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tv   Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  August 27, 2013 7:00am-10:01am EDT

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it did a lot to undermine the authority of the government itself among large swaths of the population. quite important that also made the central asian republics of the soviet union very restive and very turbulent in the way they hadn't been before. 1979 is also the year when the muslim population of the old soviet union really began to overtake the european population of the old soviet union, a very interesting moment in soviet history. so certainly higher oil prices, the arms race with the united states, a lot of these other things i think conspired to make life very hard for the soviet regime but i think that the war in afghanistan was a major, major factor. >> host: so let's go to the other room of the soviet empire. in 1979 you had this really amazing spectacle of a polish pope, and not only was he the first non-italian and western
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european but really it's your view that he started a series of earthquakes rulings that became a solitary movement, that became sort of the unraveling if you will of soviet dominance in eastern europe. what strikes you as fresh and the story of pope john paul ii? >> guest: i think the thing that strikes me is the way that polls have described the impact he had on them. it was not just the pride in a polish pope. he became pope in 1978. poles were extremely happy about that needless to say. and the criminal is extremely worried about it. but i think it has a great deal to do with the special qualities john paul ii. he was one of the most brilliant
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men ever to become pope, he spoke many, many languages. he knew, he had two doctorates. he was an incredible figure. and he combined that intellect with a very easy charismatic way of dealing with ordinary folks. he was a very fine parish priest, because he did things with his parishioners. he went out and did sports with them, and he attended their confirmations for the children. you is very much involved in their lives. that's the kind of guy he was. he was a remarkably unique individual. and i think that played a big role. but the other they think that if it was the most interesting thing to me when i came back and looked at the store they can was the role the pope's visit played in getting poles to think about running their own country. because when the pope arrived for his 90 visit in 1979, -- nine-day visit your economist
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state said this is your show, we're not going to get involved in this. we will provide some security but you to organize everything yourself. and poles rose to that task with great enthusiasm. they organized the trip. they've managed the crowds. and for a lot of poles it was revelation because they had grown up under the condit system. they were used to having to stay do things for them. suddenly here they were organizing nine days of apple events for 11 million poles to k the streets and travel to different parts of the country, and it went off without a hitch. that was quite a revelation for many poles. i think those are very important precondition for solidarity, independent trade union movement which came up the very next year. i don't think those two events are unrelated. >> host: is that religion as classical politics in opposition politics. can you really make a linkage? do you think there is a linkage
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between the kind of religious opposition to communist authority that the pope offered to poles and the religious opposition to the shah that the ayatollah offered to iranians? is it the same phenomenon or different country i think they're different because the pope for all of his conservatism was obsessed with human rights. john paul ii wrote quite extensively about human rights. he had suffered under both not the occupation of poland and the stalinist period in polar. so usually quite upset. he built up an entire personal philosophical direction based on the primacy of the human individual and human rights. ayatollah khomeini did not have if you like that. he had the view that islam was everything and individual rights are often had to be superseded to the. so i think in that respect they
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were very, very fundamentally as i may say different. but there are sometriking parallels, and one interesting parallels is that both of these men were misfits. in some ways they were very unusual in their religious belief. john paul ii had an intense mystical relationship to christ and the virgin mary. he was not your ordinary priest. is believes went off to some really amazing and unconventional realm. ayatollah khomeini was also a practitioner, mystical the police sort of the things along the lines that we've would call sufi -ism in sunni islam. there were many other clerics who regard him as a practitioner of some forbidden or really suspect ideas. what's very interesting is the way that mysticism can lead to political activism, can make you more of a political activist by
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showing you the perfectibility of men. there's a whole bunch of different things here, it's very complex, that if you think you have a direct line to god, which is what mistakes thing, you might think that you have a great ability, a great about to shape the human world, too. that's something i find interesting between these two men. >> where to see the story of poland and the catholic church leading to today? in many ways people are like perhaps moved on or declared at the end of history, at least in eastern europe, right, and moved on from it and a new pope today and destroy that is very much moved out of europe where the church is on the decline. does this chapter of the book have relevance to today? >> guest: i think it does. the striking to me when you look at the history of the catholic church in politics in 1970s and '80s is the way that the church is very, very effective
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when it is, how can i put, when it is in opposition, when it is not aligned with the forces of the state. so in the philippines, even in south korea, the church but an incredibly powerful role in mobilizing opposition, organizing opposition, and certainly so in eastern europe. then when you have irregular democracy, regular secular state, for example, in poland after the fall of communism, the church became very cozy with the state in poland. poles suddenly realized they didn't like that much. they like their church in opposition. in iran we see a very interesting phenomenon where the church quote unquote has become the state, and you won't see many opinion polls, many studies this just this has undermined the position of islam in iran because young people grow up seeing islam as part of the establishment. islam has lost its oppositional
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cachet, its power to defend the powerless. it's become part of the power structure. so what i think is fascinating is the way that in these cases, we've seen the power of the church to marshal opposition, but when he becomes part of the power structure it loses that ability. it becomes part of the establishment and then people don't think about it in the same way. that's something i find very, very relevant in the story which continues today. >> host: it's interesting because any other part of your book which is really one of the major themes that has to do with incredible transformation in china, that has its roots, the opposition comes from within the upper echelons of the communist party. and so you have an insurgency from on high, if you will. that's the amazing story of deng xiaoping and his return from being banished and the cultural revolution to unleashing probably one of the greatest transformation of our lifetime.
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this was the biggest story that you're telling. and how do you crack into that when so many people have tried to tell that story? >> guest: that's a good question. i think it is a fantastic story. i think it's a story about the people have forgotten. again, just like political islam we take china as a capitalist country so for granted now and we seem to have forgotten that it was a wrenching and very, very difficult and very unlikely change. >> host: with north korea tried to exactly. it was north korea. it was exactly like north korea except with a billion people making a transformation, transform itself into something completely different. at the time it started rather small, so the chinese certainly understood that something was going but a lot of people in the outside world didn't. one of the things that i enjoyed very much about exploring the state was the people of the time did not compare china's economic reforms to the united states or
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western europe, the idea of capitalist china entering the world. trade organization would have gotten you sent to an insane asylum. people compare economic reforms to hungary or yugoslavia or even east germany would seem like the most successful economically successful member of the eastern block. so i think that goes to undermine how unlikely and how surprising these changes were when they happened. as i tell in the book, a great way to tell this story in china is by going back and look at what people were looking at at the time. i have this story where an american investor is brought to replace and told he should invest, and teaches his water buffalo and rice paddies, and the place they took him to is now come has the population of new york city and your ipad was made there. so i think there are a lot of great ways to tell the story, and some people told them at the
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time very, very visibly. there have been some great books right at the time of these changes in china, but nowadays many people have forgotten that story so i had a lot of fun trying to bring it back to life. >> host: that raises the question that applies both to china and i think across the stories that you look at in the book. and that is, how right or wrong were we at the time? as you looked back into it how the stories were covered at the time, and the instant histories that were written, did we understand the historical import of these events at the moment, or were we really off the mark? >> guest: i think we missed a lot of the story at the time. the big sta store in 1979 for americans and the chinese was deng xiaoping's visit to the united states at the beginning of 1979, which marked the resumption of diplomatic relations between the two countries and it was a huge, huge event. i think the economic changes that were going on in china at the time, which we would
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probably now regard as much more consequential and important, are largely missed. simply people could imagine how far they would go. just missed. we didn't understand how significant they were. when the soviets had made -- into afghanistan, we can look at the memos and we see what people were thinking in the carter white house. carter reacted quite toughly to the invasion of course and even before the invasion he was giving covert aid to the islamic rebels who were revolting against the afghan communist party government. what's very interesting when you go back and look at this is people in the white house thought that this was part of some larger soviet plan. they thought it was like the soviets invading czechoslovakia or hungary to throw out communist party rule, that this was an extension of the brezhnev doctrine. and what he didn't understand was that the soviets didn't really want to do this at all.
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they kind of, they felt they were forced into it by the rapid deterioration of the situation there. they were extremely reluctant to do it. when they made the decision, they didn't even have a proper paper that they all signed. it was this very vacant memorandum that didn't even say what they were going to do. >> host: just like vietnam? >> guest: just like vietnam. they slid into it. they didn't really want to be there. i'm not sure we understood the extent to which that was the case. without it's all part part of the grand soviet design. we didn't understand what a improvisation it was. >> host: that's interesting when you think about the extent to which the united states was involved of course as a significant player in all of these stories in different ways, and yet you've done some really i think commendable for book which is, you cannot put the u.s. front and center of these stories, although there deeper relevance both to american history and also to
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decision-makers today. how daring of that, are you being to not put the united states front and center? are we too self-involved to read a book that is about other people transferred i don't know. we will see how the book does. it's a good question. that was a conscious decision, because i felt that as important as the united states is, it's not the only country in the world. and this was the year i felt where there were a lot of other really interesting things happening in the world. the united states is a part of all of these stores but it's not at the center. in many ways it's reacting to events more than 80 shaping them. i thought it was important to capture that in the book. i was trying to write a truly global book. >> host: ronald reagan, for example, is not on the cover here. and many people would say well, 1939 was a crucial year. he was about to be elected in 1980. this was the beginning of the republican revolution here in the united states.
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do you see reagan as fitting into this store that you're telling. >> guest: i would contend that he wasn't really a player in 1979. he was starting a campaign against carter. he was a domestic politician but a think his moment came a little bit later. that's why i didn't include them in this book. there's some very important events. 1979 was the are the moral majority was found in the united states. so that was the start of evangelicals, born against intervening directly in american politics in the way they had before and that was crucial to reagan's 1980 victory. but this moment i'm trying to capture is i think a slightly earlier moment. and for that reason i hadn't really brought reagan into it. i just felt that he, really, he belongs slightly later era. >> host: tell me about where you'd think 1979 cents in on
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those years that are kind of the hinges of history, the pivot point of history, the 1789 and 1917 and 1989, and most recently the arab spring revelation of 2011. where is 1979 on that spectrum in terms of import? is going to be one for the long-term books? will we be talking about as we still do about 79 our 1848? >> guest: i would make the case we should. i case we should. i so they think of such an important turning point. i think it parts a really important moment when the domination of these ideas from the left, which really, really played a huge role in most of the 20th century. even if you weren't a communist or socialist or social democrat, you invariably find yourself reacting to these ideologies. and i think what we have seen in
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1979 is the rise of -- how would i put it? finally very viable ideology. suddenly marcus on no longer -- they are and ideology. islam he comes and ideology, and it turns out that as ideologies, these things compete quite well with communism, social democracy. i was just talking to somebody the other day to read the book, and he was, felt himself to be much more of a leftist but he said with a left ever find a language that you invited the way that marxism did, right? and i thought that was a very, very good question. because i don't think it has. i think the left is still trying to find a response to these things, and i think that's because of this year, because of the things that happened this year, and the changes that this year initiated. i think maybe this epic may be drawing to a close. when it does, the ideological
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viewpoints of people have to be very, very different from what they are to the. >> host: it such an interesting point you're making. i think it's a really important one, because actually most of our conversations about the death of ideology has resolved -- revolved around the collapse of communism later in 1980 and up to the end of the soviet union in 1991. that, conventionally speaking, has come to be seen as the age, the moment when ideology died, when leftism died. but you are in essence saying no, that's wrong and we need to move the clock back. you know, the death of leftist ideology was really in 1979. it had this decade-long afterlife you could argue, as events play themselves out from 1979 to 1989. i think that's a really interesting argument. you could say that actually there was a new ideological consensus that had given birth in that your around marxism and
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religion, that has yet to die. that's a very interesting new take on things. and its circuitry that today's left is a very different one thing left of when we were kids. >> guest: oh, yeah. >> host: republicans love to go barack obama of socials and talked about in a sort of a european left-winger. but in reality even the european left has accepted that basic what came to be known as the washington consensus, although you are arguing really that it belongs in an earlier time period. but even the left except that basic principles about markets, been threatened by the last few years. do you think that the financial crash of 2008 and the ongoing drama associate with that in europe especially could finally spell the end of the market oriented consensus? >> guest: i think it has in many ways.
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as i tell people, if you are 25 in the united states today and she can't find a job and you are saddled with $100,000 in college debt, i wonder if you're going to believe in capitalism the way somebody did the went to college in the early 1980s and was born into complete a different world, right? i think that's -- that's what's happened with the financial crisis is a deeply undermined a lot of our faith in capitalist institutions. but again no one has found a language to bring the opposition to that together. no one has found a coherent ideological alternative to that. ea example.barack obama is a i agree, he really does not fit the definition of a 1970s or 1980s socialist by any stretch of the imagination. he is something very, very different. you mentioned united kingdom. of course, it was one of tony blair's associate's said we are
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all thatcherite snow. members of the labor party same where all thatcherite now. what i think is still missing is the opposite of being a thatcherite. what's the coherent alternative? what's the coherent alternative to this market consensus? the chinese have abandoned that a long time ago. i don't think it's being a marxist leninist. the russians have abandoned that. there still a few marxist leninist out in the woods house of representatives everyone is basically pragmatic marketer except for the religious leaders. >> guest: exactly. so we all know that there are some big problems with the system, but we haven't figured out and ideological alternative. >> host: your book in many ways is really a history of ideas as well as the events that have been shaped by those ideas and i think that's what makes this an unusual book. but then it does go back to this question of, you know, is it
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relevant still to the time we're living in, or have you captured a moment in time that is lost. you said earlier something, 30 years has already passed since, really if you think about it, in 1979 they were as close to world war two as they are to us today. in a way you are seeing in 1979 the end of that post world war ii era of both ideology and politics, and sort of governing consensus in many of these countries. you know, the shah of iran is a good example, came directly to the throne as a result of his father's ill-fated and ill-advised alliance with the united states in world war ii. you have these arrangements that came about at the end of world war ii, finally reaching their endpoint in 1979. certainly that's true of the
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sort of britain. >> guest: exactly. >> host: are we reaching the input? is at a 30 year life cycle of these ideologies transfer i do know. it's a great question. i think a lot depends on what works and what doesn't. because, again people need to put himself back in the historical context. the european welfare state and to some extent the american welfare state delivered unprecedented prosperity after world war ii. people live better. the working classes in europe and in the united states lived better than it had ever lived before. unprecedented. and that really worked are a good 30 just. then in the 1970s with the energy crises, stagflation, the west hit a wall and they needed new solution but it was clear that older model wasn't going to work anymore, for whatever reason. so itc some variants, some parallels to that, in the financial crisis because the financial crisis again showed us
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that ou are limited faith in markets, probably not the thing, that we do need some sorts of alternatives or corrections are have to be a better way of putting it, and some countries have tried to put in place corrections or somehow reform their market structures. but we can't help but think that might not be enough to satisfy voters in this country, in europe, who are now having a very hard time of it. the unemployment rate may be increasing your but there's still enormous segments of the american population who are not benefiting from the growth that is going on. you can't help but wonder whether that will at some point turn into a fundamental discontent that has some really transformative effects. but i don't know. perhaps we will see that. >> host: so when you start in on the book, and it's been a long journey, were the things that really surprise you with what you found?
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these are stories that you can into it knowing a fair amount about. >> guest: i think one thing that surprised me, continues to surprising is the extent to which a lot of people didn't really understand what was going on in china, and took maoism at face value. there's a fun story in my book when deng xiaoping comes to the white house in 1979, and carter puts on a big state can afford it. deng xiaoping -- they set gunshot and down -- they sit deng xiaoping down at the table. wishart mclean. she's a good \70{l1}s{l0}\'70{l1}s{l0} leftist, so she begins to gush to deng xiaoping about how they're out of this from and the methods professor who is working on the farm. this was part of the cultural revolution, right? went mao put all the revolutions out in the countryside. going on about how great this was another professor loved it. and deng xiaoping listen to her and then he says, that's
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ridiculous. professes to be teaching in universities. they shouldn't be planting crops. that was pretty much his verdict on the cultural revolution. but a lot of the china scholars at the time still bought into maoism, still bought into these ideas. this is one of the reasons why it was so hard for them to understand the reforms that were going on in china. if you go back to the accounts at the time, a lot of the established china scholars just didn't quite get the story. they didn't understand what they were seeing. a lot of them are still wedded to these old images of maoist china. and in some cases they were quite bewildered. >> host: it's an argument for on the ground journalism and observation, right? one of the people you rely on was a smart british diplomat who just went out there and beat the pavement at this -- as if he were a journalist and in effect envy people and wrote down what he saw.
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>> guest: roger who is unhappy tsay still alive, is absolutely magnificent book that this did the test of time. some journalists wrote pretty good looks at the time but i would say his is the one that is hard to be. resize as you say, he went out, he was on the ground, he got the story. and he saw things very, very pragmatically without an ideological lens, and so he got a lot of things that other observers missed. >> host: that's interesting. the ideology is, or can be the enemy of history. >> guest: i think very much so. and i'm kind of struck when i look back at this period, again by how the very ideological people didn't understand what they were seeing. i had a very good conversation with, you might member of smith wrote a fantastic book about the evils of the saddam hussein regime in iraq, and he was a very, very convinced leftist. he was a truck see a come and he
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described to me, his wife was a ring at the time of the iranian revolution. he described to me how completely bewildering the iranian revolution was to them. if you believe in fairies of class struggle and dictatorship of the things that were so much invoked at the time, you just didn't understand it. it was completely nonsensical. so they tried to write articles in their journals explain why the masses were temporarily being, you know, seduced by ayatollah khomeini. and in the end he said they were just completely flummoxed. he basically said this was the end of a lot of communist and socialist leaders in -- believers in the middle east because it ceased to be a viable alternative. people didn't want it. >> host: i think it's almost an important note for us to end up. we are almost out of time but not in town but i wanted to this question we were debating before we came on, which is what's not in the book. one of the most significant
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thing we were talking about. there's a great of the book for people in the rise of the personal computer which happens in the 1979, 1980 country. did you see technology as playing a role, even backstage there, the hints of this new order that would come in these stories transferred absolutely. absolutely the rise of telecommunications issues of import. ayatollah khomeini was an ex-offer much o of the iranian revolution in the communicate with his supporters through the state-of-the-art telephone switching system that had been installed by the americans for the show. he could call of anybody anywhere in iran and it was usually important for the iranian revolution. with the help of satellites of course which were, the cost to come down. satellite communications were very important. i think you'd see a lot of different levels in which the technology was influencing all this. pcs were not yet there, but i think they are very much a part of this moment. the technological aspect really
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deserves to be going into a lot more deeply than i was able to. >> host: tell me if you were to do a follow-up to the book, would you jump right in with 1980, or what is your next moment? does ago 1979, 1989? is that going to be the next part of this tragedy that's a great question. i don't think i'm going to write about the year again. i think i'm going to write about something totally different. >> host: absolute. it's interesting. in terms of the response you've gotten so far, what have you made of what the critics have to say? >> guest: i'm very happy with it but i feel like a lot of people out the vote. when you write a book like this are sitting alone in your little room, and you're wondering, am i just a nutcase or are people going to understand some of the points i'm trying to make? so far i've been very gratified by the response. i think a lot of people have understood exactly what i was trying to say. of course, i am making an argument to a certain degree, but if you just want to read the story and examined the life of
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these incredible characters and the stories they're going through, i think that's quite enough. you don't necessarily have to buy my larger argument about ideology and counter revolutions and all that. i think you can just enjoy it as a historical narrative, i hope. but i tried to write a book that would have different levels, something for everyone. >> host: congratulations on the book, and thank you again for this very interesting conversation. there's lots to chew over. good luck with the book to her. >> guest: thanks very much. >> our special booktv programming continues tonight with programs on world war ii including --
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>> we will have several live events this morning and clicked the center for strategic and international studies hosting a panel on the upcoming g20 meeting and president obama's visit to sweden. that's you on c-span2 at 8:30 a.m. eastern. also on c-span2 at 10:00 and national press club newsmaker discussion on the future of democracy in egypt. also attend on our companion network c-span, outgoing homeland security secretary janet napolitano will be giving a farewell speech at the national press club. she served as the head of her department since 2009 and she's living to be president of the university of california. >> next, part of the national league urban forum marking the margin washington.
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members of the national action network and the national urban league younnational urbanleague. we were sure of much of this as agaiwe can into our live event t 830. >> first and foremost i want to thank everybody for coming out and in commemoration of this 50 year anniversary, the continuation of fighting for civil rights in this country, and the civil rights that we're still fighting for include equity in education for every child, the access to a good sustaining family sustaining jobs for every individual, access to affordable housing and quality health care. these are the civil rights issues that we are still fighting for. and we know that this -- disproportionate african-americans and people of color do not have access to the basic fundamental civil rights,
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including now the right to have our votes protected. i come from nevada. my district covers 52000 square miles, it's the size of the state of alabama from the city of las vegas to rural communities, and the people in my district struggle with these basic fundamental civil rights. so as a new member of congress on very honored to be here to continue the legacy that other congressional members to the congressional black caucus have thought for each and every day, and i'm pleased to be part of this panel and to hear the questions that you have. >> reverend, i let you go next. is involved, it's a youth march, is that right quick so you have to take off in just a few minutes. i just want you to know when he steps off stage, not you guys. go ahead, reverend. >> thank you.
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there's a youth march that is happening now in, the american exchange council, it's an organization that puts forth in a very sophisticated manner a lot of the issues regarding voting stand your ground law's, engaging in voter id bills, cutting living wages. but we have for our generation is our enemies have become much more sophisticated. it isn't just simply, while marching is very important for us to come together, you all should know, we are marching and a lot of our friends from the black vote and dream defenders will be marching, so i will be going there. but let me say this, and i know, i want to say as we approach
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this march, and i'm so appreciative of the leadership, particularly of action network and others, all the other organizations, i can say that to re-create a march that happened 50 years ago. but our goal is to maintain the justice that was created because of the march that happened 50 years ago. and i think that's very different dynamic, adages want to say this before as, when had the stage with my colleagues who were up there. first and foremost, i guess as the generation, those of us who were born in the '60s and '70s and '80s and '90s, i want us -- [laughter] i do want to say this. i was talking to stefanie brown with urban league off stage and this is kind of limited, i have to leave i want to say this. i really admire and love my generation work.
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everybody up on this stage, i've been able to work with them and see them. and i'm telling you from a standpoint of, one is coming together as humans, especially not on the stage for black, white, brown, yellow, red, male, female, straight, gay, as human beings, i'm so proud that. but as organizers what i'm really excited about is that we haven't taken sort of the habits of those before us. we are not quite cynical or jaded, and we are still believing in the power of people. and i'm praying that the almighty will continue our love for each other, and the ability for us to continue to fight for our people and love them unconditionally. because it's truly our people who are dying and who are hurting. [applause] so i just wanted to tell my colleagues up here, i know that you think i'm the hip-hop guys like you a lot, if you let me be
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who i am, too, know what i mean? let me do that, i want to thank them. i know i have to leave now but thank you all and hope i will see you all on saturday. god bless. [applause] >> thank you for that. >> i'm thankful to be your. thank you to the urban league and all those responsible for organizing this but i'm excited about the panel and the questions that you will have, so i yield the balance of my time to the rest of the group. >> i'm going to go to this end. tamika, let the ladies start. remind the audience, you all get a chance. if you have some ideas, jotting down and when we get done here and the second you all have a chance to ask russians. >> my name is tamika mallory and on the national executive director of national action network. reverend al sharpton is our president and founder, and right now we're all gearing up for the march tomorrow on the mall. we will all be joined at the
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lincoln memorial in the morning. the reality is, brothers and sisters, we know that we come here to commemorate 50 years ago but we have work that has to be done to secure the future of our people for the next 50 years. and so we are gathering in unity tomorrow morning so that we can start the flame and get ready to go back to our communities and do the work that is necessary for the next 50 years, and i think that it is very important that would be there. a lot of us like to sit around and complain and talk about our issues but when it's time for us to stand together, many of us are missing from the conversation. and tomorrow is an opportunity for us to show in large numbers that we are unhappy with some of what we have seen happening and that we are ready again to go back and take our communities back into the work that's necessary. so i hope all of you will join us tomorrow. [applause] >> good afternoon. my name is angela rye, and i'm cofounder and director with
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impact of a nonprofit based here in d.c. thank you all so much for spending your afternoons with the one thing that i would like to say, based on something that my sister tamika just that is this march, right, tomorrow we're gathering to demonstrate our unity behind issues, behind injustices that we have been facing for years. since before the 50 years ago where the 1963 march took place on washington. it's important for us to remember that tomorrow is a means to an end. to be a catalyst for whatever our next steps are, it's to be a visual representation, a figurative representation of what should happen not only in the black communities but in communities of color, of underserved community, standing together about issues, for issues, they continued to impact us. we cannot sit idly by while we are chronically under unemployed. we cannot sit around and watch
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our kids die at the hands of folks that are utilizing and hiding behind stand your ground as a defense. we can't continue to sit idly by while our people can vote in north carolina, texas and states across the country since the supreme court has said section five now has no teeth. there have been more bills introduced that our voter id-based and voter suppression base. we have to be aware be great to be awake agreed to continue the fight, and tomorrow is just the beginning. please do not go home from tomorrow's march, retire from the movement. it must continue. [applause] >> brandy, before i let you speak, i'm told -- what is congresswoman sheila jackson lee? hey, such the hell are -- how are you all doing? how are you, sister? good to see you.
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>> texts is challenging but, in fact, let me first of all mind my manners. thank all the. i've had an occasion to engage with them. the movement must continue. as i left texas, so things are happening. one, the voter id law was implemented within minutes of the supreme court declaring that section five was invalid. but even more importantly, the headline yesterday was a small town by the name of pasadena whose mayor indicated before the unconstitutional ruling that he had a plan member districts which give access to many of the emerging diverse populations in pasadena. he has a plan to go back to at large, and now i can do because there's no permission that i need get. there are many things, stand your ground law, an article in
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the admin paper in oklahoma said that the bill that jackson-lee has is promote criminals law. because i have a bill that wants to redo the stand your ground law. i believe we can engage. i believe that good people from all races, color, creed and background, i think this is a clarion call for dialogue but it is also a clarion call for action. and it is not a clarion call for resting or waiting for stepping back. and i'm delighted to be here with you, and i will be marching tomorrow. thank you. [applause] >> thank you so much. thank you so much. and with that, please, go right ahead, brandy. >> brandi richard, national urban league young professionals president. [applause] i have the until from the state of texas, newly, new transplant to d.c. so i know you're extremely well or work in texas. it is critical. i represent over 5000 members
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across the country at about 64 chapters of young professionals who have decided to step up to the civil rights agenda that our forebears gave to us, right? and they've been doing this work prior to the march. we have been around almost 15 years at this point, and so we have adopted in our planning and our strategy around our future and this movement and urgency, based on that urgency that dr. king talked about the our plan better focus for now into the future is that we've got now. were not next. we are not kids. even though some of us are younger than others, we have children, right, and so the focus has to be that we are leaders now pictures work that we can do today. we can't wait until later for it to happen, and we can't keep addressing people that happens to be younger, which i'm happy the national urban league is having this panel, as you've that are not register about and make things happen.
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we have to lock arms across generations ago to make our organizations and our community better. [applause] >> and so i would encourage you to focus on what you individually can do to escalate and forward our agenda from a now perspective, from a we can't wait perspective as if one has talked about. so thank you. >> go right ahead. >> it helps if it's on. good afternoon. my name is kevin powell, cofounder of a new or physician called bk nation. the bk stands for building knowledge. iges what is a fuse thinks everything but since i got it to d.c. wednesday evening. my entire -- has been deeply influenced by the civil rights movement, by the work of dr. king. it wasn't just one person who did the work.
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i think we are clear about the one of the mistakes we have made -- [applause] one of the grand mistakes we have made since the civil rights era is to think it was just one person or just a couple of people. is literally a coalition of folks to some were known, so were not known. we know that women were significantly is in movement and we need to get away from the male centered leadership once and for all. i'm glad to share the state with his sisters here. it's important to say. [applause] >> but for me, you know, i've been an activist since i was a teenager at the first thing i was introduced to was the anti-apartheid movement was -- which is influenced by the civil rights movement. we reenacted the freedom ride because all these issues, around voter id and voter rights and we're dealing with this in the 1980s and the reagan and bush years when i was a teenager. this stuff keeps going on and on. if we don't take action that if we don't make a commitment to justice for the rest of our lives, this double, for the next
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generation. it's tragic to me in 2013 were still talking about voting rights. when barber arnwine was under speaking so passionately and so poignantly about voting rights, this is something that my mother thought was done when she turned 20 on august 28, 1963. the day of the march on washington the other thing, for me, part of the armed service or physician why would also work with brandy and a national passion network, the urban league and other folks are, we didn't have coalition of folks operating all around the country. it's that serious, y'all. it's tragic to me that reverend yearwood had the lead and do occur is. what they've been doing quietly for sevier's stand your ground, voter id laws, the school to prison pipeline all around this country, we should just wake up because of what happened to trayvon martin. it should be a tragedy or something that would cause a reaction to in terms of a crisis. we've got to be proactive, consistently proactive and make
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a commitment to being in the struggle for the rest of our lives, however long that is. that's why we're here today. thank you. [applause] >> i will start it off. can you join me for a second? i'm going to escort you down to this end to keep jeff company. it was little unbalanced on state. jeff was feeling a little lonely. let me start with you, jeff, on this issue, this idea of leaders and i guess in the black community the store to we've always had those names. sometimes we think just one, but several leaders like black folks and this idea we have of leaders to listen to. where does that idea that has been so close to assist orca, where does that play today? is that so something as eternity whether we know it or not? we are looking for a leader, looking for somebody to listen to and guide us in some way. >> i think clearly history shows
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us that we respond to charismatic leadership, and that charismatic leadership in many cases comes out of the black church culture and so we understand culturally where it comes from. to be more productive, i think you're beginning to see a generational shift away from it. because young people, one, are not looking for one leader. they are also not necessarily looking for somebody that doesn't live where they live. to tell the what the issues are that they already know about. and validate work that they been doing for anybody else showed up. and so i'm excited about this younger generation of leadersh leadership, that is saying wait a minute, i don't need you to show up and give a speech. i don't need you to send me a 10-point agenda. i don't need you to tell me what's going on. if you want to come to my city and let me tell you what's happening, let me tell you what we've been doing, when no cameras get it, when nobody cared about is going people were
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saying our generation wasn't doing any work, then i can tell you. and so to be even more productive in my opinion, i think to take it a step further, let's talk about what we need. and so as we talk about young people that are saying i can be a leader for myself, they gotten on zero budget, zero data, zero training, zero capacities, but they have passion, vision, gangsta from an intellectual standpoint at a spiritual standpoint -- [laughter] and the fundamental difference we see between young people of the 1960s and young people of 2013, is not vision, is not commitment, is not dedication, is not decided. it's training. and so if we're going to be serious -- [applause] -- about being able to get out of his charismatic one leader, then we have to say we don't need to go to the local and re-create the wheel, one of the many things that we need to do
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is how do we create training apparatus that provides capacity to young people on the ground that have already been doing the work, i need to be pushed up? how do we provide them with data? how do we provide them with digital portals where they're connecting with people in different parts of the world that are doing the same thing they are doing so we could be talking about best practices? how do we create turnkey opportunities so the young people -- trayvon martin past and they're angry about the verdict, they want to be involved in something but there's no institutional infrastructure where they are that speaks to them. there may be at naacp chapter. there may be an urbanite but that might not speak to them and that's okay. how do we plug in into infrastructure that is representative of what they want to do, help them develop agendas that they don't have agendas, help them raise the capacity to walk out the agendas they already have and then connect them to a committed up chess players?
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because this generation is in playing checkers. they're not trying to get to the end and taking me. they are trying to say i'm willing to be u upon because i s in one date upon could be the queen. and i want to work were i can to make this happen upon that. >> i was just going to say i think that's right but i also think that organizations like the legacy organization, urban league and others can we have to be the place where these young people can come in order to be organized. i don't know that you can get away from having leadership because even the training that you talk about has to come from somewhere. .net hello? >> that's my fault spent trying to cut me off in the middle of what i'm saying, g. j.? there has to be a place that we can provide all of this. that is leadership in itself but i think we're an issue that i see with young people is that when they go to the chapters of nan and a really and naacp and other places, we have the old
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guard attitude that they don't feel comfortable or at home coming to these places to work. if our organizations are going to grow and be what we said we are, we have to do with the urban league has done in terms of developing the young professionals that you're dealing with, brandi, at national action network, we have young leaders all over the country, we are trying to put, change the face of it to provide opportunities for people to unite with us into the work. >> tried to get in there. >> i mean, a couple things. i wonder if i could bring it back to dr. king. you all know this, he was only 26 when he led the montgomery bus boycott. he did not make it to 40 years of age. he was a young man. malcolm x was only 39, the same age as dr. king. we talk about leadership. let's not forget them if anyone is a member, knows what i'm talking a.
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that organization was started because the old guard leadership to not support the leadership of dr. king and some of the hundred ministers. there was a group called snake that came along in -- sncc. they felt their voices were not being heard. one of things i want to stress because its import for us to learn from history is under the from some of the folks down in florida. we need a youth led leadership. what we really need is people lead leadership that is multigenerational. that's what we really need at this point. [applause] one of my favorite images of dr. king is from 1966 in mississippi when he is marching with stokely carmichael wright once told it was about to drop the phrase yellow, black power. dr. king because he was not jealous or insecure or disrespectful for younger people, we need to say that, even though he was a nobel peace prize winner, he had let the march on washington to get done all these incredible things. he listened to this younger rather than stokely carmichael
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explain why we should not call ourselves negroes anymore and embrace black power. dr. king felt like because he's a leader in the think it's important we define what a leader is. she or he because no more of the male stuff as i said, she or he changes the direction of the conversation, comes up with a nubile kegger. what did dr. king say? okay, i'm going to write an essay which anyone industry should read because you want to know what the blueprint is? it's called black power redefined by dr. king. part of the problem is we get so stuck in 1963, evolves and changes in again to put some teeth on his vision is our target institution to which is the second thing you did it if you're, build an institution or we have institutions all on this stage that services the community in some form of fashion but if you don't do that you are not a leader. the third thing, if you call yourself a leader you have to access possible -- accessible to the people. you can't see my secretary, my
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assistant. you've got to be accessible to the people. [applause] this is real because i can tell you, how many people around the country, because i traveled all over, say to me, i tried to reach out, i can get in touch with them. my number is (718)399-8149. e-mail is kevin at kevin powell.net. twitter is kevin underscored how. all of us on twitter, find us. but to me if we'll talk about leadership, tj, we should demand every form now to say what do you do in the committee on a regular basis? [applause] >> this mean i've got to get my cell phone number out? >> you famous. spank you are trying to get in there. go ahead. >> on kevin's first point, and i think this is important about two calls that come don't get mad. how many of us on the state are under 30? right. here's my point. right now we are sitting at the table. we are not kids like we're grown
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people. i'm a grown woman, right? >> we all have kids. >> i don't have kids but i'm over 30. i am 33. my point is it's time now for these kids table conversation. there are young people in high school who can be right up your talking to i don't even want to call them kids but i think it's really, really important is to make a brought organization. organizations, even with -- they are young ladies, young women who are the right hand of an organization we had come as terrific but there are also young leaders of some organizations that may be slightly smaller, budgets may be slightly smaller but they're just as important and just a significant to kevin's other point about mlk taking time to talk to young folks. it's so important that it's not business as usual for because people don't feel represented. we are not the young people anymore. we are old and can have a seat
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at the table because we can hold our own with the older folks. period, point blank, i'm done applaud the spent i thought george is getting warmed up, actually. >> you just opened up a can of worms. >> what do we do there? the kids table issue, how do we get away from the? one thing that drove me crazy about the coverage of the trayvon martin, the story and then the trial became afterwards, every time i turn on the tv, some of us were watching more traditional news outlets, but the people missing from the conversation were young black men who had the most and in a lot of ways at stake. and a lot of that is because we dismiss them as whatever, as you say competing at the kids table. they are not ready, we shouldn't listen to them. what do we do about that? first, do you agree with that? but what we do about that to get the older folks to say come hey, these folks have something to offer. >> i think the older folks, the older generation has to
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understand that we need to be invested in. so you can't expect us to produce the results for the future it is not an investment of time, of talent, of resources. to develop us into what you want us to be. but i also think him because it took all of us a while to even be able to sit at this table. so we had to get past 30 almost to be allowed to sit on this stage. unfortunately. >> i think we need to get away from the. we can't wait for permission. nobody up here waiting for permission. i didn't mean to cut you off. >> that's true. the other thing is we have leaders in african-american committees added an extra in a successful. leaders that we support, the we believe in them that we look and we're like oh, my gosh, they are stallworth members of our committee. they should lead forever, right? because they been so successful we don't have the same amount of turnover in those leadership positions because they're
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successful, doing a great job and what have you, sometimes. however, i went to talk to the young republicans, the young republicans invited us to participate in the conversation. i thought it was great. we talked about the fact that under 40 leaders in the young republicans, they have more young professionals are becoming leaders in the republican party because there's more turnover there. .. i just think there's an opportunity to the investment and the leaders you have and an opportunity to allow enough seats at the table for all of us to move and put the agenda
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forward and we all have suggestions how to make it better and it should not happen -- >> go ahead. go ahead. >> i agree. with much of what has been said. i was an actor at the naacp for a number of years and worked at this as a professional and we are liars, we are lying in a churches and our organization this. most of these people don't even like young people and they are scared of them and scared of them taking spots they don't do anything in and if we are not honest there are too many old people and not enough elders and if we are going to be honest
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there are old people and elders who don't know in many cases how to connect with young people, and often don't know how to connect to. we as young people, and younger people need to start understanding the historical realities young people are supposed to take old people out. and provide historical and biblical context if you like. difference between moses and king saul, king saul was an old person, he was afraid of david's anointing, allowed himself to be removed so david could do his job as opposed to his -- embracing did and attempted to heat and kill david which is why he died in a field.
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moses was never afraid of anointing. he said with a man. he sent me a text message with this thing on it and dropped the phone and send me a text message again. he wasn't afraid of joshua's gangster but understood it was his responsibility to put his hands on joshua and joshua would not be destined to repeat the mistake of moses's generation. we are pumped as young people because we are afraid of old people who we could move out of the we easily if we could roll in with our own agenda, and they were strong and knows away and the gangster to tree old people out. [applause] >> lastly and finally we have got to stop telling young people
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how to manifest their own movements. we are supposed to be afraid of them. my babies are in here now. our babies are here, scare the hell out of me. we are not doing our job if we don't have young people with visions that don't make sense to us. why would you want your child to have a vision that makes sense to you? i want my children to dream so big in the world that they are in that i have to ask some to explain to me what they are talking about because that means we lifted them on our shoulders enough for them to be able to see what we can't see. that is what legacy is about. finally, i am sorry but this is important. the turnover in white communities build more institutions and what they do is they put their folks in a safe
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or when they put them out to pasture they make and chairman emeritus of an institution they have created for them. said jesse jackson sr. the chair an emeritus of the institute for electoral politics. why was -- this is not just about ego. it is about economics and there are too many of our elders that have done real work that don't have anywhere to go so they fill these thoughts not because they are trying to block but because they got to eat because we are not taking care of them so if we don't build institutions to be able to create space with their genius to have dignity, there should never be a space where people have given their lives have to wonder how am i going to pay my light bill, with some many of us got our light bill paid because they created opportunity for us to have a job but otherwise we would not have
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had. can we please build institutions so that those elders have a place to fly into and young people they have been training because they don't have to be afraid of them because my job as a leader, to prepare who comes next. sorry for taking so long and i won't say anything else. [applause] >> this gets to the crux of the matter. when you look at the civil rights era, we were very clear what we were fighting for and fighting against. part of the problem in the twenty-first century the last 40 years is we are all over the place. everything is an issue. one of the things we did, we have been building this quietly because i really am an organizer so i don't believe, we don't want to be around two years but the next hundred years like a lot of other organizations. we said let's go to the people and ask the people what is it you actually need, one of the most important issues?
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education, leadership, training, health and wellness issues, we got out to engage the community because anyone else here has been touched by this thing we call hip-hop, number one youth culture over 30 years. what else to people need? jobs and small business development and training. we are clearly won't change the agenda every two years for the sake of funding, corporations or foundations or get any money at all, we will be focused on those five core issues. and at this point around leadership, i agree with them. since i've was a teenager, and into my early 40s what happens is you get marginalized into the youth division or talk about hip-hop or young people as if you are not able to articulate about anything else but when some of us go to other places and speak i am in japan for two weeks in february and they ask profound questions about the state of american democracy in a way that i've asked by my own people i was born and raised in.
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think about this for a second. part of it is economics and making sure our elders are taken care of but i also believe some folks have become intoxicated with this thing called power and influence and prestige and becoming addicted to the same plantation so we don't understand we got all these dynamic people on the stage to our 40 something, faherty something, 20 something, why are they not being set at a table separately, here is the future, why integrate into the conversation? we don't have a youth division or college division, just the division. that is it because if we are going to change the direction of leadership there has to be an intention now to what you do which means everyone's voice is important whether they're 13 or 45 or 65 or 75, that is the way we got to roll and half of it starts tomorrow and the celebration, let's say in 2013, what are we going to do
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differently? otherwise we have the same conversation five, 10, 15, 25 years from now and that is insanity to me and saying and doing the same thing over and over again expecting a different results. >> we have some comments on the screen here. and we tweet it in and put it on screen here if we like but you rejoined us here, time in on it and a new person on capitol hill, some of those things, we want you to time in. >> it is getting hot up here. broke it down very well. let me add one perspective as well. a lot of times for young people we look at the success of someone's title and don't
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understand, i don't hear the congressman or former state senator, i am here as a young man raised by a single parent whose mom overcame drug addiction of 20 years and whose father was shot and killed when i was a young boy. i raised my younger sibling until they were old enough to care for themselves. it is that life experience that informs what i do in public service so while i appreciate and many of us appreciate and sometimes you see the success of the person in the nice suit, experienced growing up that makes us who we are, that is perspective we need in public policy, and life experience and struggle people like dealing with each and every day that is absent from the hall of
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washington, state legislatures throughout the country and city councils, and that perspective and that voice needs to be heard and is why i am honored to be a member of congress now. >> i just want to jump back quickly, the story is one thing but the next thing is when we talk about young leaders, sacrifice. i watched al sharpton work from morning to night. 3 hours of sleep every night, he is prepared, he has read everything you can read by the time you open your eyes, he is constantly on the grind so when i look, i want to jill out. some times that just can't happen. and the leader of the people, and that sacrifice is serious, and i know what it is. and a seat at the table for
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dealing with that sacrifice. and part of the training, what we are telling young people is we say you want to lead, you say you want to be engaged in something you be upset about trayvon martin one day and we are all upset about it but where are they now? what are they doing now? where can they find them now? >> we will take your questions and get as many as we can. a couple things, say your name, where you are from and direct your questions to somebody in particular versus a vague question. old people need not ask questions. reverend johnson. >> my name is robert in room with magazine -- i tend to direct this to kevin, the rest of the panel can feel free to jump in. one leader that seems to be woefully absent in this march is a leader that has been incredibly effective, whether
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people were caught up, louis farrakhan, i came to this march in 1995 and there were men everywhere and it didn't matter that they weren't muslim. he focused on one principle, the principal bringing into the market, higher education especially the h b.c. you because they're under attack right now, lincoln university, my alma mater. i am coming to the cause -- >> what is the question? >> he came with a focus on atonement. what do you think of the message is that galvanize them from leadership? >> tamika mallory is doing the work of putting together, i think tamika mallory should answer the question. >> the message is action. that is why we are talking about. going back to your community, knowing there are midterm elections coming up and not having low voting rates. we need to be out there. 1.3 million people who are not registered in florida but yet we want to somehow or repeal stand
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your ground. power we going to do that if we are not able to vote for the person who will help us get it done? the message from this month is we must have action. we must all be active and be part of the process and there are many levels to do it on and as angela said, once we finish, we must do the work, we can't just be engaged in the moment but the movement and that is what this is about. >> next question, try to get as clear as possible so ask the question quickly. >> i am from dallas, tx. basically what i wanted to bring forward to the group is the fact the we are more of a reactive people than a proactive people. when something bad happens we react. to the extent that gun violence is the leading cause of death for african-americans and we have reached a level that is
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equivalent to baghdad and mexico and so my question and my issue is what are we going to do? the tobacco industry was sued in a class-action lawsuit in the 90s and there were billions of dollars given in that lawsuit. my question is why don't we sued the gun manufacturers? make them accountable for the gun violence in our community? >> anyone take that? >> this conversation about us being reactive rather than strategic is hard for me because these organizations i'm sitting up here with are doing a lot of strategic work so there are opportunities for you to plug in, contact your congressperson about various issues all the time. the issue is we are not engage until we get to the emotional fire point or text point where it really impacts us and then something just happened and i really upset about it, what is the black community doing and then you see someone on
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television talking about the five point agenda or the agenda -- actually came out. it is important for all of us to be engage all the time in our communities so that we know what is going on and we can take appropriate action before we get to the space we are in today. >> we say all the negative stuff to black folks all the time and i am critical of our community but let me say let's put this stuff in context. if you are going to say we are reactive let's acknowledge that there are serious folks around the country, issue on black on black violence every day. i did in brooklyn, n.y. we have violent every weekend, out of control. one of my challenges to you as a black man, i'd do this work with black men all the time, we sold these things and where are the brothers we call for mentoring programs that show up at rallies to deal with violence in the community and black women out there who have sons the way tamika mallory has a son, if
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you're doing it make sure you had your paternity, your message, your organization around you, in the park that you play ball in, we need to be role models in the community because we pursue the gun industry, guess what, until we raise the consciousness of people in our community from black self hatred of black self love, everett -- nothing is going to change. >> stay on this side. not a good sign when you have a note pad. do this quickly. >> a dissertation on that. >> do you have a question? what is the question? >> kevin powell, lot of people know you ran for congress. my name is gerard anthony morris and with john cold frame music entertainment education with entertainment in rural areas. civil-rights -- >> question. >> can i finish please? civil-rights versus civil-rights
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is what we're doing right here, could we elaborate on that and how we need to study judges more and need to study an appointed board and commission so we can prepare ourselves to do what susan taylor said and create a succession plan like al sharpton and you are doing. >> you said civil-rights versus silver rights? >> civil and silver, economics and policy. my answers bring it back to dr. king, if we don't have a financial game plan polk communities we're going to lose if we are not more financially literate as opposed to being consumer driven, we don't own something in our lifetime we can sustain it, a business, a home in spite of what happened we are in trouble and so it is simple to me, read dr. king's black power in 1967. the answers are there. let me say quickly because one of the things that will happen here this weekend, not in this room is people will get
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extremely excited about being involved, they may march, they may rally, they may shout, many won't write a check. they won't write a check to the organization the are part of or the movement and if we are serious about doing this work we are doing, we have to fund it and so we are talking about casting our votes but the vast majority of us don't like checks to the candidates that we want to see run. many of us are talking about why don't young people start organizations? when one does you don't write a check to them. there are people on this panel i have written checks to. >> absolutely. >> they are not necessarily huge checks. the point -- >> take that fought out. >> quick too. i was searching to have that
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check posted tuesday. appreciate it -- it was more thought out but seriously, t j, we are the most philanthropic per-capita community in the world but we are the least strategic with our philanthropy. we have people constantly talk about what we don't give. we will give to keep sell so and so from a church from being evicted but won't create an institution in the church that creates employment opportunities so the egyptian was never necessary. we got to be strategic power dollars and put them -- put your money where your mouth is and if that means only a $5 check, putting together with 20 other people so the $5 check become the $100 check that is $100 going toward the work we believe in. >> the young lady here, ask your question. >> i am from north carolina.
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my question is directed towards you, mr. jeff johnson. as a little girl i am passionate about civil rights and they don't teach us what we need to know in order to better our future. they talk about us as if black children are not good enough even in school today but i want to know, what can -- other children my age, what can we do in order -- in order to -- you know -- it uk our peers about how we can learn about our history because they don't teach us in school but also -- but also to better our futures today? >> let me say three things quickly. thank you first for the question. [applause] >> i would tell you most of the
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people in this room tell you they were not taught by their school either. what they needed to know what they ultimately did know. the first thing is make sure you talk to the people on this panel immediately following because we need to be in touch with you and we need to be in touch with you to give you book lists that we have used to help and other people have given us. number 2, you can begin to deal with the policy side of your school and sometimes that is not just about black history. i will tell you you need to be teaching us to read. teaching us math and dealing with hard-core pedagogy issues that many times they are not. i would love to talk to you about how to mobilize your classmates so every time there is a school board meeting you have young people there. every time there is a city council meeting. where you live? >> i was in north carolina.
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>> coo here is frwho here is fr carolina? all right. sometimes i think as a young people we get convinced everything we share with our friends has to be our own personal black history curriculum. it doesn't. use your social media for very small moments to share information, whether it is an article or link to a larger article or a link to a book. make it twitter size so for those people who'd go to the article to get something, make sure you connect people, wait a minute, i can't believe she shared that. how can i learn more? connect them to the bigger pieces because we are the biggest reflection of this movement. you are a movement and to yourself. when you begin to be a reflection of what you are learning, other people around
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you will be inspired but thank you so much for that question. >> i want to start -- i want to give her a resources, children's defense fund, freedom school, very strong, freedom schools in north carolina and durum, they teach leadership development, cultural awareness, they expo's you to your history rather even going out and replicating connections to something that is there, freedom school. >> keep in mind, give us, everybody minute for closing remarks, closing reflections. we go way down the list. >> i am honored to be here. this is a phenomenal panel and these are the leaders not just of tomorrow but today. it is time for young people at every level to take your proper place, don't wait for someone to hand it to you. you got to go out and get it.
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i was elected to state senate when i was 31, became majority leader of the state senate in nevada, first african-american to do so when i was 35. and unfortunately i am the first african-american in non-white to be elected to federal office from nevada but i will not be the last. [applause] >> thank you also much for the opportunities. there are a couple things i want to leave with you. the march on washington 50 years ago was a non-partisan march. when you look at dr. king's >> i hope you all will, it is not full pages, ought he never mentioned anything about republican or a democrat or even political practice and the reason i am reading that is in this day and age 2013 when we have a black president these issues have become partisan. all of a sudden having a black
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president is a major issue and we can't allow that to occur. voting rights are nonpartisan issues. :power in north carolina, the governor about that yesterday, we got to remember on both sides of the aisle, these are american issues, not black issues or latino issues but american issues for american people that should be owned by both political parties. the last thing i will say is this. the question is always asked what are we going to do to the panel? and i appreciate the young lady, what can we do in my school? what can i do is different from asking us what we are going to do because we are going to turn the question back to you and say what are you going to do? our organization impact, we tell people impact your world, do your thing, you are the impact, you tell us what we can do to support you and i will leave you with this. at the end of another spike lee joined, school days, they scream
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wake of the. we have to stay awake. we have to be present, we have to address these issues. don't ask us anymore what we are going to do, let's just do it. [applause] >> is important that we all understand the fact that each individual in this room, each individual we are reaching is important in making change in our community. you have a unique skill set, unique talents and gifts in order to push our agenda forward and without you we can't do the total work we need to do and so when we talk about young people, my daughter is about your age i was excited to hear you get up and ask us about what would happen in your school. i think it is important you take the onus on yourself to impact in a way that you can impact. the national urban league young professionals is a great organization offering great tools and leadership training and opportunities to get involved but that may not be the place for you and that is okay,
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but all of us need to be pushing the agenda forward in the way that we can best do so and when fears that means you're picking the phone and calling people about issues or writing letters to your senator or what have you, you have to take the onus to get involved because at the end of the day we're doing everything we can. we don't get much sleep. we stay up all day, working to do the work we have been given to do as individuals and i try to do as much as i can as an individual person but each one of us has to do that and if you take upon yourself to do your best, get further along and we won't have these conversations. >> i will address this to the young lady as well and folks in the room, our motto is leadership we possess and the short version of what we are waiting for, you all came out of the civil rights movement, there is not going to be some savior, grand figure coming out of the sky. it has to be us in our communities. one thing we are stressing,
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online and offline, they will be doing both, leadership training and development. please write down beknation.org. we are so serious about using all tools that are out there today so you can learn how to organize in your local community on a college campus, grade school as you are, the apartment building if you're a tenant in new york city, wherever you are is critical. the next thing is how do i put this? we really have got to maintain some level of hope in spite of all the stuff we are saying. this is critical to me, tamika mallory said it eloquently. i am retired. this is difficult long work lose some of us have known each other since we were kids literally. we understand this is a marathon, not a sprint. this is a marathon, not a sprint. as an african-american in 2013 realize i'm not doing this for black folks who are americans or
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the diaspora, to the point from texas, immigration is a civil rights issue, issue of marriage equality with you want to hear it or not. we have to be about equality and democracy and justice for all, all people. kansas city was convene for us, all people, i do believe the soul of this country has always come from our communities and we got to step up to do that in 2013 and beyond. >> i would echo training training training because training determines what we have the capacity to do but let me shift this in the last 45 seconds and that is take care of yourselves. we are seeing more people stressed out, at depressed, suicidal, mental illness and the activist community and we don't talk about it. during one of my most depressed times in my life, kevin was there for me and i don't know if
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you remember it. it was in 2003, i had left the naacp, my personal life was a mess and the problem too often with those of us that do this work, if we neglect our first movement for the second one, your first movement is you and your family. and if that is out of order in the name of saving the world you are out of order. [applause] >> i am out of time. so please find partners of accountability, find men of women in your circle who will tell you when you are out of order. and i love you and find people that will be your prayer partner or medication partners or whatever that space is of quietness for you to be able to one plug because we are killing ourselves and then passing ourselves on the back for killing ourselves. is not noble to kill yourself.
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so sometimes you need to rest because we have convinced ourselves--and it is different, you don't count. some of us, you are telling yourself that you are amazing because you are operating on three hours of sleep when the reality is on the eighteenth hour you are no good anymore anyway. go to sleep! and when you get up you are more revived, more recharged. eat right, exercise. it is a marathon and if we are not taking care of ourselves we are a detriment to the movement, not adding to it. >> i think the take away as kevin said and jeff has reiterated, this is not a sprint. it is a marathon. is not a moment, it is a movement. what happens to trayvon martin was a terrible moment, tragic moment in our lives but the fact the we organized after words,
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fits together, intending to go into florida and take back our rights and make sure stand your ground is repealed, that is a movement and that is where we have to be going. the brother talked about gun violence today. what you saw happen in newtown and in our community on a daily basis are terrible moments but what we do to organize our young people and figure out the issues to give them what they need whether it be jobs for better education or just a hug, some love, that is the part of a movement that we all are responsible for, 1963, dr. king spoke, it was a great moment in our history to hear the i have a dream speech but what they did afterwards to get the 1964 civil rights act passed, that was a movement. so tomorrow, brothers and sisters, we will be joining for a great moment but what we do
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with the midterm elections, what we do in our community, is a part of the movement and that is what we hope you will join us to do, to be part of the movement. >> president obama is scheduled to achieve the g 20 summit in september in russia. up next, panelists at the center for strategic and international studies are expected to discuss the priorities for the upcoming g 20 summit. u.s./russia relations and ennis a contractor ed snowden. president obama canceled a scheduled meeting with russia of the summit site and nodding of, quote, recent progress in the bilateral agenda. this is live coverage on c-span2. >> that will be part of the domestic conversation. the prime minister has been gracious in gathering his four other nordic colleagues to join president obama in a dinner evening and i would sense the conversation will be quite robust about the region and
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certainly i hope, and cfs has been engaged in a four year study on the arctic, a think the president may hear quite a bit about the arctic from his swedish and nordic counterparts. secretary john kerry as you will recall was just in sweden, northern sweden in mid made to let -- attendee arctic council ministerial where a historic decision was made to welcome several asian countries as permanent observers to the arctic council, a chinese partner ship passing through the northern sea route so the opening of the arctic happens, the geopolitical dynamics are changing and i am sure the president will hear from his colleagues about that. finally, one word, the bilateral discussion between president obama and the swedish prime minister, sweden has been an extraordinary allied across a range of issues, they have true
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personnel in afghanistan, approximately 600 on standby for operations in libya, contributed over 100 troops in bali for a neutral country, this is a robust level of engagement and i think we certainly appreciated that great solidarity. the breadth of the conversation, promise to reinfeld will provide president obama with an update crisis. this will be his visit to berlin, i am sure he will hear from european colleagues, if that continues to be a topic of concern in europe, russia will clearly be a topic and of course syria, egypt, the middle east and the unrest there so i believe you will see very bilateral conversation, more dynamic regional conversation with the nordic states and i
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think it is an excellent preparation to get the president ready as he travels for st. petersburg to meet with his g 20 colleagues. i will let you take the baton. >> i will introduce mass real quickly. mack goodman holds our william simon chair in political economy. the simon chair examine current issues in international economic policy, with a particular focus on the asia-pacific but i also say that he previously served as white house coordinator for the east asia summit for the asia-pacific summit but also served as director for international economics on the nsc staff and was responsible for the g 20, g-8 and other international forums and with that i would like to introduce my colleague goodman. >> the president will be participating in the eighth g twenty summit on september 5th and sixth at the constantine palace outside st. petersburg. and he'll tell us how to
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pronounce that, not to mention seen petersburg. the g 20 just to recap is a gathering of leaders of 19 individual countries and t european union which has its on seat and another five invited guests including spain, singapore and african countries that i have forgotten at the moment, tanzania, ethiopia and one other end -- and a number of international institutions, the un, the imf, and others will be in attendance as well. the schedule begins with a share the meeting, the leaders, senior economic advisers will meet starting september 2nd to get there with the finance deputies because the g 20 is built on
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finance ministers process as you know so be sure thes and finance deputies will meet in parallel line together in the days leading up to the arrival of the leaders on set in order to hammer out a communique and deliverables such as they are. incidentally this will be the first time attended by the new u.s. sherpa caroline atkinson. let me go through what we understand scheduled to be. is not formally published but leaders, formal summit plenary sessions will begin after lunch on september 5th and go through dinner that night. the next morning there will be a continuation of discussions which interrupted small innovations by the russians, the will have an interaction with
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business leaders during the morning, the so-called b20, proliferation of alphabet groups with a 20 after their name and the b20 is the business group and will be separate bilateral time for leaders and the meeting will continue through lunge into mid to late afternoon and put a press conference on september 6th and there will undoubtedly be bilateral on the side of president obama involved in those that have not been announced. and the will --andy will tell you president obama and president who will have the process thatpresident obama and who will have the process that happens at these summits. there will probably be a meeting with the japanese prime minister but none of that as far as i know has been made public.
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in terms of the agenda, the russians have laid out three -- one sort of big scene which is sustainable, inclusive and balanced growth and creating jobs and specifically they have three specific priorities, growth through quality jobs and investment, growth through trust and transparency and growth through affective regulation. those are all sorts of ways of reorganizing and capturing the longstanding g20 agenda listing eight areas that have been covered and strong sustainable balance growth. and international reform, strengthening financial regulation, energy sustainability, development, trade, anti-corruption so all of those things will be on but formal agenda, not all those things will be talked about by
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the leaders and at the end of this there will be probably a lengthy communique and attached documents, it will be unreasonable to expect this communique is going to be significantly shorter than the last g20's statement which ran 85 paragraphs and i would be surprised if it was significantly shorter than that because it has to cover all of the topics i mentioned. with the leaders will really talk about probably will revolve around in addition to syria which will not be on the formal agenda this grouping unlike the g8 does not have a formal place for discussion of broad geopolitical issues but inevitably it is going to dominate the corridor of the conversation. in the actual session among leaders in the agenda, formal agenda will cover economic and economic related issues and i would say three or four big topics, the global economy will
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dominate. you will have some european -- and here is andy joining us. i am stalling. >> doctor andy hutchings. >> the u.s. will probably still express concern about the fact that while the u.s. economy is doing better, it cannot be the only engine of growth in the global economy and will express concern about the risks and imbalances which remain in the global economy. global economy. emerging markets are probably financial market volatility th
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extraordinary period of monetary so the problems in india or brazil or other countries that are home grown. this issue is not going to be resolved but i would say on balance, and it is fair to say all so, that little discussion
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has just revealed there is not the same sense of consensus and shared sense of crisis in the group, the sense of crisis may be starting to pick up again but not everybody agrees on what the causes or solutions are to that issue. but overall, it will be a largely conversation about those issues and probably significant amount of discussion of international tax, cooperation to deal with tax evasion, tax avoidance, this was the major theme at the g-8 summit and the members are going to be interested in talking about those issues. there won't be breakthrough agreements that there could be a reinforcement of the group that was agreed to in the g-8, oecd work on tax sharing, information sharing and so forth and other
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area would be trade. there will be a fairly robust discussion of trade, the g20 has several times laydown a commitment, standstill against protectionist measures which they most recently extended through 2014 and likely to up that, this commitment has been honored, but they will probably make a strong stand and talk about a round -- the main focus is on the volley of ministerial in december which is the last real champ, potentially save the round but most people in the trade world don't think that is likely to happen, there may be a more focused look at what the gee 20 can do to push forward specific agreements and facilitation. and whether that will progress or not remains to be seen.
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and there may be discussion about the violent issues, infrastructure investment and so forth, finally i will wrap up and let and the talk about the interesting stuff in russia but i will say the white house certainly still feels the g 20 is an important forum, the only time these leaders can talk about the short-term risks of global growth and long-term challenges of sustained and balanced growth and it is an opportunity to broadly set the agenda for the global economy and finally to build habits of cooperation among members of the group that have not had the same experience that the g-8 countries had indicting these issues so broadly this is still a trip the -- syria notwithstanding that the
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president looks forward to as an opportunity to engage on this side of the issue. i will stop there and turn to andy. >> doctor cut things is the director of the russian and eurasian programs and he will put forward what is going on with the russians. >> thanks, my apologies for being late. unlike vladimir putin last year, deciding not to come to the g8 and unlike mr. obama decided not to meet mr. fu and in moscow, decide not to come to the press briefing today. is an odd role. in russian literature there is a tradition of superfluous men. in some ways i feel like a superfluous man talking about meeting that is not going to
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happen. in our relationship which frankly is not in a good place. how is that for an exciting quote? some might call and a train wreck. it has been like watching a slow-moving train wreck for nearly two years right now. what is the good news? the good news is this is not the cuban missile crisis. the good news that this is not even the georgia warm but five years ago, in which one could have imagined the possibility of the u.s. and russian military forces, perhaps by action coming into conflict with each other in the black sea. but one thing is clear to me, that this is the worst personal relationship between u.s. and russian, perhaps even u.s. and soviet leaders in history, and one has to kind of think about
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what does that mean? who does that hurt in the relationship? i really think these two guys, vladimir putin and president obama don't like each other at all. i think there's a deep degree of disrespect. when our presidents says something like comparing vladimir putin to the kid in the back of the classroom kind of slouching, not really interested in things, you have taken the relationship to a personal level. even more so than the comments he made which was a mistake four years ago that vladimir putin had one foot in the cold war and one foot in the future. vladimir putin is not a person that forgets many personal insults and certainly has not played well in the relationship.
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it is something to think about. i don't think there has been a case even in the soviet period, mr. lennon did not meet with any american leaders that i know of. i know about the relationship between uncle joe and fdr but clearly this is the worst person relationship of the u.s. and russian leader in history. and i think that is not a good thing. let's look at recent history. the obama administration made an effort in spring and early summer to engage russia, and a number of reasons clear to everyone in this room that was on the rocks and getting worse. vladimir putin was not interested in what the obama administration was trying to sell. the effort to engage vladimir putin was around the issue of
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further cuts in offensive nuclear arms tied to some kind of agreement on missile defense. like i said that was a deal that vladimir putin decided he was not particularly interested in. i think that is the effort begun with the trip of former national security adviser tom donnelly to moscow in the spring was about mainly. that is what this effort to bring the two sides together. it was pretty clear from the g8 meeting looking at the body posture, a pretty powerful statement. you got to wonder, what was left thinking at the administration at the time that gave them some degree of hope and optimism that there would be enough to agree
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on at a meeting to justify a summit meeting in september? i don't know exactly. it looks to have been a miscalculation. then of course we have to factor in how much of an affect the ed snowden affair had on the decision to cancel the summit. the ed snowden affair, you know, i was not particularly impressed with the way it was handled on our side to be frank. there was far too much so-called public diplomacy. if you want to call public demand, diplomacy. and i don't think there was adequate behind-the-scenes backdoor communication between the administration that a high enough level to make some kind of face-saving deal possible, if indeed that possible in the
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first place. to me i constantly ask the question, let's imagine ed snowden arrived in dulles airport with the same kind of information about domestic and foreign surveillance systems that russian federation was using. we have extradited him back to russia? i think it is almost impossible to imagine that we would have done that and so it does make me wonder why think the russians would do it in this case? i don't know this for sure but my sense is the administration thought they were making progress in these discussions to law enforcement channels, but frankly this is a case where i think if there was an opportunity to resolve this, the only way you could have done it was for mr. obama to pick up the
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telephone and have some very frank conversations with vladimir putin and try to work it through a personal relationship and try to find some face-saving solution. i won't be that horse, it is not quite dead yet but i won't believe that that that any longer because we don't know whether there would have been a summit if there weren't the ed snowden affair. was a decision that there wasn't adequate progress on key issues in the bilateral relationship. we don't know and are not likely to find out for quite a long time. where do we go from here? bosh. it is pretty tough to find a way in which jurior a reason for wh either leadership is -- see the
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incentive to resurrect the relationship. we could see this relationship model along at this very unpleasant level for the next three years until we are looking at a new administration in the united states and who knows we will be looking at the same administration in moscow? just to cut it short, always try to find some kind of silver lining in this one. i will pull one out of left field. not really about the u.s./russian relationship. there are interesting things in the russian/japanese relationship. i thought one of the reasons why vladimir putin and the russians had some incentive to improve their ties with the united states was their concern about the growing power of china and
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they would like to have a more balanced foreign policy. it looks like vladimir putin is trying to address his concerns about the possibility of being overleverage to china and the russian/japanese relationship is another -- number one on the list. won't make a prediction that the northern territories issue will be resolved but the possibility of resolution to this longstanding issue, 68 years, is greater than i have seen at any time in the last 25 years that i have been following it. you have two leaderships that are relatively strong domestically, and both have the outside factor of their concern increasing about chinese activities and we may see this finally in the next year or so lead to breakthrough in that relationship which would be good for the u.s./russia relationship as well. with that note from left field
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trying to bring optimism to the discussion let me finish my prepared remarks, thanks. >> we will open it up to questions. if you could identify yourself and if you are at the table speaking to the microphone. this briefing will be available in transcript form later today. i will mail it out and i want to assure you we have a board of trustees. as many of you know, dr. kissinger is around, we are moving our office in a couple weeks which is why we have such sort of emptiness here. our new building will be at 1616 rhode island avenue and you can follow us on twitter at csis for updates on that but it is an exciting moment in the 50 year history of csis and i think this will be the last press briefing redo in this old building. thank you again for being here. i would like to open up for
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questions. right here. >> i would like to ask members of the panel to put more meat on the issue of what will happen next in the bilateral relationship and you mentioned there will be no bilateral meeting between -- i would like to hear that. is there any chance that the summit might be a warming off period or none at all? >> nice to meet you for the question. i was thinking this morning, it could be a statement like statesmanlike move on the part of president obama in particular with the united states did cancel the summit meeting to
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request a 1-on-1 bilateral meeting with vladimir putin. .. in his personal regard for mr. putin. i think that's what that comment, the personal comment about the slouching kid in the back of the room. it seems with that, it's harder to imagine that you could see them if it and kind of walk back, make the decision, well,
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exactly would like to meet with you. maybe the situation in syria, which is extremely grave and dangerous could justify that. but -- >> questions? roger? >> yes. >> speak into the microphone. >> "bloomberg news." what would be the deliverables, for any of you? >> you know, on the stockholm stock i'm not sure there's going to be a deliverable other than an underscoring of both strong bilateral ties as well as our regional engagement. and for the president to visit with the nordic colleagues as well is to see the baltic presidents in the span of a week speaks to a deeper regional engagement, which is very welcomed. i think it will be an opportunity for the stockholm
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stop to really hear from five european leaders, some within the eu, some just within nato, their concerns obviously about syria and the regional issues. i think of be an extraordinary amount of outreach in the corridors of the g20 summit with david cameron, with the european colleagues as this gets closer. we just our reports this morning that prime minister cameron has recalled the british-born the back in session on thursday to discuss this. this tells me we'll see a very intense -- that stockholm this is a good preview of those issues. to sort of tap on the first question, certainly it's not just u.s.-russia bilateral relations that are undergoing some reassessments. is the european russian relations also. there's been challenges both with the liberalization question, energy issues. and i think the europeans themselves are deeply examining
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what the health and future state of russian democracy, human rights, civil society, and what it means for their relationship. so it's an important moment for consultation transatlantic only about russia as well. and i would suspect you will hear with the exception of norway, which is not a member of the eu, another strong statement for the transatlantic trade and invest apart a ship that the theme of trade for the g20, and to think you will hear from the swedish site how critical that will be for you as transatlantic relations. >> as i implied, but i guess i didn't say it explicitly, so thanks for the question, i wouldn't expect some major headlines deliverables that of the g20 summit. i think that has not been the pattern, the recen reason past,s are later looking for large headline numbers or initiatives i wouldn't expect that. but as they say in an 85 plus paragraph communicate will be a
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lot of language about growth and the importance, and i would say a tilted towards growth versus austerity. that tilt has been happening the last few meetings of g20 folks, as the leader and finance minister level, and you will see that i think again here. but, of course, talk about the other aspects of the global economy. and affirmation of all the things the finance ministers have been doing a financial regular is which i didn't really harp on because the leaders will probably talk about that stuff in the room, but there will be paragraphs about progress on basel iii n. otc derivatives, regulations and other things. as i said, attacks pieces, the taxable income tax evasion issues i think will be featured, and for the specifics on that i would refer you, actually on all this, go back to the finance ministers communiqué of july 20 or something, which i think is
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really what you will find the leaders embracing and endorsing most across the board. so i don't think, i would be surprised if to any dramatic breakthroughs on anything, but again a lot of this is about the conversation and trying to get people on the same page and moving in the same direction on global economic and financial issues. >> no meeting, no deliverables. i would just add, we have to wonder about the likelihood of the u.s. military strike on syria is obviously increasing rate significantly, and imagine the g20 meeting taking place right after that, perhaps. so the mood of the principal, the principal players, european, united states, russians, chinese would have to be very, very
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sour. and i can't think that's going to help just the g20 meeting itself. >> questions? >> from the guardian newspaper. to follow up on that, two things. one, you said it wasn't clear to you that the snowden of their was, the bilateral summit wouldn't occur had it not been for the stoned affair, but for all the noise you heard from the white house in the run up to the snowden affair was it was more likely to take place. it was only after russia agreed, the meeting was canceled. what else could account for the cancellations about the bilateral meeting? and another question for matthew, could you talk to us a bit more about how conversations
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about syria may impact the more formal meeting? >> i think the administration faced a dilemma, sort of try to factor out the snowden affair, that the principal proposals that he be making to the russians, not just security issues, principally the nuclear offense reduction, nuclear -- the foremost everyone to make progress on. this is the of mr. obama just made the berlin speech. russians beyond, and -- yawned. there was no proposal. what administrations officials lament there was no response other things, including any of economic cooperation and trade were at least they're rhetorically for the last year
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or so, the to administer nations have been singing from the same song sheet, do we want of a broader economic relationship and this would provide some balance for the bilateral relationship in iraqi towns and provide more constituencies in both countries to support the relationship. the administration was kind of getting no response really across the board. so you know, snowden doesn't happen, you know, certainly they made every effort i think to try to carry on and have the meeting, but it's just, you know, you have to ask yourself, well, what's the point? we really don't need a photo opportunity, and you look at where we are on a whole set of issues. syria obviously. iran has made it very clear the russians don't want to go any further with sanctions on iran. the area that we're the most
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problem with afghanistan. the problem is we still don't have a bilateral security agreement with the afghans, so we can't really talk to the russians and others about what we envisioned to be the future potential for cooperationo af a. >> one of the disadvantages of being a world leader and maybe a journalist as well is that you to walk and chew gum at the same time. enough to cover a wide range of issues. i think in this case in a formal sense, as i said, the g20 is not about geopolitical issues, it's a syria will not be on the formal agenda. i would be very, i mean, possible but very unlikely that the russians would introduce it into the agenda, the formal meeting, or that some member would raise their hand and say i want to talk about syria. all of that said, all of that said, of course, it is going to be, it's going to have a huge impact in terms of again, what's
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being talked about in the corridors, which i expect it would be the dominant topic there. and as andy said i think will affect the kind of mood in the room. i don't think it will be a sense of great camaraderie, and let's get stuff done together, because on the global economy, on economics, on the other issues. so i think it will have, it will have an effect but in a formal sense it won't be part of the g20 over deliberations. >> i'm reminded the g20 in september of '09 in pittsburgh that the g20 was used as a backdrop for gordon brown and nickel sarkozy, president obama to announce about the iranian disclosure. so it can be used with the media watching a platform to advance. some wondering if was it a lot of perhaps some press conferences. it can be used on occasion. >> again, one of the advantages. i don't have to worry about important things like russia and syria so much.
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i told a group the. i think they are very well may be things on the margins were people poli-sci to talk but possibly to say things, announce things. but just an informal g20 since there will, i don't think there will be in the communiqué. >> my images sort of hold your nose for a lot of participants. [laughter] bataan death march. >> questions? scott. >> [inaudible] >> a mistake for obama having one foot in the cold war. you think it's a mistake to say that out loud or demean the assessment itself? >> actually, i disagree with the assessment as well but i think the larger mistake to say it publicly. and i think that, i think it was a little bit, maybe a cavalier
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assumption that mr. putin was not as significant of a policymaker as he actually was your and for the possibility mr. putin would return as the future de facto leader of the russian federation. on, mikey on putin, it's not so much he has a foot in the cold war, i think he's been more affected by what he'd seen with you his behavior after the cold war. in the 1990s he reflects a very broad kind of consensus in russia that the united states in particular, the west more broadly, was taking advantage of russia during a period of historical weakness. and a lot of these sort of developments, particularly in international security system, sort of nato expansion being a big one, and the experience of
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the serbia war in particular with the u.s. in russia's you operate outside of international law, had a deep impact on putin. then subsequently i think, maybe even a deeper impact was after 9/11 when the russians worked closely with us and others to take out the taliban in afghanistan, there was a sense that -- that was the high point and u.s. relations religion and probably the last 20 years can't even talk of possible alliance in such. i think mr. putin felt the bush administration subsequently really didn't reciprocate or didn't really kind of acknowledge russian interest on a whole series of issues, particularly walking away from the abm treaty and missile defense. nato, nato expansion and other things. so it's that sense of grievance is that built up into and out of think are much more significant than the impact of the cold war.
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>> questions? josh. >> can you talk about -- [inaudible] will obama have the conversation, reassuring, apologizing on some of those? >> well, i think he will certainly hear concerns expressed in the conversations in stockholm, both bilateral as well as with the dinner with the nordic heads of government. clearly, i think the focal point within europe is germany. and this has had significant ramifications, both prior to the german election, national election on september 22, but also i think it goes much deeper. and i think initially as the documents were released there's a sense in the administration is
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being dismissive about it, but everyone engages in the practice, you know, this is motionless in history that was coming to be downplayed. well actually it is now taking deep root and it's impacting the trans atlantic relationship, particularly again the trans atlantic trade and investment partnership where you now have statements certainly again most forcefully expressed by berlin, botboth opposition as was government official saying, we can't move forward with this trait until we get much more rigorous both transparency on the nsa programs, but in the case of germany a new agreement that u.s. will not spot on germany. so this is not going away. it's not even going away after the german election, quite frankly. it will continue. it needs to be taken very strangely. there is not a real breach in confidence and trust that we have to manage, and work through so we can get back to working on
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the bilateral engagement and agenda. and first and foremost is that trade investment. we can't allow this issue to sideline the. and right now it has the potential to do that. so he certainly will hear it, and he made if he has that opportunity to have a sideline discussion which i assume you will with chancellor merkel in the corridors of the g20. he may hear additional words on that. >> well, the revelations of the program are i think hard to underestimate as a blow to u.s. credibility, as a moral leader in many places. and it plays imperfectly to the hands of the russians into the chinese, i think. just the fact that coming the united states, in which snow visited by a very significant
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part of the population as coming in a, as doing the right thing. and snow you can imagine with a view is in of the country. and other countries in which we repeatedly are very watching very carefully their violations of human rights. it's a big public relations gift i think the irony that mr. snowden goes to china and russia, which are certainly, you know, i think taking more intrusive measures to surveil their own citizens, the irony is kind of staggering. >> questions? >> a follow-up question on that. one of the significant displeasure's from snowden has been the extent and depth of surveillance at the summit. the germans at least were generous supplies the nsa was --
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spying on its diplomats. what impact will that have on the summit? and practicalities in the way in which leaders will approach it. >> interesting. i mean, i think that's another data point in that the broader conversation. and you know, and i assume your point about practical issues that come you know, every delegations security team and come you know, i.t. team will be a little more vigilant. i don't really know how to answer the question because i think it is, it's part of a broader conversation, heather and andy have talked about. i don't think, as i said you're trying to add to your question, i don't see any kind of profound impact on the g20 conversation itself, but, you know, but it is
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an issue among the members who are there so it will probably be a part of that conversation. >> yes, right over here. >> i have a question. [inaudible] >> unless japan wanted to be mentioned as a specific example of how japan is taking on its fiscal challenges, it will almost certainly not be mentioned. this is a decision prime minister abe has to make about whether to increase as planned and legislated an increase in their value-added tax, so-called consumption tax, which he made, a decision he may make but he probably won't make it before the summit but he may make it in
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september. and so, no. i mean, i think it will be a broader conversation about what countries are doing to consolidate their fiscal positions, and the timing and sequencing and facing of that, those moves, but not a specific conversation at the g20 about that issue. if prime minister abe mousse with president obama, no doubt prime minister abe will talk about that but again i don't think will be a formal output that even a bilateral meeting between the two. >> great. right in the back. >> you mentioned the upcoming german election and the nsa scandal. i was one if you have you thought potential of impacts of those elections on broader conversations of the g20, perhaps austerity discussions or anything along those lines? >> i think in some ways as matt reflected this will be one of
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the first g20 conversation where the euro crisis is not very much front and center of the conversation of how europe is addressing this, which has been, i would argue, a pause in the crisis. hopefully we are seeing some early signs of healing, but i think we are far from over. and that's certainly been part of the conversation in recent days with the minister suggesting the greece package will have to be reassessed. obviously, some continued concerns about the health of the french economy. so the euro crisis has taken the path but it we will return back to the conversation. it is a legitimate question, certainly a recurring theme since 2009 has been this rebalancing initiative of the current surplus, and that certainly puts a germany and china squarely in the surplus camp in needing to find that rebalancing, i would argue in looking at the platform we are seeing a bit of stimulus in the german perspective of
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encouraging additional spending, but this certainly not going to address the concerns of the enormous current account surplus that germany currently holds. i would not suspect, i guess watching very closely associated could potentially impact -- syria, angela merkel's husband came up with a very strong statement of support that action must be taken and that was very supportive someone have that issue may or may not play in. it's been a very quiet and subdued german election with very few issues, other than the nsa prism issue being first and foremost. so i don't anticipate extraordinary volatility leading up to september 22. >> just very quickly, i would say heather is right. i think the euro crisis is no longer front and center as the main issue for the g20 leaders to discuss at this summit.
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but elements, a, i guess i first say i think certainly the u.s. and probably others are not going to be quite as comforted by one quarters, you know, modestly positive growth in thinking that the overall crisis is solved. and second, i think it will be elements of the euro situation, including germany's six, 7% of gdp current account surplus that will appear in the rebalancing conversation, or banking union will be something that people will be interested in and the progress on the in the financial discussion. so it will emerge but it won't be the central thing i think of the conversation. >> [inaudible] i just wanted to ask you, i think g20 countries are expected to set some kind of targets for the government debts
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after 2016. so how much do you think, how much dominance will this discussion on fiscal policy, i mean fiscal composition? >> well again, i mean, fiscal consolidation has been part of the conversation at the g20 cents, i mean, in some sense the beginning but since the toronto summit in 2010 where there were those commitments to reducing fiscal deficits and debt that were laid out. i mean, that was partly because i think it was a little bit more optimism at that point in 2010, that the worst of the crisis was over and that things were beginning to pull back up, and so is time to start posted -- focusing on what i put the greece is a critical medium-term challenge for many countries of the g20. but i think the debate has shifted over time, partly because growth has not performed as well as people hoped in the first part of 2010, partly because i think the impact of
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some of the more austere policies that sometimes of the g20 have pursued have ended up, yeah, fairly ostensibly, hurting growth. and they think they're been domestic debates that have shifted. and so i think the conversation is look different now and it's more about yes, we needed to medium-term consolidation, but in the short term the priority, and i expect the first, well, the first sentence of the communiqué was we met in strelna outside st. petersburg. the second paragraph will be growth and jobs are our top priority. and that's a subtle shift from earlier, well, again in the last couple of communiqués by think it's going to be the focus, growth and jobs, versus immediate fiscal consolidation or austerity. >> we have now rebranded growth friendly reconsolidation. so i think we are seeing that
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sensitivity balanced, but just again in a european context we have the treaty where -- constitutional requirements to balanced budgets will start coming into play in 2016. again, that will in some ways impact the leeway for eesti misspending and cement legally fiscal consolidation. >> additional questions? >> with that i would like to thank everybody for coming to a briefing this morning. again, follow us on twitter at csis for updates on with the transcript will be available. should be available later today. we will be manning it out to all of you. thank you again, and we will see you soon. [inaudible conversations]
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>> [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations]
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[inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations]
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[inaudible conversations] >> we have more like programming coming up in about a half hour. we will be at the national press club here in washington for a panel discussion on egypt's political future and its relationship with the united states. speakerspeakers will include mie east analyst and former state department officials from the project on middle east democracy, the atlantic council at the brookings institution. that will be live from the national press club begin at
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10:30 a.m. on c-span2. megan smith says while she does not have a teaching program she believe it's beneficial for educators to know and the science and engineering industry for students to collaborate with each other. her comments came during remarks at the american association for the advancement of science. google acts as a compass love for defense projects like google class and driverless cars. we which are as much of this even as we can until the national press club program on egypt starts at 10 a.m. eastern. >> i'm going to induce our keynote speaker in eight years i've known megan smith, there's one thing i've learned about her, when you think you learn all there is to know about the amazing things megan heston, there is yet one more to learn. currently, ma megan is on the leadership team of google x., events product team at google
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that takes new technology to development. projects that may or may not include the driverless cars, and she's working on several projects there. before that she let the basis team and was is now in acquiring keyhole which became google earth. and where to take which became google map, among other global engineering projects. before joining google, megan was the ceo of a premier lgbt media site at the time. megan is a mechanical engineer by education profession. she got her masters and a bachelors at mit, and did her thesis work at the same passionate famed mit media lab. these are impressive in and of themselves, but she also did many other aspects of her expenses to directly, directly relate to today's topic. she's on the board at mit and she's the advisor at one of the
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-- that recently formed last year. she cocreated and hosts at google x. the solve for x., a forum to encourage and amplify tech-based moonshot thinking and collaboration and i suggest you check it out. is really great ideas, pertinent to today's conversation. macon also helped start and advises a fun, an organization dedicated to finding innovative solutions to empower girls around the world and dissidents communities to educate themselves. her bio says she's an entrepreneur, a tech evangelist, and engineering catalyst. she is all that, of course an accident at all them but these last two, catalyst and connected is what i want to emphasize. for i have direct experience of these two qualities but she's one of those rare people who do not own have a lot of amazing ideas, but also knows people well and has an uncanny knack for connecting people and ideas
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in such a way that catalyzes new and spectacular solutions to today's challenges. so with that i would like to introduce you to my friend and keynote speaker, megan smith. [applause] >> thanks. a quick switch. i've got some slides and images i want to show you guys. >> so, it's great to be here, and thank you for putting this together. we have an awesome program but i love that there's -- we've got portable digitals and lots of other topics. what i wanted to do is kind of note as we start that we have this weird problem of supply and demand where there is probably 80-100,000 jobs open every year in our country in stem areas,
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whether it's a company google and all the developing companies, more of a pharmaceutical areas are robotics, et cetera. and for some reason it's not polling people in. and so i wonder what's going on. i think it's an open question for all of us to really consider why are people not coming to these jobs. that are there and our exciting jobs, they are fun jobs. their entrepreneurial jobs. some the things we think are there, americans are not coming because for whatever reason in our schools we are not teaching them how exciting these jobs are in preparing them and motivating them in some way. and then for people in other countries we are blocking them from coming. we're limiting our h-1b when thesis and let the super talent, join our companies and create more value and innovation and solve problems in the world and that should create more jobs by being here.
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so those are two big issues. and so our approach is somehow not working. i wanted to dive into that and think about a lot today about trying to debug and forget. i'm not an education expert. and a mechanical engineer and entrepreneur type. and so i can't speak to specific things in education but i can talk about what i think are some, i can to work on extraordinary projects and the things that motivated people i've gotten to work with. i want to flip around and show you kind of come chris newsom images of things that i think have changed and things that are the same. in areas that we might consider as we move forward. and i want to start with this image because this is i think really indicative of something that's really changed. this is an image that whenever engineers took up to the google data centers and it shows you search traffic. each dot ribs and a large number of searches happening. so the color red is english. easy spanish coming through latin america.
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portuguese and the lighter yellow-green. google search, think of it in an internet way whether it's facebook or twitter or whatever. people are online. people are networked. this has never happened before at this level. so it means we can really think differently. about how we approach these problems. and that we are really actually available to each other in ways that was never true in history to solve problems together and to collaborate in extraordinary ways. and so i want to flip a couple of images as we start start ofs that show that. sometimes i call it a jason c. things have become adjacent are next to each other digitally that whenever a jason before. so for example, this is a wonderful group of entrepreneurial youth in afghanistan, about 80 miles from the iran border. they just finished a computer science undergrad degrees and they're here founding 60 congress. this is a startup incubator. the same as we have in silicon
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valley, or in d.c. there's a new -- that's where the techies gather. so here, this wasn't there before. but now these folks are part of that developer culture that is emerging around the world. a computer scientist or crosswired to each other. when we run our annual event for all the programs to use google and write apps for youtube and things. we have not own the people who physically gather in san francisco but we have over a million people on live stream who are in sort of parties, techie parties all around the world. sometimes i think of it a little bit like the ted x. movement. the amazing ted conference, ideas worth sharing now has a head x. movement where people like this are meeting now twice a day off of the use the extraordinary momentum of people getting together. so this is the developer culture in this 18 million developers in word or more who are counting.
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so these guys are part of that world. so we are connected to the. i got a chance to go visit them but also now i'm digitally adjacent to the. i can talk to them at any point. i know them. this is an idea of adjacency of content to let people know in the mind. everybody knows wikipedia. this is a mapping idea similar idea. google chrome knowing only about 30-40% of what has actually mapped metadata, so knowing the names of streets and all the data. much of what is not mapped. have you ever had the experience, you're going to a country in an emerging world and you look on the maps and there's a line, yes, but there's a million people there who live there and there's like two lines. where's the data? this is a tool for the people who live here draw themselves onto the map on top of the satellite imagery comes labeled a. this is what the people in pakistan did across six-month. so think, as we think about these docking challenges about
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education, how are we collaborate with the collective talent of the world, of the country, of the teachers, of industry, of the use of the students to do these things to cause amazing things to happen. this is the activity that's happened on that tool. across the world. people are putting themselves literally on the map. this is interesting. i got to work on the beginning of google book search and engineers had this idea come here were all these webpages you could search against but you couldn't search against the core of books. the idea was to scan them and make them searchable in sort of a card catalog digital way. one of the things that i would've never guessed coming out of years later is this tool, which is google.com. this is a "new york times" article where now the text, every word that was and
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things, not on trends on the web trends in the book. someone did a search on the word women from 1800 to 2008 in english books. so you can see the use of the word women doesn't really start until the modern women's rights movement. so thinking about, text, language, words are a jason. here's another one that became a jason. this satellites have watched our planet since the '80s. so there's terabytes of amazing satellite data that we could use for helping ourselves with issues, with the planet. water issues, force issues, planning, et cetera, climate change. this is an image from a small area in brazil in 1975 up until 1981. you see the logging roads coming in. there's a project the google earth team did where they have taken all the data from all the data sits we could get hold of that were paid for by taxpayers dollars all around the world and
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make them live data sets
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to help our youth not go in these directions in all continents. violence against women and respect for women, this was from events a famous playwright. a billion rise with the program they did on valentine's day last year. millions of people rising up and working on this issue together. sort of that collective action, that adjacently point of view in trying to change something together. one of things i want to note, why we're still sorting this quick snapshot, then going to jump in the summer this education stuff, networks like
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crazy except where we are not. and so this is as the globe spins around, you see that there's parts of the world, there's europe and there is africa. europe, it's not time of day that africa is not online. it's a lack of the plummeting of the network for the region. you have 900 million pounds people who are not in a conversation. i found this image, it's a 2000 that image. i wasn't shocked by this. you see on the right hand side that the cable is pink colored. can't imagine a continent not having an undersea data cable. on the left inside you see many of these cables, just ignore these people in these countries. so just astonishing lack of getting infrastructure in there and focusing on the network for the talent of that region can rise and communicate and participate. the good news is that it's changing. the innovation in the mobile phone sector is something we will talk more about with mobile today. you see the explosion of mobile
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to all the emerging market regions. 60, 70, 80% of mobile penetration in most markets, but this is very much right here where you see sort of the satellite image. most of these places are still not, they are texting and voice and that data. the good news is this is what africa looks like now and this is an old. there's the undersea cables and people are cross wiring. trade mentioned we're doing this project, which i will talk about in detail but this video from the web we are flying balloons appear in the stratosphere level. it's an early test of airplanes, above the weather. the idea is to network the mobile companies together and provide access to far world areas. double and talk to each other and they provide 3g like conductivity. there's a small test now over christchurch. people enjoying the internet for the first time in these regions.
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you see things emerging. this is kenya. so the best mobile phone payments markets and work our acts of south korea, japan and kenya. that is innovation coming out of fear. really interesting for countries a struggle with corruption. people are using the web for conspiracy. this is truckers reporting bribes and delays. you can forget where the hotspots are in people can police their own communities for the first time using these technologies. one of the best social innovations out there with twitter and facebook, people don't always know because its user and crisis response but if you haven't been in haiti earthquake or pakistan flood or other things you may not have seen this tool but it's the way the mapping of people to quickly message. for example, in haiti people were under rubble texting to others and for posting it back on here and people could go rescue people underground but it's amazing new tool. it was invented in nairobi.
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and you see things. this is also nairobi. new media companies emerging just like new york city. this is the homeboys but they do lots of digital media, dj training, hip-hop radio station, et cetera. one of the other trends that's interesting is joe, who runs google in east africa told me that some of the london ad agencies are outsourcing their creative places all over the world a special in kenya. if you go to london and your be presented by an agency three or four of the five or six things are being presented is creative options might have come from another country and some people in the emerging world. one of the greatest changes is to see how significant the ngo community is being impacted. so here you have this guy who is a unc student who founded caroline -- together with tabitha, a registered nurse in
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nairobi. running a youth soccer program. so instead of people here coming up with ideas and ammunition in way bring them to these places, the idea was to go live in a 10 by 10 shack as a student and see who was around, and he notice the stivers entrepreneur's and is able to get unc underneath and behind them. the same way silicon valley angel investing. things. nothing ever happens without who and what. these are the who, and what they want to do. and people come underneath them. the network is like the entrepreneur's invocation to rise, which is exciting. so i'll start to flip education, and i wanted to start with the most extreme because trade mentioned we work on the fund. there's so many kids in the world who never did have a teacher and dedicate to a school. that's as and 50-100 million kids. this is a really exciting, subproject that doctor wolf
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pictured and nicholas of mit to start the one laptop per child program. they have loaded them up with all the best apps that we all give to a preschool kids and for kindergartners and elementary school kids, and they just went to these two villages actually were nobody could read within miles. they just gave the tablets to the kids, and then these two guys come every two weeks and switched to send cards and they didn't tell them anything, other than they should one adult how to use the solar charger. and the kids within a week use 50 apps on their own. and they are starting to teach themselves to read. the big question, the research question is, for these kids were on the most extreme edge, could they teach themselves? as that the networks comes, could vigilance? i vowed to put them with the kids on the bottom right because these are the kids who want the google science their last year. two boys here are from florida, some from swaziland. this year we had thousands of
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kids from 120 countries, and the winners from many countries in the end. i feel like these kids will be these kids in short order, if we just connect them and let them do their thing. so flipping the education. these are these incredible computer science high school teachers that were able to bring together. first, we brought them together physically, 40 teachers working on collaborative curriculum, and now they're using a tool we ha have. so how do we help our master teachers help us? again it's who and what. it's an interesting thing in k-12 because at the university level, the factly gets to decide what you're going to learn, but at the k-12 level of the people are deciding. i think we need for how we're going to get a master teachers. teachers. i love the stat anyway for superman that says 85% of our teachers are good, 15% of those are astonishing. we have a large amount of incredibly townspeople to work
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with. but it's an industry we don't let it distract from within. we don't let the teachers disrupt us. we have to figure how we're going to do that and i think using technologies to integrate and get these teachers connected is going to help us a lot. this is an old image by wanted to use it because of the density. here's one teacher who just started teaching. we've -- it's an amazing a competent and, this moment in our industry we are rolling a rock a bill and slowly making progress and some dude shows up and is like chemistry activation. little energy and your going somewhere. it doesn't mean that he should teach everything. like he is doing. maybe it should come maybe he shouldn't. he kind of give us a kick in the pants to say let's go. let's just get started. and now everybody is out there doing their thing. i grabbed a quick screenshot because i really encourage people to watch this talk. she's the founder of course, and
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this section is about personalized learning and moving and flipping the classroom. so instead of having to go to class and sit still and be lectured at any the content. but could move the content of homework? you can watch the video and you can be personalized. so instead of half of the kids during the lecture, in a regular bell shaped curve, why should it be that way? especially in elementary and high school where we want them to learn everything. couldn't we shifted so that more kids learn and maybe we could entertain with kids? hard to intervene without the classic really easy to intervene with a couple of kids. so could you flip that the people be talking about that more later today. this is first robotics. it's the national st. louis, it might as well be football friday night lights. it's amazing. you know, 10% of the incoming mit class did first robotics. so one of the main things, the main things i think about for stem is how are we going to leverage all this technology to
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get the content and the lecture out of the classroom and into other time and how will they get their hands on design thinking robots class and debate in theater and performance and all this stuff into the classroom? so that it is much more fun. i think if we think back about why all of us do technology, you can remember the moment, wherever it was, elementary school, middle school, where you did a project. it was project-based learning, and you loved him to realize not only is this fun and science is not history of science that he said gently what other people do, it's what i do. and not only what you do but it's also what i do. people learn they do it. kids learn they do it. we need to get in class. i'm lucky because trey's daughter when she's not here is in the same class as our older son, and this is from the third grade class and i love their teacher. she has as her goal in effort,
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there's joy. she knows she has to teach the course, just to teach third grade. they have to know about in this case plans and science in what you're doing. but that's her goal. and i think if we think about this, as teachers and educators, we want the kids to love learning and love effort and love being involved in their world. they no longer have science class. they call it project time. it changes the design center of what the teachers think of it means we are actively doing projects. and so project time i think needs to enter into all of the schools. this is an image from our younger son's second grade class. they were using these who -- super cool superheroes. think about the 21st century it's less about the content. you can get the content and learned. it's about learning to learn and it's about all this other stuff, collaboration, inclusion, difference, appreciation, academic passion, working with each other.
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it's going to be the 15th anniversary of the "i have a dream" speech next wednesday. and i think it's amazing to reflect on what martin said. he said, that he had a dream that the children from his four children would not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. and i think that if you think about 21st century skills, they ought about the content of your character. they are about, are you able to work with other people? are you passionate? are you engaged? are you able to learn? that's what we need to be driving for, and not filling their heads with all the content and giving them so much homework, let's teach them to love this. they have lots of time. they are going to live 100, these kids. so they can get the content as they go if we teach them how to do and how to work together and how to be engaged. other critical thing today is around inclusion. we've talked for a long time in a way that only seems to get a
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certain group of kids excited. and that's not a good idea because we need everybody excited. this is a wonderful article about maria, they put their best faculty onto the problem of computer science being at 15% women and they solve the problem in five years. they have 43% women in the class, 44% women in computer science but not only that but it more people in computer science and more people mining any. they did it by putting top people on it and then asking the users why would you doing it? the girls in this case said it's not interesting, boring. i'm not going to be good at it. and they said i don't want to work with those people. so stereotypes. so what they did was they addressed all three. the first one was the kids didn't really understand why this stuff had impact on their world. they would say, i wanted to work on the international relations. i need to help the world. i want to work on poverty.
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they could say, do you know that the invention of mobile phone has had the largest impact on poverty? let's start talk about how we write apps and do things and, so instead of walking into a puzzle, they walk in a second we need to get drug delivery for hiv for all these people. how can we use the service team to get the medicine. explain why and poll more kids in to the puzzle. the second thing they did was their colors are blue and bold -- blue and gold. if you get to college have some kids have five to 10 years of expense in computer science. self-taught. some kids do. the goal track where the kids who had not. all of a sudden i'm not going to be good at it, went away. you could go into the track that you belong. they coached kids were showing off to become helpful. they change the culture. so the showoff kids actually gained a lot because now when they go to work, they're not going to be considered arrogant and a jerk. they will rise to mention. it helps everybody. the last thing they did, the
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stereotypes, then you they're up up against a lot of challenges and so they just decades into the industry this. they got them internships. they to them to the conference in the fall. they taught them pashtun they got them summer jobs of the computer industry. industry. they are up against stereotypes. geena davis' research, the famous actress, children's television is three to one men and boys to girls on screen. 80% of the jobs held in television well by male characters. there were almost no characters that played any kind of s.t.e.m. role on television. so we are up against a huge amount of protection that the boys do this, the girls don't do this were. it's insidious. this is a catalog. we are selling dressers here. everybody gets butterflies but everybody gets books, but the boy gets the microscope. that's not even accurate actually because like biology is pretty balanced and
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bioengineering is pretty balanced look at what we do to our kids. even in history, i've been working on visibility of lost histories. these are women in computer science. most people on this screen, you have no idea who they are, including the founder of computer science in 1843, first person to write the idea of programming something. so we need to go back and fix the textbooks and tell the kids that may be women were a minority but they were already there. may be underrepresented minorities were a small percentage but they were always there. i just heard about catherine johnson, astonishing 90 year-old woman was born in 1918, african-american scientist, mathematician. graduated from high school at 14, college at 18, and went on to calculate the trajectory for alan shepard's flight, john glenn slide come and the apollo mission. why don't we know better? she's amazing. in fact, john glenn before he
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went because they had 30 different computer, he said i want to make sure catherine has checked it before i go. so we need to know about them. we need to know there was a core of women astronauts who were not allowed to fly, but they were equal. so we need to do that work. we are starting to. a shout out to cheryl and her great work, surfacing these incredible stories. we've been doing a lot of work at google, giving the women who are making our products up front so that people can see them coming getting minority is what doing this. we created a substrate with the makers group, the pbs show about women, makers at google and i think other companies are starting to do that. okay, so quick last. this is the kind of environment i work in the this is google x. ..
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what if kids got to do that from the elementary school? we sometimes think of moonshot -- a huge problem in the world. a breakthrough that might make radical solutions possible like the self driving car. we have safety issues. we waste a lot of gas. billions of people waste so much time driving and now we have a text in epide

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