publishing is one of the fastest growing sectors in the publishing industry that is under such a people with 211,000 self published titles released in 2011, the most recent figures of more than 60% or 133,000 titles in 2010. in the hour ahead, more than two dozen new books will appear in the marketplace. as they contemplate figures of our time, i think of the west, but not for the reason you think, not for the hourglass figure. she was a great author not some wonderful lines.
one other thing she said is too much of a good or ugly wonderful. i have to ask a question when it comes to self-publishing and effects on all of us, the ability it gives us to express ourselves, is it too much free speech? can we have anything like that? we've got quite a piano. i'll start on the end with james mcquivey. vice president, principal analyst in massachusetts. he is defining an track in power impact and also author of digital disruption, which is out just now this spring from amazon publishing. digital disruption, unleashing the next wave of innovation he published himself in february. two genes is right is angela james. angela james, welcome. angela is direct or of carina
press. word is proclaimed no great story goes untold founded in 2009 and a number of fiction genres including romance, fiction and science fiction. finally, to
my left, keith ogorek. keith, welcome. keep the senior vice president of marketing for the indianapolis based office solutions, which penguin acquired in july 2012. asa so publishing imprints include offer has universe, trafford and asked leapers. the company has strategic alliances such as thomas nelson is zero so publishing imprints in the uk's main, australia, new zealand and singapore. a well-qualified panel to talk about this issue. i want to start with james mcquivey and the base eager to book publishers today is disrupt thyself.
>> absolutely. in fact come he opened the session asking whether or not it was the the disrupt or a defender of publishing. i would contest the idea that it's either/or. disruption is the best defense for publishing
and self-publishing is turning out to be a potential bone for publishers because you can sit there and watch people market themselves, share their ideas come and see things gather and then make your offer. at that point where the risk is taken out, the market has been though. you're not going how much money to spend to build in a way as in the modern world. in fact, this is part of the best defense of the publishing world to my mind. and all the industries that work with, turns out digital disruption is a better friend than a when all is said and done. >> it may not feel that way too a lot of people in publishing. perhaps we should go explain why
that would be the case. what is there to make friends with? first of all, define digital disruption. we've had changes in the past, but this is something very special. >> at a special in that it affects every single part of the business and this is true of publishing as well. and industry has to create from some raw material some finished day. a service, a product. it then has to distribute and market data support the customary peer with digital has done is created and the structure that make every single one of those steps easier and faster and cheaper on a sister across the board and it turns out the consumer is ready for it. i may give you an example of how ready. go back to 2003 come to two year mark for the ipod. at that point after two years, 1 million units. xml is a big deal and as apple
is change the music business. fast forward to the sub 10 ipad and has gone on since then to just over three years to sell 140 million units. that's not just if apple is a good marketer. that's because consumers like the fact they digitally disrupted economy gives a moore's, more choice, more benefit more easily than before. >> that speaks to the point why digital disruption has to happen in publishing because it's happening everywhere else. >> you don't really have a choice. the consumer what they digitally disrupted life in logo where someone gives it to them as amazon bonus. >> you meet with companies and help them evaluate product lines and think about the future. how would you look at a product today among our questions you
ask if you had a meeting of the publishing house? >> the book itself is a concept, not a thing. you talk about ranch banking, what is a retail store. it's hard to rethink those words because there is such common use. books have been around for half a millennium in terms of printed ability and they've gone far beyond that before mass-producing as possible. the idea of a focus here is ingrained in who we are, those of us in the room. that doesn't need need to be? can we rethink what a book is as we rethink what an author is. the answer is yes we can and yes we should. but it's not just that we change. we take a book and get rid of it and replace it with the not. we make and include more concepts, more ideas, more processes and ultimately outcomes. that's where we have to start. it's a fundamentally change.
>> keith ogorek, author solutions can i read on your blog you originally intended and blogged about the second gutenberg revolution pigeons lead to the fact the book is then around 500 years, perhaps longer in other forums. why do you feel this revolution, this moment is as revolutionary as the gutenberg creative printing press. >> a title he gave at blue ridge conference was there is a shift in the authority and ability of people to share ideas and impact other people when gutenberg first came out with his printing press. it had been restricted to the institution and limited by the hands of scribes to share content. if you are not historical active, gutenberg saw his
printing press as a way to not expand with a side christian mission but also education and middle class as a whole. there is a power shift of who could do that. a phrase he said one of his quotes about how the words are no longer restricted by the palsied hand who grows tired, but now are set free brain untiring machine. so that change in authority from institution to book became a publishers set forth a tremendous impact in culture. i would set forth right now some publishing has shifted the authority from the publisher to the author. that in all democracies has good things about things, but that's why it's called self-publishing is the second gutenberg are fact and the statement i made the same time so publishing will have impact on writing and authors and sharing of content
as did gutenberg's first printing press. ironically not much has changed that to that point. >> guttenberg goes with shifted money into the pockets of others because he died a bankrupt man and it's an interesting lesson that while the printing press was invented at that point, we didn't have a publishing business for 150 years after that. >> he apparently wasn't a good marketer himself. he should have protected gutenberg is the name. >> that's often the case. what's interesting is author solutions began too late going back more than 10 years, but you are required by center by penguin. why would penguin want to acquire self-publishing? >> if i could go back to 2009, we set forth the idea of what was taking place in publishing was the next indie revolution. we've seen similar content
explosions in both film and music and following intellectual property written and produced us about. so that i think it's what we see in publishing with our disdain. if you look at the number of films made and the amount of music published after those revolutions, we saw a similar explosion. i can't speak to all penguins investment premise, but if you go back, there are some key things. number one, penguin as a company has had a history of innovation when you look at their star. they were disrupted in the publishing industry. >> you think of the paperback. >> right. i love that story. it's a wonderful story how the founder had a very different idea about how to put content into the hands of people family said this at the acquisition.
penguin started a democracy of reading and we feel like self-publishing was democratizing publishing. the other thing is penguin has been a leader in international expansion and we see self-publishing take off in the u.s. i will tell you it is exploding outside the u.s. publish servicing companies like ourselves plus other people as well, too was part of a comment. self-publishing clearly with something all publishers, had to figure out how to be a player because it's clearly something started in business at its outset that has now become an accelerating force in the industry and made it in our opinion the best time in history to be an author. >> another thing that's interesting to see approaches to selling the product. he saw directed to consumer consumer, a model so coming into effect in the publishing world. having that ability to
understand the consumer, in this case the author. >> i was the desired power. our core has been directly with the consumer being booksellers and publishers are trying to figure that out so they can bring some value there as well. >> i want to bring angela james into the discussion. angela is executive editor at carina press. you are familiar with disruption when it comes to publishing. carina press is unique in that its digital first. but how did you approach the launch of carina press? what things did you have to disrupt? >> harlequin has been a digitally-based publisher. they been forward thinking. we are having a last night. going back to what you're saying is disruption doesn't have to be negative thing.
so carina press was the first publisher within a large house and had to approach and a number of ways looking at systems to the personnel to resources for basically from the bottom-up we are disrupting. we approach the authors in a different way. we look at contracts differently. who disrupted the finance model. we used a higher royalty. we were bringing authors than to let them have her control. we disrupted at the production level because we had to go at a quicker speed to market so we wanted things done much more quickly where people were planning ahead two years, we were planning ahead six months. so we were disrupted in every level and that is something harlequin really embraced, but which look at every level of our process and see how come i disrupt them and make a positive impact. >> some of what she learned the smaller publishers and i wonder
whether now he watched the self-publishing world for the same cues for direction. >> it's interesting because i was thinking about self-publishing as a disruptor and defender and i thought as a publisher, sometimes i think self-publishing is driving prices down and have to look at pricing differently. as a reader i think publishing is driving prices down. so i look at pricing from the publisher point of view. >> are you with the department of justice click >> now, i don't have a law degree either. sima cannot self-publishing in the form of pricing, but also an editorial point of view, looking at self-publishing and saying what is working in self-publishing because this is that the readers are demanding. i was going to go back to something that keith said.
he talked about the shift in authority and a shift to author. i say there's been a shift in consumer and the reader because they are saying this is what i want to read and the authors and publishers are responding to that because of digital, because of self-publishing. we very much look to help us see now new genre we all talk about, new adults. >> giveth in addition. >> no adults, adult contemporary fiction and 18 to 25-year-old protagonists. it has the better the feel of young adults because it's got the high-intensity feeling in the conflict. but not quite adult because we are dealing with the coming out of college, all the issues he saw what appeared as if they are genre to place two years ago. nobody knows how to solve it,
nobody knew that america was an know existed, nobody knows would be at thing. the last year we've seen new adults explode because the author said this is what i want to write in the reader says this is what i want to read. >> self-publishing has been successful in some genres you're familiar with. romance, for example. when you look back for harlequin, early involvement in e-book publishing, mj rose, for example going back more than 10 years, that particular community h dven a lot of disruption so that makes your point coming from inside publishing is outside. >> that's exactly right. the early adopters particularly because of romance. we talk about 50 shades of gray,
but 10 years ago we were talking about romance in terms of digital because that's what the community was turning towards him while he had so many small popping up digital first to polish erotic romance. they were pioneers and because of that, romance readers flock to digital committee look at the numbers, you see along the last decade, romance have been there kind of driving the masses. >> james, your point in the book is not about technology. explain that. this is a perfect example of what it is about. technology has gotten the point where it's so much easier to not ly deliver things to the customer, but went back what they really want. and the old days they voted with dollars or from a narrow set of
preselected things. now they have more to choose from selections have a direct in tights. you can measure them immediately which is something publishers don't have the mindset. the two year life cycles supposed as opposed to the poster result today, the way digital can give you feedback, not to mention how was it posted on facebook, that digital feedback is cheap and easy. you yucatán states he never had before, see a turnaround around and use the technology right back at that consumer and offer them the product they want. >> so now that you james has sold 50 million books about author solution, disruption publishing is over. >> if i could add one name. if we were playing a game show, i'm not sure he would've hit the button first. but i think, and i agree with
the clarification from publisher to author is really shifted to consumer. another way i thought about it is the publishing business used to be a wholesale model, where i had to sell a wholesaler who had to figure out how to sell it to the consumer. a shift taking place, which is very dramatic is publishing itself is gone from a wholesale model to a direct consumer model. if you take advantage of data, whether you're publishing company come you can know things about church consumer very quickly cuts accelerated everything in the process. it's accelerated what cover you want to use. some of the smartest authors for three covers up and put on titles. there's been so creative ways of doing that, but i agree you cannot suggest that one of the things i think it happened, i don't think the deception is over. if you look at the two big things self-publishing disrupted
apart from technology his distribution was a big as a limiting factor. you couldn't get into a store. between all the digital readers that have come out and online retailers, i've now taken on the water used to keep me from getting to my consumers. the one thing i believe traditional publishing houses brought to an author was a collaborative effort to make a work as good as it can be. what happened is a lot of self-publishing books initially stepped past that and satisfied distribution i can put it out there. hence criticism initially and rightfully level to management out there. i got nervous and i are two phrases from an author. i thought they were one dropped wonder and the other phrases and they said my daughter was an artist. [laughter] it probably meant the cover was going to be not that good.
i hope no one air has a daughter who is an artist. i'm not speaking of them. my point is now i think what you're seeing as hard as it is after five years is maturing and the best doctors realize they need to collaborate with people who are good at editing and understand how to build a platform and how to do a good cover and make the format of the e-book look as good. so the product put out as a self published author and hybrid author is getting much better. there is something to self-publishing to point out. >> do you think the product is getting better or do you think there's so much out there that there is that -- >> statistically speaking, we'll get to some really good things in there. >> i think it's probably both. i think there was the book the
long tail. it should be the wide runway. there's so much more out there that people can get in. such is the law of large numbers is this going to be better content, but there's also recognition from authors that they have to put out a good product. >> a large number of competing ideas is going to push authors to say i better make minus good as possible. >> to get back to the question of how long the disruption will go on for now we get used to it if you could get used to disruption. i tipsy thing of the publishers of the way to an approach all of this? is there a way of thinking about the business that other businesses have done you can share with them quite >> first of all, get ready for a very, very long transition. if i could use a baseball metaphor. my favorite chapter one, maybe chat or to be dan brown novel.
40 niner chapters to come. they might all be four pages long, but the author, all those things need to be juggled a little bit. as a result, it's impossible for a publisher to say three years will figure this out an adapter that will be the new model. there's not a single digitize business i work with that's ever gotten to resting place. turbulences in a resting point. instead of having the skill set and said the company that focuses on preserving the business model come, you have a skill set that focuses on adapting in pursuit of that consumer as the consumer evolves. this data is part of publishing from now on. so many changes have to occur in the way we think about what we
do in publishing. >> were talking about self-publishing. angela james come even hearing keeping james talk about this in the point of acceleration and accelerating consumption, how does that feel in the titrating press? [inaudible] [laughter] >> i would like to. [laughter] it can be very overwhelming. i work for a decade and i've always seen acceleration. everything has always been changing in my business, so it can be nerve-racking. we all know that. but it's also exciting because it provides opportunities. a lot of opportunities i didn't have several years ago with content and pricing and reaching out to the consumer and doing things with authors and projects in changing the way a book
looks. there's opportunities that didn't have before that i was wishing for all though i didn't know quite what i was wishing for. >> the approach that carina takes is different or traditional publishers. explain a little more about the model and that brings you with a different set of authors, doesn't that? >> as i mentioned, we do a different business model. sibley is a royalty base to pay more frequently. we were close in that the author and try to create a small press feel within a larger prize was also brought them quite intimately into the process. so not cover approval, but cover complications working with them very closely in the marketing and utilizing the author to help us build our brand. in the past is the publisher built in the author brings, but we've now collaborated to also have them assist in building the
brand of carina press and of harlequin. it's a more collaborative process than ever used to be. >> you are competing against a model that is potentially more look at it for authors. how do you explain the advantages and what do you think about the notion that many self published authors consider publishing about lead to have to start with? >> that's a really great question. i do think that a lot of author saying, should i go on to self-publishing and test the market and be a proven market? the answer is yes, you can do that, but what happens if your test doesn't work out the way you were hoping is going to because you didn't know how the business were or understand how to find the right partner or right collaborator. i firmly believe that some authors do an excellent job and they should self published but also authors don't know where to
start. so when i talk to authors, you have multiple choices if you're going to self publish, you have to understand all the aspects of the business. if you want to write your book and martin your book and how somebody hope you in the business, working at the publisher does make sense and you don't have to go looking for an excellent editor. you don't have to charge your daughter to do cover art because my daughter does not work for harlequin. she is a period so as an author come you don't have to look for those resources. we bring the resources to you, help you bring your popcorn and then you work at the publisher and self-publishing. >> which are talking about his options. that can only be good. >> and it can only be a straight in the business.
>> everybody has reformation about how using options tilted for them are resulted from a vacancy in the future of making a better decisions and go through multiple iterations. i hoped digital book world conduct a survey of 4000 writers. 2000 or aspiring authors, but 2000 were either published traditionally, self publish her one category relabeled hybrid authors had done both. outside, the hybrid authors for the smartest. you get the most about the business. they were the most particular about what they were looking for in a publishing relationship, how they should get paid and i thought that makes a lot of sense. they played those sides. the ornamental so they can get what they need in each choice
they are making. that information asymmetry giving up our exciting to me. >> and events and new following not that talked about not only are they smarter, but they're happier. >> in our study didn't make more money on average, two. >> chris, if i could build on some of those thoughts, if you look at consumerism as a general statement, when you have much choice it creates more opportunity but also more confusion. that's the place we are right now, not necessarily for readers, but for authors. i remember sitting on a panel in october and author set up and was exasperated. she does what am i missing? she had this huge checklist and she was sure she had forgotten some.
here's this woman who had to do all this other stuff and wasn't sure. that's way back at the turn of the year we put out a white paper that are the four paths are publishing, a diy path, general contractor path, a publishing package path in the traditional publishing path. each of those is probably a little bridge offer back, but those are for primary ways that would be helpful for authors to decide. the other thing is that depends what book you haven't what project you have. that's the absolute beauty of being an author. in some cases it may be best to work with a traditional publisher. an author i'm aware of is very successful in a women's fiction basin has contracts in its traditional deals, but she speaks at conferences about writing and writing method and she wanted to publish a book
unready methods. our agent to represent it so she self published it. she has this little method. i just think that's beautiful as an author. she is focusing on our core, but it's really impacting people to self-publishing. >> the spawning of options is also part of the digital disruption, james because it brings in forces and players even if that were part of your world pass. >> that is a key and digital disruption at delta deadlines forever has set thought they were competing with americans. another competing apps that trip it and use it more than any app from an airline. you expand the ways people can meet your needs, including nontraditional competitors. obesity is the is the expansion of options through to ologies
that are available to authors and of course to readers is the whole point of this. so it is expansion. >> one of the places that hers is coming from amazon and there is an interesting quote by an aipac known as a venture capitalist said this week at book expo that amazon is essentially a customer relationship management company and push publishers are author relationship enrichment companies and inevitably they are going to clash. i was wearing if you could react to that. >> that's 100% correct. digital customer relationship is the most important asset companies are building. every company work with, we look at how to strengthen that relationship, deliver data so you know more and how do you act on that information to get the more value?
amazon is a company that knows that. it's in the dna of the company, whereas to the second of a wholesale model. i sat with executives who are conscious of this. they say it are customers to be the book buyer. everyone else second and third in our customer is jane and joée and whoever is reading the book and they don't want to start with that. >> is very threatening and publishers consider amazon doing the things it needs to for customers and go after the book business. >> if i were in their shoes i would too. >> they get into the film and television production because they see it every day and they know how may times a dare.
survey of the can can and all that easy ways to expand their relationship with their customers. as he looked in every industry, we see spot a fight, for example, a music site getting into videos. starting with cross media and customer experience as an easy obvious thing to do. google played this music, books. i could go down the list. everything you want to do, they've got. what's next? look at amazon. how many categories to the cell? he might think a publishing business is special. we don't want that lumped in with your summer sandals picked from the consumer can sandals. >> one of the things amazon has said recently is make an aggressive pace of the publishing business. they want to be publisher
themselves. this announcement and i dedicate to your comment of creating a platform for fan fiction, licensing titles, the vampire diaries the show for it, giving us in the writing community who like to write fiction an opportunity to sell their work. talk about your reaction. >> i wish i would've thought of it first. fan fiction as many of us in publishing industry, fan fiction is a huge community and has built its own samba, fan base, all rules, but is also sometimes difficult to navigate for much the same recent self-publishing can be hard to navigate because you swear to a lot of not so great stuff to get to better staff and amazon aspire to partner with somebody to get permission because stan fiction
authors have felt marginalized first of all in all so they might be on the fringe of legalities, not of a share of the go what they're doing it for me turn to monetizing it and amazon has given them an avenue to monetize what they're already doing. this is brilliant from the other point of view. for the consumer point of view they say what i get something i can get for free? my answer is because they're somebody gatekeeping for you now and it's easier to find and goes back to a james is saying, all right there in amazon. sandals, self published books, harlequin books and a fan fiction needs met as well. >> one thing that's interesting that publishing should look at his netflix recently came out with programming and i confess the name of the show escapes me right now. no, it's not arrested
development. tom block growth. they have enormous amounts of data about what kind of movies people lake. so there's some natural aspect to it, romance, criminal. there's probably a vampire in may. they took the data and we have a lot of relationships with hollywood right now because even now because of the dictators of the end of the world where superheroes, they are still looking are really good ideas and we have a lot of them because of the number of authors we have. they said that was brilliant about what netflix did an scary for them and anyone who's stealing intellectual content as they said they gave those concepts to production groups and said come up with a series that has those elements in it and will produce that. so they took their data, which
was digital and created some intellectual property that for one i heard is getting attraction. >> data is important to the authors, to self published authors. how can i gather that data including information that will help their career? >> i'll let others answer as well, but google analytics can give you amazing information. if you have a blog, which i would advocate hailey that you do that. wordpress is a great platform. what do you keywords is so for example i have a blog. everyday simple blog post a couple years ago called the five essential elements of a great story. every week it's the most highly trafficked blog post i have.
i've looked to see where the links are coming from, so i think i should write my blog posts with a great story in it. so if you use the data, it's out there on the other thing is you can capture e-mail addresses and build an e-mail list. i'm sure there's other more sophisticated ones, but that is to tell you so about readers. >> don't be more sophisticated than that. to overwhelm yourself. it's just paying close attention to easily available data sources you have is upon a good start. >> i think there's another data source you can use in the fiction community and that is good read because they're such a wealth of information readers are putting about the book and it's the shelves readers are creating and you can see how your book falls at night and what other people are reading.
yourself might be under here is that vampires and werewolves and something desire wetware hamsters. then you go 20 people have listed at and they have a lot of metadata that authors can thank aggrieved. it's a really good tool. >> back to the netflix point predicting netflix did in creating ideal programming was far from the data, but remember they also have your name. they know which of millions of customers, now 30 million want to watch the show them they can put it right in front of them the next time they log in. you're going to like this show. so authors can and should learn. start collecting e-mails from people who follow you because then you can go right back to you told me you like what i'm doing.
i'm doing more and here it is. more likely to strike a chord that way. >> is a gentleman that write historical fiction and is a lot of research to make sure it's accurate. he's done i think five or six books and help the three covers up for three titles at the first next book is not about. so he pretty sells books. he's been doing this for five or six years. there's things you can do to really connect with consumers. if i can make one other comment, i think the book is still a great thing and culture and will continue to be. in another's blogs and facebook, something in our humanity wants us to establish something permanent. i go back to the cave drawings
and say why don't they draw in the sand? something and managers that i need to put this in leave it permanently. whether you had video, there's something that wants something permanent. that's why the book business is still a great future even though it's disrupted. >> there is a point, my author friends but they had a problem with their publisher is always complaining something the publisher didn't didn't do for them. what i hear you say as authors and publishers have worn common than ever before. is that too optimistic or what to say? >> i mostly banding together because at any moment might be in the best interest and that's okay. indicia we have promiscuous partnership.
50 shades of partnership, i don't know. >> not any better. [laughter] >> the point is people like amazon and apple worked together although they'd much rather see the other one that completely. [laughter] >> that sort of like all been in the same boat in a place to go. >> no, i think it's not that. i see things you can do for me and i want those things, so get them while i can, but i'm going to very, very aggressively pursue things i can get without you as well. that's not the way partnership is done in the past. remember back in the day when you could only submit a manuscript among publisher of the time and wait while they put it in a black hole for six months and pay by the time you tell me it's not for your readers identify someone else for another six months. remember that? that's loyalty, faithfulness to a certain set of patterns.
right now we expand the world of publishing. we expand everybody's options. if it worked together for a while, great. >> with expand options against people in the audience a chance to ask questions. with about five minutes left. if you can, tell us who you are. >> what does the merger with random house name? what is the destruction of a brain and the opportunities to offer solution? >> you're speaking specifically with the random house merger? i don't know at this point because the deal has not been consummated. i don't know yet what it will be -- one of the best things
this does create a opportunities for us with one. the one that was the most recent one was russia self-publishing imprint in indiana in conjunction with penguin called partridge of the an expanding that to other international markets. plus a lot of other things underway that will have announcements in june and later in july and plus they've been able to speak to things we've been doing from the design and cover design to make the product that gets into the market better. >> to change his promiscuous hardships, along with all the rest. >> on resist that title, the simon & schuster wanted to get into self-publishing and through due diligence decided we were the best part are so we worked a been a great partner.
>> question in the back of the room there. >> what is the best publicity option for a self publisher? >> publicity options. >> actually, something keys that they were talking about collecting e-mails. i would even say communicating with readers we found a lot of self published authors. i've heard no longer speak to this and also very forest is very successful in self-publishing talk about responding to every reader correspondence. holy lindsay from penguin practically shaking her head off. being where your readers aren't talking to them and responding is your best publicity, more than an advertisement, more than
blasting social media is fostering a relationship because i don't like to use this term, pictures street team and they will do your publicity for you. >> most important is to understand your audiences. the scariest thing i hear this and ask who their audience as to every man, woman and child on this planet. [laughter] the other thing is to try and do 10 things. pick two or three into them all. if it's facebook, but they spoke. it is twitter, but on twitter. you're better off buying a core group of finance and working with an, whether he thought were facebook or whatever. >> one last quick question in the front please. >> this is a question for harlequin and penguin. is the hope of these large
companies to bring a successful, the cream of the crop self published authors authors into the mainstream publishing deals? >> at about the audit the question, but the question is if the hope of large publishers is to bring the cream of the crop into mainstream publishing deals. that's an excellent question and something chris and i did discuss earlier. it's a difficult question. over the past year we've seen a tremendous amount of large deals done for successful self published authors here james talked earlier about using self-publishing is a testing ground. that is going to work to a certain extent and publishers are watching that very closely. what we find right now is a lot of the successful self published authors are having success at a very low price point. it is not clear whether
publishers -- traditional publishers, good publishers can replicate that in a way that will make authors a successful because hitting n.y.p.d. at 99 cents is much harder to knock the 599 to $7.99. those prices. there's still a lot to be learned there and i watch a lot of deals we've done over the past year, but there's a lot to be said for a testing ground and wanting to work with authors who fostered a relationship. not those who have done one book, but those two in the series and showing growth and a growing audience and readership. it is only natural for a publisher to want to bring that readership with that author. >> with that, we have to say goodbye to her c-span two audience. what you think our panel today,
james mcquivey, author digital disruption an analyst at forrester research. angela james, executive editor at carina press and =tranfour that offer solutions. you may want to tweet this. not everyone thinks self-publishing is a good thing. someone once said times a day are bad your children no longer obey their parents and everyone is writing a book. cicero said that in the first century. [laughter] my name is christopher kenneally. thank you,