>> george washington enjoyed a long 50 relationship with alexander. >> this gives our visitors a great picture of what the interior of a civil war fort would have looked like. >> alexander was part of the original district of columbia. >> welcome to alexandria, virginia, on booktv. with help of our comcast cable partners, for the next one that we will take you to this down on the potomac river a couple miles south of washington, d.c. join us as we explore its rich and varied history. beginning with a look at some of cities hidden stories from the past. >> the book is "the hidden history of alexandria." the last part of that time is
very important because it's not about alexandria, virginia. it's about a period in history when the district of columbia included parts of what's now virginia. what i wanted to do was look at a 50 year time period and give a sense of what alexandria became part of the district of columbia, what went wrong and why it left. one the things i wanted to do with the book is give people a sense of what life was like in this time period. firefighting was very differently in this time period. crime was very different. slavery played a crucial role in the business world of this time period. politics were very different. i've done lots of research on the politics. what was essentially democratic city. so i thought that was kind of interesting because today in the modern world this is a democratic town in what is essentially a republican state. from that since they're sort of a line you can look back to this
time period and see there was a political division then that still exist today. when i was doing research i found three places that i would really like to take you to give you a sense of what it's like to live in alexandria, d.c. one of them is joined -- jones point part. the dueling ground where a very famous duel took place between sectors state henry clay and virginia senator john randolph. the other place i was interested in taking it is the infamous -- franklin and are filled playfield which is where we're headed next. we are standing in one of the hidden gems of old town alexandria. this is the infamous slave pen at the franken and armfield slave do. we are located right now in the basement of the northern virginia urban league. this was at one time the most prosperous played this is in america. franklin and arm field would
round up slaves of all points, virginia, maryland, even delaware. they would bring him here, process them and then they had camped. camps. is a men's camp on one side and the wind can when inside. they were not allowed to comment with each other. they were kept here until they could be sold in large quantities down south. and so then they would be transported either via shift or sometimes marched on foot down to mississippi and louisiana. landaluze -- when the union army invaded was one -- it wasn't infamous spot into slavery but it'd been featured in all of the abolitionist newspapers. when union soldiers came here, they continue to the basement where we're standing and found slaves shackled to the wall. slavery played a very important role in the history of the district's early history. it also played an important role in why alexandria wanted to leave the district of columbia.
if you were to take a look at this 50 year time period that alexandria was a part of the district of columbia, you would see that the business of slavery was the predominant business and alexandria. where all that but money was a. so the slave trading operation that we're standing in right now was one of the most successful businesses and alexandria. and it was so successful as a matter of fact, that a threat was posed by the potential outlawing of slavery in the district of colonial was enough to push this movement forward for what they called recto session, which was alexandria leaving the district of columbia. so slavery played a very important role as the predominant business are in dispute year time period also played a key role in why alexandria wanted to leave the district of columbia. >> we are standing up the dueling ground in north arlington. this is a famous spot because this is where the dual happen
between secretary of state henry clay and virginia senator john randolph. this is a little-known dual. i had never heard of this until i started researching the history for the book, but these are two titans of american politics. the modern-day equivalent of, secretary of state john kerry versus virginia center mark warner. so they ride to on the day of the dual. after randolph had given a speech on the senate floor, clay did not like this. they ended up having a duel with each other. they arrived here. on the morning of the dual two-handed weapons. they shot at each other, both sides mr. guerre happened -- they were handed new weapons. they missed again. so they came together. so randolph said you all meet a new code because the boat had pierced his coat. so clay said to randolph, i'm glad the debt is not greater. >> right now we're at jones point, standing on top of the southernmost tip of the district
of columbia. this is the boundary marker that was laid in 1791, when the federal government was creating the district of columbia. when you look at a map of the district of columbia, it looks like a diamond shaped. but if you look at a modern map of d.c., it looks like moths have eaten at the southern half of the. that's because the virginia part of the original district was ready to see the back to virginia. this point is very significant because it was the original boundary marker -- there were a number of boundary markers that were laid all around this area to point out the diamond shape, the actual boundaries of the district. this was the first, and was also -- there was a lot of ceremony that was involved in the placement of this stone in 1791 to so the significance action has a long story that dates back to 1784, right at the end of the american revolution. that congress was debating how
they should have a capital city and whether not they should create a district. a guid guy by the name of jerryo we know from gerrymandering, suggested that a district be created, a federal district. jerry suggested two possibilities. one was trained new jersey. and the other was georgetown maryland. and so the congress debated it and eventually chose clinton. -- "the hidden history of alexandria." they approved -- they would be in trenton part of the year and then in georgetown another part of the year. virginians were willing to go to great lengths to make sure that the capital was placed here on the potomac. one of the people that played a key role in this is a guy whose name has been kind of lost in history, but, david stewart. this was a friend of washington's, who was related to washington.
a business partner of washington. interestingly enough, stewart laid the cornerstone here in the 1791 masonic ritual. the infamous compromise of 1790 is what finally sealed the deal. it had to do with the assumption of debt. after the revolution work of it was a lot of debt that have been taken on by the various states. and the politics of this is, the southern states have largely paid off their debts but the northern states had not. so i alexandria hamilton, wanted the federal government to assume these events. james madison was against that, but madison and virginia is one of the capital on the potomac river. so there was a famous dinner that was held at monticello, thomas jefferson south, where thomas jefferson invited james madison and alexandria hamilton, and then over dinner at monticello and perhaps a few glasses of beer, they struck the compromise of 1790 which was the federal government would assume the debt, the wartime debt from
the revolutionary war, in exchange for the capital being placed right here on the potomac river. so the compromise of 1790 was actually the deciding factor in creating the district of columbia. they came there to the spot we are standing on now, and had a masonic ritual -- this is, the nations have their aprons and trials and corn oil. they gave some speech is right you on the spot, and the ceremonial laying of the southernmost boundary marker, which is what we're standing on now. that's how the district was created. >> next on booktv, learn about the history of the alexandria police department. amy bertsch uses photos to tell the story of the department and the city of alexandria. spent in the name of the book is the alexandria police association. it's a photo history book published by rtd which
specializes in physical history. we really found references to old police cases, to the actions of police officers have been killed in the line of duty. some very compelling history. the more i learn about the police department has, the more learned about and -- convoys the passed, the more i wonder when. it starts in 1807 and really stopped in 2006 right when we're getting ready to publish. fortunately, there was a great photo history to do with it. police department association, worked with the free library had a big photo collection. touches on the very early days of policing in alexandria which we dates to the late 18th century, but the alexandria police department itself was established in 1870 and that's really where the book starts. photographs taken of crashes, of
crime scenes, but also of members of the police department, essentially doing their jobs and contacting the citizens. really powerful photos were taken at murder scenes. there were not in extraordinary cases. they were not high profile cases, but if you a glimpse into what life was like at that moment the tragedy occurred. and crime scene photography participants don't have a chance to cleanup will put things away. so you get a sense of how people were living at the time. the tragedy could. so these photographs are black and white photos that can the 1940s and '50s, and are very powerful images for people to look and see what's going on in somebody's home or barber shop or restaurant. things like prohibition and traffic enforcement that, when police have started prohibition
and they started enforcing traffic laws. and to see how, what was once a co-op would've relationship between citizens and police really changed once they had to circuiting people for driving or seeking arrest while drinking liquor. alcohol was banned in virginia two years before national legislation was passed. there were people who believed that they could just go out on the potomac and consume liquor, then that was legal because they were not technically in virginia. earlier the police department needed a lot of vehicles. it was a pretty small area. they were responsible for patrolling and started seeing the size of alexandria double and then double again in a matter of 20 years, really changed the department. the staffing, more vehicles, and ultimately they needed a new police station.
one of the stories i find really interesting is how officers began enforcing speed limits. for the like the first 40 years of please departments history you didn't have cars. they were not motorized vehicles. so once cars started coming to alexandria, the question was how do you stop somebody for speeding? how do know there? >> today we have radar. in 1911 there was no way to do that. they were pretty resourceful. they had to officers standing at one corner of one block and then two blocks up an office on another corner. they had someone draw the posted speed limit between those two blocks and a clock. so they knew what the maximum speed was and the distance that could be covered in a number of seconds. that's how they would determine if someone was speeding. been able to approach the car and get to stop is a hold of the net of at least they had a way to enforce speed limits.
in 1965, alexandria finally hired its first police officer of color, and his name was albert beverly from georgetown county. there's been pressure on the police department for a number of years to hire a black police officer. pressure from the mayor, pressure from the committee. the police chief at the time said he wanted to do it come he repeatedly said i just had to find the right person to key want to find somebody who would be successful, his own jackie robinson. albert would enjoy 20 year career with the agency. one thing that is interesting to the history is a 1974, president of the united states lived here for a we can have. and what happened at the time was gerald ford was vice president, he became president when nixon resigned. that'll happen very quickly at the time. 47 was living in alexandria and they been living here for 20 years. it would take a while for them
to be able to move into the white house. oh, for a week and a half in august 1974 the president of the united states and wake up in alexandria and he would go out and get the paper, greatest neighbors and the media who had gathered, and then he would be escorted to d.c. so he could go to work at the white house. and alexandria police officers were detailed to provide security near his home, on his street and also assist traffic escorts while that was going on. when world war ii hit, a lot of it had to go serve in the war. so pretty soon there was a need for women to start working in the department. that's really when they hired the first secretary, the first women were civilians. in the 1950s, they wanted to train police officers for more important things than school crossings.
the department hired women to serve as crossing guards. there were three who are african-americans, and so not only was this a first time women were uniform represent the agency come it was the first time people of color were in uniform representing the alexandria state department. so the alexandria police department was one the earliest agencies to use canine in police work. they deployed the first canine unit in 1959. within a couple of years there was a police officer who had trained his dog to respond to radio command. the canine corps which eventually evolved into the canine you know, a lush red bag i try to get away, oscar yoakam trained his dog for the radio command but, unfortunately, he was killed in the line of duty. the alexandria police association today is much like it was in 1930.
it's a benevolent organization. they worked to support the interests of the members. they will support -- if an officer has a family situation, a personal crisis, they will reach out and offer support to the family. they also provide scholarships to students. in the past they have arranged for holiday dinners for seniors, social events for the members, a variety of benevolent and goodwill outreach work. spent the british navy had a large impact on the war of 1812. while in alexandria, virginia, with the help of our local cable partner, comcast, we sat down with denver brunsman to discuss the navy shall. his book is "the evil necessity british naval impressment in the eighteenth-century atlantic world." it's next here on booktv.
>> the british empire in the 18th century was really a maritime empire. as an island nation they depended really heavily on trade and controlling really the trade of the colonial territory. well, they need a very powerful navy, and the navy needed men. and so british naval ships really sell the world, but were specially consecrated indialantic. and this is how the system affected american colonists. when british naval vessels came into very sports, they often lost in because of the three d's, death, disease and desertion. the only way that they could resupply the ships was to capture colonists. so in that way, america was introduced to really what i can think of as the nasty underside of the british system that in
many ways they benefited from and appreciated but they got some hand at, you know, what was really involved in the obligations after being a british subject. the issue of impressment was really important for the american colonies throughout the 18th century, and was always one of the most unpopular parts of belonging to the british empire. one thing that we forget as americans today is that the american colonists actually love to be a part of the british empire overall. all the way through the seven years war and 1763. and that since the american revolution was something of an aberration. but there were these issues that emerged early on, and one was impressed that they're doing the american revolutionary era, it was incredibly unpopular in the 1760s and '70s 70's leading up to american independence. it appears in the declaration of independence that one of the grievances against george iii,
probably continue during the revolutionary american were. they were captured by the british, sailors were usually given a choice. they could join the british naval vessel or they could go into horrible prisons in england. you know, some ended up serving on british naval ships. so the american revolution ended in 1783. well, a decade later the british were in a new war with france. the french revolutionary and eventually the poly-on the course. those wars would last in 1793-1815. the british navy needed more men than ever before. in the final years of the war it needed about 140,000 sailors. and so it couldn't really spare anyone. and one of the practices of the british navy was to shortstop, ships at sea from other countries.
and check to see if any british sailors were on board. because it was illegal in the british system to serve for another country. one place that a british sailor was able to hide from the press gang would be a american merchant ships. and so when the british stopped american merchant ships on the high seas, this was seen as a violation of america's sovereignty. and various american administrations, starting with george washington, continuing with john adams, thomas jefferson and ultimately james madison all rejected this as something of a violation of america's sovereign right. and the way that impressment worked was that the british navy essentially needed more sailors than were available at the time. sailors in the british empire worked on merchant ships and on naval ships and this was fine in peace, but in times of war,
essentially more need than the one supplied. and so what the british navy did is they used a forcible conscription system impressment, in which it was actually legal to violently apprehend man and put them on ships. because the american colonies were members of the british empire, that meant that american sailors also could be impressed. and once the show was impressed on a ship, he was essentially on that vessel until that particular war ended, and philly.com until he escaped. those are really the only three ways out of the situation. impressment was often compared to slavery in its own time. the systems were different but they had some similarities. when they said was impressed, we have some firsthand account. they often likened themselves to enslaved africans. the really important differences were that slavery was permanent. it was hereditary.
you know, that means it was passed down to the following generations. and, of course, there was few, if any, not any, benefits. impressment only lasted for the duration of a particular war, and then sailors went free. they were still paid a wage by the british navy, and i think the single most important way to tell the difference between the two systems is that we have amazing records of some enslaved africans who actually wanted to be impressed. that means they sought freedom in the british navy. so that clearly shows that impressment provided a certain amount of freedom that wasn't available under slavery. indentured servants in colonial america also worked under certain term of service. the waiting 10 should servants work is a labor in england that
have any great prospects to come to america, and essentially the cost of that voyage, that person pledged to work for a certain number of years, usually four to seven years. and at the end of that indenture, that person was free and ideally he would get some land, some benefits. so in my book i compared impressment to indentured servitude to slavery. we often think of the 18th century as the age of enlightenment and the age of liberty. and it certainly wasn't those things, but it was also the era of servitude. more people crossed the atlantic ocean to come to the western hemisphere under some conditio conditions, un-freedom, then they did for the. we don't have exact figures about the number of men who were impressed, and that's because the navy didn't keep track of them. whenever a person and it is ship, the person same as written
down, but the exact circumstances were not clear. and to our best estimate for the number of men that were impressed, somewhere between a half and two-thirds for any given war. so using those numbers, we can safely say that about a quarter of million men were impressed during the 18th century. that makes it the second most common form of forced labor, forced service in the persian empire after slavery. the great quote by a british admiral in 18 center, philip cavendish, and he said they are awful and his when they found -- when they find that they can't get away. and by that he meant when is it was captured by a press gang, he was offered a bounty if you'd like to take it but if he took the bounty, he was automatically a volunteer. and it wouldn't take the bounty? the one problem in taking the bounty from the press gang is that sailor had no legal
recourse to get out of the navy. and there were certain ways, certain legal means a city could escape it if he wasn't a sailor, that was the quickest way. because legally the navy could only impress seamen. so if a person could show that they have some of the occupation, that they were impressed illegally, then they could get out. one way that this happened was through their family on shore, and so this institution affected a lot of people, a bigger cross-section of society than just the men who were captured. so wives and mothers and other relatives would petition the british admiralty to give the men, to give the man a. the other thing they did is they could file for a writ of habeas corpus, and this basically meant that they were captured illegally. and at that point the navy would have to show the court this person actually was a sailor, and that he belonged in the
navy. there was always a certain amount of controversy about press gangs and whether they were on the up and up. you know, whether they acted properly. they were certainly surprised if the men got out of the service that we. and so really, there was a lot of -- press gangs are recruiting an english lord. one of my favorites is come you should always be careful when you're sipping your al in a tavern, because some recruited always put a shilling inside of your class. and if you accepted that shilling, just like the bounty, you essentially were saying that you are volunteering for service. but you would want to drink the. that's one reason, according to legend, that to this day eyeglasses in england are glass, clear. so you can see what you were drinking. there's some amazing moment in the atlantic world involving
impressment in the 18th century. one of them takes place in november of 1747 when a small british fleet under admiral charles knowles was saving from canada to the caribbean, and they stopped over in boston, and knowles like so many british commanders, needed men. and so he did what the british do. he took about 15 in from the boston area and put them on royal navy vessel. well, this caused boston to explode in protest. because knowles had violated some unwritten rules about impressment. in massachusetts at the time. and the most important one was that the british navy was not to take massachusetts say that. that is, men that were born in the college. and that's exactly what knowles do. and so the crowd rose up, to actually captured knowles's
offices. sony since they turned around and and pressed the british navy officers, held them hostage. and took over the town for three days. the governor of massachusetts, william shirley, fled. he went into one of the islands in boston harbor. and the only thing that ended the whole commotion was that knowles threatened to fire on the town if they didn't release his officers. well, at the time there was a young sam adams that witness all this. he was 25 and recently completed his masters thesis at harvard, which was about when it was legitimate to oppose civil government. and he decided that this was one of those times. and the riot against knowles and against the british navy was justified. and so in that sense it helps to be a wellspring of ideas that would play out in the american revolution. really kind of an amazing moment in history of impressment. it happened in the early 1770s.
sailors could be impressed, that means judges should be impressed, british naval officers should be impressed and even the king himself should be liable to impress them. almost at the exact same time, george the third was reviewing the same legal decision came at completely opposite conclusion. he decided it was perfectly legal, but the king should command the service of his subjects when he needed them. this is the case of difference in style and substance as well, whereas franklin had been created in writing on the margins of the ruling and making up his own solution. george the third diligently hide recorded the ruling and his own hand line by line by line. there's a lot of lessons we can take from the issue of impressment and how it works during the 18th century.
i titled the book "the evil necessity" because he found himself in a compromising position. in order to continue the world dominance have had in essence i do violate one of its own print doubles. something as americans we sometimes forget. so when they resorted to impressment, the system is so controversial and the opposite of liberty and a sense violated one of their primary ideals. i see as a lesson for all societies going forward, and can about what their values are and what is necessary to continue their way of life and whether it's worth it. >> michael lee pope, author of "shotgun justice, one prosecutor's crusade against crime and corruption in
alexandria and arlington" is next on booktv. mr. pope sat down during a recent visit. >> we are standing in the conference room at the arlington county sheriff. this can be had me is the shotgun use by prosecutor in the early 20th century, a guide by the name of crandal mackey elected in 1903 as the commonwealth for alexandria county and cannot be series of raids where he shot shut down and solutions. crandal mackey was from south carolina. he was a judge and author who moved to appear to be a lawyer and then got involved in the politics in the northern virginia area. what is significant is seen as part of the progressive wing of
the democratic party at that time, which was split between a conservative faction and a progressive faction when he was the republican party to speak of. the only politics have to do with which faction of the democratic party was in charge. the conservative wing was thrown by a political machine operated by thomas staples mertens. so crandal mackey first became interested in politics and late 1800s. he got involved in progressives who are taking over the state government. one of his first major campaigns as the gubernatorial election in 1902 went down to the convention to support the progressive candidate at the time who is andrew jackson montague. montague was successful in that launched crandal mackey career.
he wanted to go after gambling houses in saloons and sunday buyers to shut them down. your thoughts of resistance from the shares because he was aligned with the political machine. so crandal mackey had to put together his own posse of supporters and conduct raids without much help from the sheriff. he sent out letters to political supporters say in what he was about to do and get people interested to find out if they want to be part of the raiding party. elected prosecutor to a shotgun as his children these places. so the shotgun is an interesting piece of history because it's associated with crandal mackey, but passed down through various hands. it's the property of the arlington historical society. but at some point it is
displayed in the arlington county sheriff's office. the back story is the historical society has their own museum, that they were concerned because it's an actual weapon and they thought it might be a liability to have a weapon in their museum dedicated to the sheraton arlington county and has been in possession of the arlington county sheriff every sense. the modern-day prosecutor i interviewed for the book was excited about this because the shotgun is associated with the prosecutor and it's in the sheriff's office. more to the point, crandal mackey was the sheriff outlined the political machine. the modern-day prosecutor retiring at the time felt like the shotgun should be in the possession of the prosecutor, not the sheriff. i asked her about that and she
said it's ours and we're keeping it. today, crandal mackey stand has been largely forgotten. there's a couple places you can learn. one is in the conference room where we look at the shotgun crandal mackey used. also we are not far from crandal mackey park, the area where all of these saloons and and sunday buyers used to be. crandal mackey with that to be remembered as someone who played a critical role in creating the modern northern virginia appear to is a huge escalator and amateur poets in the area, lots of people, not the ramshackle muddy streets where you can get shot in an alley and people were afraid to go out at night. today you can walk around the streets and it's a nice
prosperous place you're not going to fear for your life. i would think crandal mackey but find that his greatest legacy. >> next, bob madison, author of "walking with washington" takes us on a tour of alexandria, virginia locations important to church washington. >> i retired about 15 years ago, looking for things to do. the alexandria city archaeologist is looking for somebody to develop a walking tour associate of the church washington. i agree to the project and i researched. i spent two years researching the history and came up with 140 sites. i ended up writing a book called "walking with washington" that contains walking tours. george washington joined a 50 year relationship for the time
it was founded in 1749 until he died in 1749 at the age of 67. he made a political life of the city. a trustee of alexandria and was a justice of the peace in fairfax county. he represented alexandria in the virginia legislature. even as president, he made sure when he chose the new site of the nation's capital of alexandria was included in the original district of columbia. the church washington memorial powers of the city and is the greatest. this is church washington's hometown. carlyle house were george rush and 10 died many times. probably george washington's
favorite tavern into christchurch where you worship regularly. >> george washington didn't sleep here. carlyle houses the diet founder of alexandria. lawrence washington's wife was the sister of carlyle's wife so they got together frequently. washington would come here. you can see he stayed all night here. even after john carlyle died in 1780, george continued to come here to visit with members of the carlyle family. came here to die but carlyle's daughters and her family. let's go inside and see where george washington would dine with george carlyle. this is the dining room were church washington dined many
times. the original handcarved would work. this is an important room in american history. in 1755, the frenchman d'amore. this is the greatest husband tom. the conference was the grandest congress overhauled up until then. and five governors met in this room to play in the french and indian war. one of the things they talk about was he remembered taxation without representation. beginning the american revolution. now the room is set up for dinner and this is the way it
would've been when george washington came here for dinner and very much might be like this. he also kind of various taverns around town. george washington's favorite tavern. >> this is probably george washington's favorite tavern. he banged here frequently. in the early 1770s than the current building where the museum yesterday was built in 1785 and the new addition was added in 1792 compass of the new edition is over 70 years old.
john adams, thomas jefferson, james madison had his dinner here. john gadsby had a significant reputation for hospitality. he was done for the great dinners he would serve, so he was well known all over the area. that's where the president of the united states would come here because it is probably the best place to eat in this entire area. he left here to establish restaurants in baltimore and washington city. you're sick of them is the the revolutionary war and being the president of the stiff carrot or hundred dollar bill. what is needed by gadsby's tavern as you can see him dining and drinking, dancing. he loved to dance. telling stories come in meeting
his friends here, having conversations. ecm is a real person, none of this statute. we are in now the ballroom and george washington love to dance and all the ladies wanted to dance with him. the most famous person in the united states is a bit thrill. in 1798 in 17:99 p.m. martha came here. when george washington went for a ball, houston went up to the gallery. is the latter in a hurry to get into the air. the recipient's george washington was going to be out, everybody would have come. this has been the highlight to come to a ball. in my book, to mention a number of alexandria sites associated with george washington.
so now we'll go to christchurch where he worshiped. now we are standing in front of christchurch. today is the church and people still go to church on sundays. they don't have church services, coincide and sit in church washington spewed. this is built between 17671763 known as the church in the words because it's on the outskirts of alexandria. today you can hear all the traffic noise. this is george washington spewing christchurch. he purchase here with his family, martha and depending what time of his life it is, her children or grandchildren. probably would've been a full pew. george washington was baptized
in the anglican church at the age of two months. he was married in the anglican church in. the episcopal church. it's what you would expect of a man of his means. he supported the church financially and help to poor people and this president supported religious freedom. i want people to realize george washington was oliver alexandria. george washington was the port in part and ask alexandra support to george washington as well.
>> 1939, five african-americans were arrested at the alexandria city libraries to try to obtain their library cards. samuel tucker was behind this release and it's resulted in the creation of a separate library for black residents. the trouble to decide if the the original seven, a city library where it was built in african-american history museums to tell samuel tucker of the five people arrested for the simple act of trying to get a library card. >> august 21st, 1939 by 5 african-american man who were not allowed to use library came in and each one politely asked for library card. each man picked up a book, sat down at a table on the staff just didn't know what to do with that. the african-american community pay taxes, follow the laws, but were not allowed to take part in the things every alexandria
citizen had time to take part in. a young attorney named samuel tucker had been working on for some time. >> samuel tucker was a native alexandria. wanted to be a lawyer for two reasons. it is a in town who rented space from tucker's father and became fascinated with what lawyer watson did. the other took a trip on a street car with his brother and to d.c. and they were coming back from d.c. and they were asked to move once the train can't alexandria. they refused. tucker's brother either refuse to move. when i got off the streetcar he looked up and fly down a police man and had the young man arrested. likely the charges were thrown
out because the boys are scared charge is it not be thrown out, but the judge that they haven't created any disturbance of the train to do anything illegal, but it gives a sense being a lawyer j.d. power to make things right. >> report at 1939 kitty sargent named george wilson who worked to come into the library and apply for a card. wilson had been denied on technical grounds. the city was able to drag its feet and slow things down. so they samuel tucker did was go to the neighborhood, find a large group of young men willing to volunteer to basically be arrested. does it say a large number initially returns at august 21st, 1939, 5 young men were available. they got dressed in their best closing, ties, they came in,
asked for library cards and were denied. one of the younger brothers waiting outside her to please her being called. tucker came over with the photographer was florence murray who took a one-shot we have of the police man into the low coming out. tucker instructed them to be polite and this very city. he didn't want anyone arrested for disturbing the peace. >> the city attorney at the time case went to court. the government didn't do anything wrong. they just wanted to read. tucker had another case going on a retired army sergeant, sergeant wilson started this idea. he wanted wilson to get a library card.
he tried and was turned down even though he pay taxes, he was not allowed to get a library card. the two cases at the same time. the court case for wilson and for the five young men. if it ends. there's no reason to stand beside young man to jail to make them serve any time for what they did or give them any punishment. it's from cbs for continuing such a continuing stream the case and eventually the charges were dropped. for the wilson case, the main issue was that the library was for alexandria citizens. during the court case, they said wilson did not make it clear when he went to the library and, so therefore he had the perfect right not to issue a library
card. eventually the case was solved in that they issued, they went back with wilson and issued him a card, but not for the alexandria library, but the robber robinson library built for african-american citizens in 1940 came out of the 19397 that occurred in what was then now is the alexandria for library. the admitted he was a citizen, but that is never acceptable. he wanted to like this to the facility. i think there were two feelings about that. they were happy there was a library of their children have a place to study in supplement what they were learning, but they also know as a jim crow library. it was meant to appease.
there was not meant to have full access to the information they needed. samuel tucker never step foot in the robber robinson library in effect they believe there's a letter in the documents section where he writes saying he does not consider this a solution where he wants full access to the alexandria free library for all patrons who are citizens of alexandria to pay taxes. they saw tucker on the street and said they thought the man in a briefcase with a rumpled suit was a determined lock and always wanted to make things right for the people who had her safety and justice out there and that african-americans had so much a harder time than the white community to get access to a free trial. he wasn't successful of the time, but he tried and tried
against a prevailing view. though some of the interesting things about him. >> that should make you encouraged that the power probability and statistics in general. so not going to make you scared. so this is the end of the book and it's one of the questions i alluded to earlier. who gets to know what about you? last summer we hired a new babysitter which i began to expand family background. under professor, my wife is a teacher. she cut me up and say no. i googled you. i was simultaneously relieved it did not have to finish my spiel
and mildly alarmed by how much of my life could be cobbled together from a short internet search. our capacity to gather and analyze huge quantities of data, the marriage of digital information with cheap computing power and the internet is unique in human history. what is the new rules for this new era. us that the power of data and perspective with one example the retailer target. this is a story told in "the new york times" magazine. like most companies, target strives to increase profits by understanding customers. to do that, the company hired statisticians to do the project if analytics described earlier in the book. sales data with other information on consumers to figure out who buys what and why. nothing about this is inherently bad. it needs a nuclear target you're
likely to carry things you want to buy. was still down for a moment on the kinds of things the statisticians work in the windowless basement at headquarters can figure out. i'm assuming. all institutions have known were pale and working underground. target has led the pregnancy is an important time in terms of developing shopping patterns. pregnant women develop a reach of relationship they come us for decades. as a result, target was to identify pregnant women, particularly those in her second trimester and get them into the store more often. the writer for "the new york times" magazine followed the analytics team as it sought to find and attract pregnant shoppers. i can tell you target deeply regrets, but i'm very appreciative. the first part is easy. target has a baby shower
registry which pregnant women register for baby kissing dance at the birth of their children. these women are already target shoppers and have effectively told the store not only that they're pregnant, but usually when they are due. here's the statistical twists. target figured out that other women who demonstrate the same shopping patterns are probably pregnant, too. for example, pregnant women often switch to an sent to bush's to buy vitamin supplements. they start by and extirpate bags of cotton. this is true. who knew. the analytics guru satanic side 25 products that together made possible what they described as a pregnancy prediction score. the whole point of the analysis was to send price when in pregnancy related coupons in the hope of a best long-term target
shoppers. how good was the model? "new york times" magazine reported a story about a man from minneapolis to watch into a distort and demanded to see the manager. the man was i read because his high school batteries bombarded with pregnancy related coupons from target. she's still in high school and your senator coupons for baby clothes and cribs? are you trying to encourage her to get pregnant he asked. the store manager apologized profusely. he called the father several days later to apologize again. only this time the man was less irate. it was his turn to be apologetic. he said it turns out the hispanic cavities in my house i haven't been completely aware of. the father said. she is due in august. the target citations had figured
out his daughter was pregnant before he did. this is not even the creepiest part. that is their business and it's also not their business. you can feel more than a little intrusive. for that reason, some companies now mask how much they know. for example, if you're pregnant woman in her second trimester, you make a coupons in the mail for cribs and diapers alone with a discount on a riding lawnmower and three bowling at the purchase of any pair of bowling shoes. to you, it just seems gratuitous to pregnancy related coupons came in the mail along with the other junk. in fact, the company knows you don't roll. they know you don't cut eurobond. it's really cover the tracks so but it does doesn't seem so spooky. ..