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tv   C-SPAN2 Weekend  CSPAN  August 18, 2012 7:00am-8:00am EDT

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a fool on military? what are the concerns that we might have in doing that given our current considerations? >> we make it quite clear in our report the we have in the past. first of all aid decision -- is the japanese decision. not a u.s. decision. before i describe this as an impediment to alliance cooperation i don't think one can argue that effect. we also have an interesting footnote in our report. the footnote refers to the 2006 commission which was put together to study the question of article 9 collective self-defense and came to the conclusion that a prime minister could buy fiat do away with prohibition self-defense. the united states would be fine with that. is it is not us who are holding it together or holding it down.
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>> to just add a little bit, the goal is to have more intimate cooperation sold e. can work together to get better than dealing with the constraints. we are not seeking to changes in the constitution. we are not seeking unified command and we are not seeking for japan to become a more militaristic in character. the aim is we need to get rid of the impediments so that our forces can work together more efficiently or effectively. that is the goal. >> i am phil grata from the state department public policy bureau. if japan does not choose to step up to the plate and let the alliance with their, what are
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the most plausible consequences you are concerned about? >> if japan and the united states are not moving forward together one of the consequences, we are going to have an alliance because one of the most important features of the alliance is the fact that the government and the people of japan allow us to use of military bases in japan without which the tyranny of time and distance for our navy would really make it difficult to have meaningful security cooperation. as long as the government of japan were willing to allow the use of u.s. bases that our alliance will continue but in won't be what we needed it to be. it won't have the vibrancy and not something -- my colleagues and to themselves. is not something if japan doesn't move along is not a situation that is actually
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supportive of the people of japan. i use the term deliberately. we want a japan in which young japanese can dream, not just exists. we want a japan that is not so -- what would you say -- inward looking. that is the japan we need and that is the kind of japan--japan should need as well. >> i do not think we are at a fork in the road where the alternatives are robust japan alliance or collapsing alliance. in some ways we are talking about an alliance that models and thrifts because there is broad consensus in both countries that we need each other. it is either that or a robust alliance. if we end up on the path of continued model and drift several things could happen. one is u.s. and other powers
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aligned closely with japan are going to start hedging. that will weaken japan's influence and take the energy out of the cooperation we need for both our countries to be influential. it would be an unfortunate outcome. that is one danger. the other danger it seems to me is you could create in a time of shifting power in asia the impression that there are vacuums at a time when you want to discourage countries from trying to unilaterally change the order from resorting to forced coercion, at just that time of the worst possible time to create the impression that one of the most important ball works of stability or support for democracy in an inclusive trading system is going wobbly. it is not so much a binary love
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or divorce choice, it is how much we can continue to maximize benefits to each of our national interests and regional stability. >> i don't believe there was any subtext in some essential risk. in this third exercise one thing that became clear at least to me was among the greatest threats is failure of the imagination and the economic side. we look at the energy that is spent on free trade agreements and has a lot of authenticity and might be the next thing that keeps the open trade regime on track but i note with interest and i am puzzled by the idea of
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a japan/korea/china at the a. i thought that announcement a few months ago and was trying to figure out how does that work as my 19-year-old daughter would say. is puzzling. at a time -- meredith broadband -- i shiver because there are experts in the global trade regime and there is no obvious thing to spend time and energy diverted from the largest free trade agreement in world and adding an enriching confidence, in terms of what is next and what is achievable and what bolsters the alliance. that seems an obvious signaling that for the rest of the region
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currently in doubt because the background noise from europe about the future of export growth, that could be vitally important. on energy, i can think of one opportunity japan would forfeit and one additional risk it would take on. what we are suggesting is we leverage the alliance to remove japan's second-class status when it comes to being a customer. that opportunity would go away. and also with regard to japan's growing dependence on the stability of the middle east and secure flow of hydrocarbons from the middle east we would lose the opportunity to fully utilize all japan's assets and it would frankly exacerbate the tension you see in the united states,
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our imports go down and america starts to realize we have all this oil and gas some -- our hemisphere and ten years starts to revive this sense, and prestige abroad. japan would reinforce that sins of resources and isolationism and if the abundance we are discovering. >> i am with washington research. if the energy, and lively recommend restart of nuclear plants in japan but when we still don't know what is
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happening in fukushima. the u.s. should be more engaged because these are you as designed and some of them are built, electric plants which in retrospect have small designs. i say small design because it self-destruct sir when the plumbing fails. circulation of water for whatever reason fails, it melts down within 24 hours and contaminates the environment for the remaining 30 years and this happens in the u.s. too. the united states should pay more attention. japan should have a scenario. and what to do should the plants
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roadway fukushima did and this again is something that the u.s. should be concerned as much as the japanese except japan -- miles of real-estate the way the u.s. might be able to. >> your point is well taken. i hope the remarks -- if you read our report what i hope to convey his we applauded cautious restart. only two reactors down. we understand japan is setting up the new regulatory agency that will take on board the lessons of fukushima and a sure whether restore tappan they are done fatefully. we are applauding and a cautious restart appropriate. we're back to the fact that
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nuclear energy is the only emissions free based load generation. we don't see and most thoughtful observers would agree that without a restart of safe nuclear power it is hard to see japan reviving its national economy much less becoming that fear one partner at secretary armitage is talking about. >> none of the reports commissioned by the government were independently in japan concluded that the design caused the problem. i agree with your general point the u.s. and japan should be doing more to think about the future of nuclear safety. japan played a big role after the three mile island sending engineers and experts to help us at a critical time. a lot of engineers from the department of energy. we didn't go into detail but it
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is one area where we could step up in learning from the experience and with other like-minded states pushing for higher levels of nuclear safety globally at a time when we're looking at a future where most reactors in the world are built by russia, china and other countries that may not have our same standards. there is opportunity as we go forward. >> good morning. this question is for david asher but anyone else who wants to respond. the alliance is in pretty good shape but can't afford to stand still particularly in the context of so many game changers with china being first and foremost. with the export control principles how can you see that
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changing as a game changer? how can you see that changing not only the security relationship but the economic relationship. >> and national-security integrating themselves much more substantially. our budgets just can't afford to be independent and independently minded long-term and our alliance allows us to be comprehensively involved with each other and we should be but we are not. we like and a lot of technology to ltd. co-production. we never embraced the opportunity of an economy of scale and economy of force to lower the cost of our defensive systems. it will increase the
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effectiveness, and threatening nations that surround us that we are integrated for the long term. if we are integrated in terms of military production that goes beyond the military and involves economic security which is critical. and they think they can take advantage of us frankly. economic security is something we need to pay more attention to. >> i am reporter for japan's newspaper. regarding vote relationship, this report recommends the united states should not
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rendered judgment on issues, quite understandable but at the same time, and should confront historical issues. there is a judgment meaning of a future standpoint on these issues do have some programs if i understand this. could you elaborate on what that means? >> what is today? >> august 15th. >> what is august 15th? this is v-j day. we didn't have this proposal
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unveiled by accident. that is why my colleague's comments were heartfelt. we know how potent they are and how powerful they are. the united states is not going to make a judgment on these issues but the united states should be using diplomatic energy to help the two sides resolve these issues. how they result in what manner has to be acceptable to both sides. the are ok and japan. there's populism involved in these issues and that muddies the waters but we suggested in our report and stepped up track discussions and the united states -- not being judgmental
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we have come to the conclusion of through our own painful experience. >> the republican national convention meets in ten days but the republican platform committee will draft a platform for the delegates to approve. we have live coverage of those meetings monday at 1:30 eastern time. you can watch it on c-span and >> i started as a copy boy in the new york times. the wall street journal -- >> this sunday and q&a washington post columnist walter pinkus talked about various jobs as a journalist and u.s. spending overseas and the budget priorities. >> you build a four million-year-old facility, 40
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people. and -- you spend $4 million you raise a question. >> more with walter pinkus on c-span's q&a. >> hillary clinton completed an 11 day trip to africa. she spoke at the university in cape town south africa. and the broadcasting corporation. >> when it was suggested that i deliver a speech in south africana and we asked the south african embassy in washington there was only one answer. the university of west.
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[applause] >> of course it is a most fitting institution despite the ambassador's prejudice. this distinguished and storied university has played an important role in berthing a new south africa. at a time when apartheid was entrenched the faculty and staff took a brave stand over the years. they were in the vanguard of the struggle for justice even giving thought to a new constitution. it is only appropriate that this university and this area of south africa which has known
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both the despair of apartheid and the birth of new freedom was once called the cape of storms before it became the cape of good hope. i first came to south africa in 1994 for the inauguration of nelson mandela. someone who is a great leader and a hero to many including myself. i sat at the inauguration and watched the south african defense force streaked across the sky. there contrails tinted with all the colors of the new national flag. for decades those jets had been a powerful symbol of the system of apartheid but on that day they dipped their wings in support of their new commander in chief. for those of us who witnessed
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the ceremony it was a searing moment. it was a man who had spent 27 years as a political prisoner not far from here now being sworn in as president and president mandela's journey represented something even larger. his country's journey. the journey of your parents and grandparents and great grandparents. a long but steady march toward freedom for all its people. being present at the birth of this new democracy was an experience that not only i but the world will never forget. we are now 18 years removed from that iconic moments. if you are a student here at uw see you were probably just a toddler then. a few of you might not even have
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been born yet. you didn't just grow up in a democratic south africa. you grow up in a democratic south africa. and one i visited in 1994 and so too are the challenges you must confront and opportunities that are there. in this pivotal time, and supporting you. as president barack obama said so memorably in 2009 the nation of africa need partnership, not patronage. not strong men with strong institutions. united states seeks to build sustained partnerships that help african nations to fulfill your
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own aspirations. the trip has taken me from west africa to east africa to the warrant and to the south. in each place i have seen america's partners taking charge of solving tough problems. in south sudan the new government of a nation only a year old. made a courageous decision to restart oil production for the benefit of its people. in you does not i met with soldiers fighting terrorists in somalia and working to end joseph casone's reign of terror with the resistance army. in malawi i met not only a new female president, joyce bandus but remarkable teenage girls building their skills and confidence and a group of
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village women improving their incomes and their family futures to band together in a daring cooperative. at every stop i described how the obama administration's comprehensive strategy with africa rests on four pillars which the archbishop just mentioned. for opportunity and development, spurring economic growth. betray and investments. advancing peace and security and strengthening democratic institutions. we are working with your country on all four of these. i have just finished the second strategic dialogue between our countries, during the year many officials of both our governments across many agencies work together on important issues and we meet annually to
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review progress in our cooperation. let me give you just a few brief highlights that help paint a picture of the deb and breadth of our bilateral relationship. today at the south clinic united states signed a document with south africa that marks of major transition in south africa's continuing fight against hiv aids. south africa will be the first country in africa to plan, managed and pay for more of your own efforts to combat the epidemic. the united states will provide funding and technical support to our program. we brought a delegation of leaders from american companies like fedex and chevron and boeing and general lector that are looking to expand their work in south africa. they met with their counterparts
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from the south african business community near the 200 representatives looking to strengthen our ties commercially. we launched a $7 million public/private partnership to bring together government foundations and businesses. we announce the start of the opportunity grant program which disadvantaged south african students in the united states. we established a global disease detection center that will be jointly led by health experts from our two countries. judges and court systems more effectively combat gender based violence, and support other countries in the region trying to do the same. we will complete an agreement
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with the city of cape town to provide high-speed internet access. that is quite a list and there is more to be said but in short it represents the work we are doing together, work with goes to the heart of our relationship that is aimed on improving the lives of people, working to eradicate disease, ameliorate and end poverty. working with you to help you solve the challenges you face but there's a different aspect of our relationship that doesn't get enough attention and that is how we work with our effort and all the nations of africa to solve those challenges and problem is not just within your
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borders but across the continent and indeed throughout the world. our shared mission is essentials of our common security and prosperity and fundamental character of the world of the twenty-first century. this is about your world. the one you will inherit. consider some of the problems we face today. and anemic global economy. transnational crime and terrorism, climate change, disease, nuclear proliferation. none of these problems can be solved by any one country acting alone or even by several countries acting together. each one calls for global network of partners. governments, businesses, and regional organizations with academic institutions. civil society groups. even individuals all working in
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concert. there cannot be a strong global network unless there are strong african partners. i have often heard it said african problems need african solutions. i am here to save it some of our global problems need african solutions too. [applause] >> few nations on this continent can carry as much weight or be as effective partners and leaders as south africa. [applause] >> you are a democratic power with the opportunity to influence africana and the world. you have red on non-proliferation at the international atomic energy agency and on climate change at the durbin conference. you have led a on economic
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cooperation-the g 20. you have lead on women's participation in politics. a south african woman wilson becomes share of the african union commission. a first in the history of that organization. all of this is good news for the people of south africa. this continent and the world but respectfully i say that we and hugh can, should and must do more. two days ago i had the honor of visiting president mandela and his wife at their home. the man who did so much to shape the history of a free south africa has never stopped thinking about the future of
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south africa. you, the young generation, are called not just to preserve the legacy of liberty that has been left to you by other courageous men and women, you are called to build on that one guess the. to insure that your country fulfills its own promise and takes its place as a leader among nations and as a force for pistes, opportunity, the quality and democracy and to stand up always free human-rights at home and around the world. this is a journey that my own country knows well. although america and south africa are certainly different nations with different histories we have a deep and abiding connection. like you americans know what it
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takes to begin healing the woundss of oppression and discrimination. we have had leaders and the archbishop quoted one. our first president, george washington but also sojourners truth and martin luther king and so many others who both inspired us and challenge us to live up to our values. to keep faith with the ideals set forth and enunciated at our beginning. we know this work is hard. not only on going but never end mr. j. but like you we are compelled by our nation's history to stand up around the world for the values we ascribe to fat and advance,
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with the rise of the emerging powers like staffer of -- south africa usually start and too often stop with people saying with great power comes great respons the vility. it is worth considering what this% eally means. some critics are quick to say when america says emerging powers have great responsibilities they mean great responsibility to do whatever america wants. i believe because of your history south africa has an obligation to be a constructive force in the international community as the united states does but that obligation has nothing to do with what america or anyone else wants you to do. it has everything to do with who
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you are. here in south africa you achieve something few countries have ever done. you proved that it din tsn't ta an all out civil war to bridge the divide between people who grew up learning to hate one another. you showed that the% ights of minorities can be protected even in places where the majority spent decades living in of freshen. you reminded people the way forward is not% evenge but truth and reconciliation. of course you know better than i verow much work needs to be don. south africa faces daunting economic, social and political challenges but you have laid the foundation for a society that is more prosperous, more inclusive, more peaceful, more democratic
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and the world need you to contribute much bec already have accomplished much. that me highlight the ways the united states and south africa can work together to promote opportunity and development, sir spur trade and investment and advance peace and security and strengthen democratic institutions. opportunity and development. even as south africa responds to the challenges at home, you are supporting your neighbors's
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efforts to fight poverty, create conditions for more sustainable, inclusive growth. you are working with the government of malawi to help farmers use their land he efficiently and raise their income. you are supporting south sudan in efforts to train judges and strengthen their judicial system and so much more. the united states and south africa can share our experience legal leverage our resources so both of us get more and better results. for example we are partnering with the university to train leaders from the public and private sector in other african countries in developing agricultural strategies. this is the partnership we want to see more of not just with south africa but other african countries that are becoming donors as well as recipients of
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the system. and food security, the east and west africa. nigeria has released food supplies to help its neighbors. we are only limited by our imagination. but of course our goal must be opportunity for all. development for those most in need of whiffing themselves and their families and communities out of poverty. if that remains our goal there are limitless ways we can collaborate together. the second pillar, economic trade and investment is another way the world looks to south africa to play a constructive role in promoting a global economic architecture that benefits everyone. of course that is easy to talk about and the devil is always in the details whether we are
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discussing and fair tariffs or the speed of trade liberalization or local content and ownership share requirements. shared interests are greater than any differences. we both want domestic and international rules that protect our workers while attracting investment from abroad. we both want clean and sustainable growth that does not pollute our water or our air. we both won transparency and a level playing field free of corruption. we both want to create jobs at home while promoting a global economic recovery that as president kennedy said lifts all those. that is why the obama administration is committed to renewing the african growth and opportunity act with south africa included before the act expires in 2015.
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[applause] >> we are pleased congress acted last week to extend the third country fabric provision through 2015 which will add enormous benefit for entrepreneurs, especially women in many of that south africa's neighbors and create jobs in the united states. president obama will sign this bill as soon as it reaches his desk. measures like the african growth and opportunity act will not reach their full potential and africa will not reach its full promise of less african countries break down the barriers with their neighbors. as we have seen from north and south america to east asia, everyone benefits when neighbors open their markets to each other and take steps to spur regional trade and investment but unfortunately there still is
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less trade among the countries of sub-saharan africa than in any other region of the world. south african leaders have said encouraging words about regional integration. the region looks to them to tear down the barriers that make it easier to export goods halfway around the world than to your neighbors on the continent. picking up the mantle by championing an ambitious north/south infrastructure corridor. to realize that vision that so often remained elusive. the highway from cape town to cairo. with south africa in the lead perhaps i will come back in a few years and drive it.
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the third area of our shared agenda is peace and security. south-africa and the united states have not always seen eye to eye in this area particularly at the height of the crises in libya. the differences we have between us in these moments are over tactics, not principles. that should not obscure our many shared goals from supporting of a political transition in somalia to combating piracy. from addressing the threat of terrorism and violent extreme across to reinforcing the peace between sudan and south sudan. in one is specially crucial area south africa has set the standard for the world's, stopping nuclear proliferation. as the first country to
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voluntarily give up nuclear weapons south africa speaks with rare authority. you can most convincingly make the case that giving up nuclear weapons is a sign of strength, not weakness and you can help in sure -- [applause] -- end you can help ensure that any country that pursues nuclear weapons programs will invite only more pressure and isolation. this means south africa can play an even greater role on issues like curbing iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons or preventing nuclear materials from falling into the hands of terrorists. south africa also is supported by and supports africa's regional institutions in advancing peace and security. we have worked closely with the
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african union which has emerged as an increasingly active force in addressing security challenges from somalia to sudan and south sudan and i think the a few for all their efforts led by former president mbeki to help with the oil embargo by the two sides last week. regional organizations are engaged as we speak in peace and reconciliation efforts in madagascar. more informal arrangements like the international conference on the great lakes region are bringing leaders together to tackle the conflict in the eastern congo. south africa plays an important leadership and supportive role in all of this. the fourth area is protecting human rights and democracy.
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americans and south africans alike pledge ourselves to the proposition that all people everywhere should live with dignity, pursue their dreams, voice their opinions freely, worship as they choose. we want to see all of that come to fruition. living up to these principles is not easy. no country's record is spotless including my own. right now many democracies in the global south including south africa are engaged in a vigorous debate. on the one hand they want to promote democratic values and respect for each human rights and other nations but on the other hand they are wary of intervention that internal
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affairs of those other nations. we are all called to answer the question about how we live up to these principles that we share and there are no easy solutions and one country may not answer that question the same way as another. we all have to recognize that anywhere in any place where human rights are abused and democracy, true democracy denied the international community by pressure to help bring about positive change no one understands that better than the people of south africa so we welcome south africa's support this week for the resolution of the general assembly condemning syria and the brutal reign of terror. i hope this vote could be the foundation for a new level of
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cooperation on one of the more urgent questions of our time. more broadly at the human rights council and other venues we look to you to lead the effort to protect universal human rights for everyone. when old friends in power become corrupt and repressive a decision by south africa to stand on the side of freedom is not a sign that you are giving up on old allies. it is a reminder to yourselves and the world that your values don't stop at your borders. are particularly appreciate the leadership role and other southern african democracies like zambia and botswana in supporting the newest democracies. egypt and tunisia and south sudan and others looking for advice and models. you can point to a university
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like this one which insisted on the freedom to teach whoever and however they saw fit. you can point to the independent trade unions that stood up for workers' rights and civil society groups that provided legal counsel and other essentials support. you can point to courageous journalists who insisted on telling the truth even when it invited the government's raft. here in africa the international community has made it clear that the people of zimbabwe deserve the right to have their voices and votes heard and counted in a free and fair election. thanks to the efforts of zimbabwe's civil society a draft of a new constitution is nearly complete. now these same leaders can
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accelerate progress for finalizing and adopting the new constitution through a credible referendum and holding a free and fair election monitored by the international community. [applause] >> if zimbabwe's leaders meet these commitments the united states is prepared to match action for action. [applause] >> in each of these areas. peace and security and democracy and human rights south africa already embodies so many values that the world is looking for. we look forward to deepening our cooperation but let us remember no countries influence is a
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birthright. not america's and not south africana's. [applause] >> we have our own work cut out for us. to keep moving toward and trying to achieve the unachievable more perfect union. to live up to our values. to use our influence and power. to help others achieve their own dreams. south africa is to achieve the full measure of your own ambition you too must face and solve your own challenges in health and education, economic
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and equality, unemployment, race relations, gender based violence, the issues that you live with and must address. these are areas that we too face and we stand ready to work with you but only the people of south africa can make the decisions about how you will solve these problems and overcome these challengess. only south africans can fight corruption. only south africans can prevent the use of state security institutions for political gain. only south africans can defend your democratic institutions preventing the erosion of a free press and demanding strong opposition parties and independent judiciary and only south africans can truly preserve and extend the legacy of the nelson mandela
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generation. but you will also be called on to define the very nature of your citizenship and your country's approach to your fellow citizens and the world's. you will decide whether south africa moves forward and not backwards and you will decide whether south africa seeks to raise old dividing lines in global politics. you will decide whether south africa seeks to set aside old suspicions and instincts and embrace new partnerships tailored to twenty-first century challenges. our own partnership not only between the government but our people can grow deeper and stronger if both of us remember our respective histories and the obligations they impose if we keep focused on the future and move toward it together.
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nearly 50 years ago robert f. kennedy, a united states senator, attorney general and champion of civil rights, came to cape town and gave a heartfelt speech about south effort that's place in the world. he came to the vivid picture of the future he envisioned where every nation respect universal human rights, promote social justice, accelerate economic progress, liberates all people to pursue their talents. south africa he said can play an outstanding role in creating that world and he called in particular on the young people of that time saying this world demands the qualities of use. not a time of life but a state of mind. a quality of the imagination. a predominance of courage over
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committee -- committee -- tim i timidi timidity. the lenore roosevelt once said human-rights really starts in the small places close to home fbn. it is easy to talk about the sweeping issues. to pledge ourselves to the abstractions of human-rights. it is much harder to reach deep inside our hearts and minds. to truly see the other. whether the other is of a different race, ethnicity, tribe, national origin, and recognize the common humanity. i have been in and around politics for a long time. it is easy to lose sight of the
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common humanity of those who oppose you. you get to feeling that your way is the right way. that your agenda is the only one that will save the people. and all of a sudden you begin to dehumanize the opposition and the other. the greatest lesson i learned about this came from nelson mandela. when i came to that inauguration in 1994 it was a time of great political conflict in my own country. my husband was president. people were saying terrible things about us both. personally, politically, every
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way you could think of and i was beginning to get pretty hard inside. i was beginning to think to do they think they are? what can i do to get even? after that inauguration that i described in the beginning, i along with other dignitaries from all over the world were invited to a great lunch under a huge tent at the president's house. i had breakfast there in the morning and came back to have lunch with nelson mandela. [laughter] there were so many important people there. our delegation was led by our vice president. they're wrecking the and prime ministers and presidents and a glittering assembly.
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president mandela stood to greet us and welcome us to that one should and he said you are very important people. and i welcome you to our country. i thank you for coming. but the three most important people to me here in this vast assembly are three men who were my jailers on robins island. i set up so straight. i turned to the person is dead-what did he say? he said the most important people here were three of his jailers. he said i want them to stand up. three middle-aged white men stood up. he called them by name. he said in the midst of the terrible conditions in which i was held for so many years, each
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of those men saw me as a human being. they treated me with dignity and respect. they talked to me. they listened. and when i walked out of prison i knew i had a choice to make. i could carry the bitterness and the hatred of what had been done to me in my heart forever. and i would still be in prison. or i could begin to reconcile the feelings inside myself with my fellow human beings. that is the true legacy of president mandela calling all of
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us to complete the work he started. to overcome the obstacles, be in justices, the mystery man's that every one of us will encounter at some point in our lives. that is truly what south africa is called to do. to continue the struggle, the struggle free human dignity. the struggle for respect. the struggle to lift people up and give children the chance every boy and girl to fulfill his or her god-given potential in this beautiful land that has been so blessed. it is a burden being an american or a south african.
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because people expect you to really live up fun at those standards people hold us to a higher set of standards, don't they? and we owe it to all of those who came before, all who sacrificed and suffered to do our very best to keep working every single day to meet those standards but we mostly owe it to our future. many things have changed since robert kennedy came to cape town and nelson mandela left robin's island but some of not. the world we want to build together still demands the qualities of youth and a predominance of courage over to mid --timidity


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