journalism changes very rapidly and significant day. it takes place without any historical perspective. but what is happening now? >> as i described in the book, we now see the latest
in a series of predictable crisis, one of the times the business model is out of whack and we're going through readjustment. this is a great time. i did not thinkpad at first. i thought i would write the obituary because it was falling apart independent, sometimes partisan journalism. and phoenix to what is called the barriers of entry
, that in 1986 with the launch of "usa today." that lost about $1 billion before it lost money. probably the all-time high water mark to launch a journalistic enterprise. today your students could get a website going by friday. [laughter] the cost into the business is almost to the vanishing point*. the tools have never been better. the small backpack full of the equipment it is all most unlimited with double the media productions. you would have needed day truckload of specialist of
disney's studios to show up. >> how about economically? sport is it like the colonial period? >> it is not natural or inevitable journalism is housed within big corporations. we can see that was a historical period. it was easy to think it was natural. i am not so sure now. >> getting your reaction now from discussions, at the jewish community center the mood of the audience was why can't they make the internet
away. [laughter] because of the misinformation nothing to combat for the days of walter cronkite with of the bid number of voices. to you share that view? how do you respond anybody can say anything? >> it is a common complaint for the mainstream media but as a historian we have a certain amount of anonymity. we're trained to ask when word the good old days?
we have limited access it was a knightley lecture, not a conversation and they were bought always right to. there are better corrective mechanisms to day they and the glory. they all involve trade-offs and some things we will not this. >> now the opposite type of question. the id google plaques in california. why do we need journalist at all? [laughter] for public data and all the rhythms and crowd sourcing
eliminate the middleman. how do you respond? >> that is also very popular and my students go that way. at boston university we have made arrangements to have stacks of newspapers every day. at the end of the day the janitors and will take them away. it is just an impediment. [laughter] they will not take them. well the internet gives tremendous ability to search to be more active searchers and learners there is an important job for the
storyteller to bring material together. looking at a fantastic project about to a grizzly bear rich in multilayer technology, a fascinating story but would not tell itself. somebody has us to make that happen. story over data there will be a tremendous interest. >> i will switch to the audience but usually when new work on a book you encounter somebody you did not know about before. i am curious who was in your
book. >> a couple of examples. >> that was surprised. i am typical i had not had much schooling. i was surprised a man named lawrence who worked for the associated press had the and credit mutation credible challenging job he is in a predicament to cover congress and write the story is acceptable to outlets.
some are republicans, led democrats, but wakes, copperheads, they have to except the reporting he had to make sure they were factual as the country is literally coming apart. and he said that was a great challenge and he also stood through the war and lose their 1865 when he was hustled from the hotel and spread the news while the president was wavering between mike and that the wrote to the hard news
summary style for good president was shot in a theater tonight. perhaps mortally wounded. and it plays a big part. to do that was hoping to move to fly a politically neutral journalism and became the hallmark would of the things that was neutral. >> one last question when we were starting come as i look
of the health going forward? what is the answer going forward? >> i don't know and i don't have to. i emphasize i do not know the future. people have long been involved for nine economic reasons. they may be part is then or psychic or may have another cause. we saw the of the day and esteemed institution was bought. >> my son. [laughter] >> a passing of the torch.
he did say smart enough business venture it will not add to the pile of 12. people who decide to take a flier. made their be more. >> as being one onerous thing, if you can bear going to the microphone all generations from here for word. >> kn they travel? >> following up on the last question a lot of us are
concerned the newspaper is getting economically weaker. for the hard right to or hard left. is that not pay valid concern? >> is an important question connected to the business model. is most clear when you have institutions like the fried television networks, with the goal was to reach 100% of the audience. they try to have a universal
appeal. in bet new economics. but you could be successful by your terms. you're not trying to bring in the center of make a name for yourself at the corridors of the room. we may go through a period of polarization. the country has bet divided before and again. we should not despair. the famous that keep the
>> this is so interesting. tom brokaw road about the greatest generation and. do have any feeling? >> one day that struck me was it is funny you bring it up because journalism during world war ii was powerful, alec went, it important eloquent with so much at stake was surprised to see the press corps that
had not so much experience many of those cohorts had very little. very few had been covering world war i. i was really impressed with the quality and the beauty of the things that they wrote to. to meet it was say cartoon character a journalist in the foxhole. i would love to share. it evokes his finest work.
it got people and the service saying i will not said you letters. read ernie piper co is there. this is from a piece 1944 during the italian campaign on the leading edge s u.s. troops battled on the peninsula. it ran into hundreds and hundreds of daily newspapers. under the heading this is the captain.
latching onto the backs of mules, belly down on of the pack saddle. the first was slid down from the mule. then to say there were more bodies outside. steven being in the moonlight on the trail the soldiers who led them were waiting. they seemed reluctant to leave and i could sense them levying one by one. but to say infidelity i stood close by.
one soldier said out loud god it. another said goddamnit to halt any way. then the first man squatted down and took the captains and and held it for five minutes book being intensely into the dead face. never a sound. he put it down then straight into the points of his wish shirt collar and edges of his uniform around the wound and walked away a loan.
with a new and original voices there are hardly any editors of our bosses or senses. there are things we are familiar with based on mass marketing some there was said tendency to be a conformist to seek the lowest common denominator. those institutions try to find the equivalent to build the chevrolet. that drive to satisfy most people rules out to certain
points of view. who is to say? where many more things are possible. >> there is of cover story and a process described come us something precious is lost because the act of bringing large numbers of people together is itself a democracy. do you buy the argument? i would be careful. win are the good old days?
1923, new york city 17 different papers. people were not reading the same thing. that does not include weeklies, of forming wage, political party, but there was a pulling apart as the effort to of a common conversation. >> what this counterintuitive circulation went straight down. not because individual newspapers lost business but
at the same time looking at tied at four singapore on the economic side a controlled economy with the argument the free-for-all capitalism could not compete against a well planned economy. they would argue unlimited numbers of shows the is not to help them. i would like to know as a historian are they on to something? >> one privilege i have is
to work with the new group of graduate students. i work with those from other countries. more and more from china. either the lot from them. americans are concerned about issues such as liberty and personal freedoms many students are concerned about order and order in their society is what they think about as the news media will improve or threaten.
i don't know a single american who thinks of order. they come from a different point* debut and there is a system late to their own history and experience and culture and a world economy. they are changing. institutions are developing in a chinese way to eventually undermine that control. i don't see technology will favor a command economy. >> what do i know?
that is a wide open area. >> anyone can put to whenever they want to on the internet to you have a front-page article a magic in the world in new york times does not exist how we get those resources? the issue being in florida for example. and exhaustive story yesterday but nothing at the time. >> let me start with a tip of the hat to to the the york times. since the purchase from the patriarch of the family, they have done a
tremendous public service by investing their resources resources, mustaf, e equipment, foreign bureaus, the most expensive thing is you can ask. i wish them well. if you talk to and intelligence, the well-educated, prosperous american in the late 1950's, they relied on cbs radio, "life" magazine, saturday evening post. they york herald tribune. they are all gone. it has vanished but others
don't understand it. k new talk about the history of parity? >> wonderful subject. there have been lampoons lampoons, satires and one of the discoveries i made was the amount of satire and in direction of journalism of 18th century. even his own newspaper ad tremendous amount is not straightforward and did your objective reporting. in this murky and funny with
the references but most is to make a political point* to at the expense of the journalistic rivals. as soon as you have to newspaper towns, there's competition they start to mock each other. >> that would never have been today. [laughter] is a great tradition. i think jon stewart pez eight fantastic job and the staff does an amazing job to find video to make all the poins it is a tremendous public
service. >> i think the spirit of satire has been loose for a long time. it is a way to bring institutions down a little bit to. >> i am tremendously pleased everyone here made it. i would welcome anybody who was not familiar to jump in and find unexpected pleasures as i did. i found a stimulating professional but to discover the work people have been
just grown. 1980 there was a fire next door and we've burned out then in this building 32 years. we survive by increasing focus on the nature of the customer, quality of customer service. places were not good at that part. by a assize thing he bends the literally a center of the community and projecting to the world what we we're doing and what was here. that continues to work. we've always come up with a new approach, promotions approach, promotions, defens e, the services. we have book catering.
anybody speaking anywhere that has a book we will take looks too bad the event. at tavis turned out to helpful. often they will selanne autographed stock books. this the element of the customer base we have most of the market to for literary fiction. nonfiction, biography does well. current events and politics it is a broad strip of -- spectrum. also focussing of oklahoma that results authors here
with a focus that inclines people to be more interested originally my vision was to grow old gracefully smoking a pipe. i do not smoke of pipe anymore and it is brutally competitive. competing initially is what we've learned how to do catering to this serious readers in structured our pricing and promotions around the idea. with the most knowledgeable staff. men along amazon but we have held our own. electronic books takes