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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  September 16, 2014 2:00am-4:01am EDT

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values. however, as we approach the end of over a decade of combat operations in afghanistan we see -- to turn inward. audio audio.
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[inaudible] >> a chance of success we must be prepared to back up diplomatic soft power with military hard power when necessary. we must not only develop the capabilities we need, we must also demonstrate the political will to use them when required. so i welcome the important efforts by the united states and other allies and partners to act against the so-called islamic state. we have seen again and again that crisis breeds crisis. force is still effective.
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and if we fail to defend freedom and democracy oppression will seize their opportunity. we have seen again and again that appeasement does not lead to peace. it just incites tyrants. any failure to counter oppression will only invite further oppression. that is the lesson of the 20th century, a lesson we must never forget. remains the last resort,t be able to resort to it when we
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need to, not to wait for but to build peace. ladies and gentlemen, i am very proud to have served this unique alliance. nato is the only permanent framework where 28 democracies of north america and europe consults, decide and act every day to ensure our collective security. after 20 years of challenging operations, we have the most capable and connected forces in the history. and we are at the center of a wide network of security partnerships with countries and organizations across the globe. this is a challenging time.
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a time when our values and our will are being tested. we must rise to the challenge, resist the pressures to retren retrench, and remain resolute. over the past year we have seen why we need nato. the question is no longer why nato. the question now is about more nato. our wales summit has set out a clear course. we need to pursue that course urgently, to reinforce the rules-based international order
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and remain united today and in the years to come. we must preserve our freedom, protect our people and promote our values. thank you. [applause] >> thank you very much mr. secretary-general and i thank john for inviting me to share the stage with you. it's been a great pleasure working with you in the past five years. sadly we are losing you that we have new skin in the game and hopefully he will be as open open and oppressive to have been. let me start with current and recent events. he said in your earlier remarks the threat posed by the islamic state demands military response. there are some who have argued recently that we are in the west
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reacting precipitously because of images of americans and british people killed. i wonder if you could address and perhaps as a follow-on to that the same people argue that perhaps faces is not a threat to our homeland where is the major strategic -- russia and ukraine risk becoming stranded by her focus on vices. can you address those issues? thank you. >> first, i think it's fair to say that the rise of isis because i don't want to call it the islamic state because it's not a state, the rise of this terrorist organization has become obvious during the last months i would say.
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i think this is the reason why the international community takes action now. of course the despicable acts, the murder not only of sunni westerners but actually thousands of people in iraq and syria add to this picture. and i think all this has provoked the international efforts to establish a coaliti coalition. and i also think it's important to build a coalition that includes regional powers within countries. and it takes some time. so i think that explains why it is now that we take action. the next question, all the
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efforts against isis detract attention from what is happening in the middle east? definitely not. we are able to handle the broad range of security challenges whether they are seeing to the east or to the south. that is actually one of the very important conclusions of the whales summit that nato will not become a one-dimensional alliance. we will keep our ability to address the broad range of security challenges. we will not lose sight of what is going on in this. >> will you follow up on the issue whether isis presents a threat to nato? he said rather definitively that and again one of the things you cited was the foreign fighter issues where european americans are going to the region fighting
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and coming back. is that the greatest threat this poses to our stability both in europe and the u.s.? >> of course the issue of foreign fighters returning to our countries is a very direct threat and we have to address that. we decided at the whales summit that they would strengthen our cooperation on intelligence and information-sharing to counter that threat. but obviously increasing instability will also have an impact on the overall euro atlantic security. this is the reason why nato allies take action and try to create an international coalition to counter isis. >> both nato and carnegie submitted questions via twitter
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and i will pick a couple that are wrote to her conversation. first i wanted to touch on from a gentleman named tom steinocher is a senior research -- and it does to this issue. what is nato's role in anti-isis coalition? thus far nato as an institution he argues the state on the sidelines. why is that ann is that accurate? has this been a coalition of the willing rather than a nato-led coalition why so? >> first of all actually this goes beyond nato. i think it's of utmost importance to establish a coalition that also includes countries from the region. so this goes actually beyond nato. secondly, we haven't received any requests for nato involvement. however at the whales summit we decided three strands of
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activities that could be relevant for nato and strands that are relevant for nato. firstly we declare that if we receive a request from the new iraqi government we stand ready to consider defense capacity building which for instance could be to resume our training activities in iraq. we had a training mission in iraq in 2011. we could exchange of activities if the iraqi government request though. secondly dado can contribute to coordinating individual allies efforts in iraq and certainly as you mentioned we will strengthen intelligence cooperation to counter the threat of foreign fighters returning. >> to push push him point to one thing that nato does bring to the table that many
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organizations organizations can't is this command-and-control capability with allies. is that something that potentially down the road as the alliance comes together could play a role in terms of being the backbone for that command-and-control operation? >> at this stage i won't exclude anything because they think the international community has a responsibility to degrade and defeat isis. that poses a threat not only to iraq and to the region that poses a global threat. but as i mentioned so far we haven't received any requests for nato involvement. in 2011 you saw that the military operation against libya started as a coalition unwilling but it eventually became a nato operation including the.
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>> i will abuse my chairmanship for one more question and turned to the audience for q&a and give further questions as we continue. you mentioned in regard to isis the appeasement does not lead to peace. i want to turn out slightly on its head and use that speech, that line and ask you about russia. what we have seen over the last week is on friday day suspension or delay on elements in the e.u.-russia or china trade deal to the end of 2015. we saw the e.u. foreign ministers are talking about suspending or lifting sanctions. are we suddenly now willing to accept something of a conflict in the basque against the russian threat inside the ring? >> we should never accept a new frozen conflict in eastern
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europe and of course we should do all we can to encourage a peaceful solution to this conflict but actually my concern is it's in russia's interest to establish a new protected frozen conflict in the region. actually i think the long-term ambition of freshness to reestablish russian influence in the neighborhood and prevent countries, neighboring countries, prevent them from seeking integration with nato and e.u.. at that and that is within russia's interest to keep these frozen protracted conflicts in moldova and georgia now crimea and eastern ukraine and ukraine.
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so we should never accept that. >> just to push a slightly on this you have used stark language in your address the threat posed by russia and the violation they have done to any number of agreements. an almost equally stark language for isis you advocate military involvement and for russia by last year in interviews in person but also press conferences whether you advocate military systems and heaven only -- heavy weaponry and you have have to first lay on that. why are you advocating military prevention for isis but not help for ukraine militarily win in your rhetoric you seem to present an equal threat to our way of life. >> firstly, while it's clear that russia has violated all its international commitments and
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has conducted illegal military actions in ukraine, i don't think russia poses an imminent threat to nato allies for the very reason that russia knows that we have a nato treaty that protects any ally against atta attack, and an attack on one of being attacked on the whole. that's why i don't think russia poses an imminent threat to nato allies. however, to keep our deterrence credible, we have taken steps as you know to reinforce our collective defense and for ukraine, we do believe that the right way forward is it a
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political solution and while it's clear that russia has violated international norms and rules, i still think russia would be capable to negotiate if they decide to do so. .. mr. secretary general, i am --
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my origins are from palestine, jordan. mr. secretary general, two years ago we were invited by europe to speak about nato and arab spring, and you said that you have -- the arab spring and it was during the strikes against libya, and the objective was to restore democracy in libya. two years later, it's -- now in libya. it's no man land. and libya is destroyed, as afghanistan, iraq, don't speak about yemen, sudan, and all these conflicts. do you think -- don't you think if you are going to enter military or us to other partners to make war against this so-called islamic state, don't
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you think that's going to make also jordan and lebanon, maybe iran, and other countries? second question, mr. secretary secretary -- >> quickly. >> the arab public opinions knows that the main reason of instability in the area is because the international community didn't find a solution to the israeli/palestinian conflict, and it's not the israeli/palestinian con. the israeli arab conflict. don't you think if nato, european union, eu member states, exert pressures against israel, so as to accept king abdullah for peace which was accepted by all arab countries, without restrictions, because arabs have nothing to negotiate and to give to israel. don't you think that is going to
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stop these terrorist, and to have mail -- military, don't you think it's better to invest in the development office these countries? thank you very much. >> two questions. does military action threaten -- destabilize more than stabilize, in libya, and is the solution of the arab israeli conflict necessary. >> the first question is a very good question because you can point to some historical examples that in the wake of a military operation, we have seen unstablity, violence, maybe even failed states. and -- but first let me stress that we have -- or individual
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allies have received a request from the iraqi government to assist the government, in the fight against this terrorist organization. and i think we have a responsibility to help the iraqi government fight isis, exactly to avoid that iraq would become a new failed state. having said that, i think we have -- there are lessons to be learned from previous military operations. i would not argue against the military operations because in each and every case, i think they were necessary and legitimate. however, i think the international community, as such, should learn from these operations that it is of utmost
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importance to strengthen efforts after a military operation, to help these societies improve their capability, to establish security and good governance. libya -- after 40 years of dictatorship, the new authorities have to start from scratch, and seeing retrospectively, i think the international community us a such did too little too late to help the new authorities in libya. it's a new nation. the nato operation was a great success. we implemented the u.n. security mandate hundred%. we prevented attacks against the
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libyan people so we did what we were mandated to do. but when we had finished the military operations, i think, seen red throw specktively, that the international community, led by the u.n., should have done much more, much faster to help the new authorities in lib gentleman, and that's one of the important lessons to be learned, that military operations should go hand in hand with civilian efforts to follow up, to establish or to build a new nation after such a military operation. but i have to say, this goes beyond nato's capabilities. nato is a military alliance so it's for the broader international community to follow up in such cases. of course, i can only agree that a settlement of the israeli/palestinian conflict would solve many problems.
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absolutely. i fully agree. and without going into too many details, i still think that the long-term sustainable solution is to see true states living side-by-side in peace and harmony, and within secure borders. i still see this as the right formula for a long-term sustainable solution to the israeli/palestinian conflict. >> going to the other side, right here from reuters. >> adrian from reuters. how long it would take an independent scotland to join nato and whether you believe that nato -- that scottish independence would undermine britain's contribution to nato's defenses? >> did you get those? >> yes. probably you know very well that i'm not going to interfere with the referendum campaign in
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scotland. what i can tell you is the following. if a new independent state wants to become a member of nato, it will have to apply for membership. of nato, and such an application will be addressed in exactly the same way as all applications are dealt with, and eventually it will require consensus, unanimity, within the alliance to accept a new member of our alliance. as this is a hypothetical question, we haven't discussed it at all within our alliance,
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and i'm not in a position to say anything about timelines. as you know from history, timelines differ significantly when it comes to applicants towards membership of nato and basically it's very much a part of their able to fulfill the necessary criteria. so actually the answer is that i can't say anything about timelines. >> on the issue of whether scottish independence would undermine u ks ability as being one of the leading member offered nato to participate. any concerned about that? >> no. without interfering with the debate leading up to the referendum, i don't see that any outcome of the scottish referendum will have an impact
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on uk's contribution to nato. >> right there, egyptian television, with the book up. >> hi. i am a reporter for -- one question. when you had this operation in libya, you spoke about three conditions which under this conditions you are going to lead the operation. clear request from the libyan authorities, and i think u.n. mandate. under which conditions you are going to lead this coalition, international coalition in iraq? do you exclude this or it's something for the future? >> just to throw in one from twitter here, saying almost the saying thing. given the kosovo precedent would nato need a u.n. security
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council backing. >> let me stress we're not considering a nato role or even a leading nato role in this operation. a number of nato allies are forming a coalition that also includes countries from the region. so, to avoid any misunderstanding, let me stress that we are not in a process of engaging nato as such in military strikes against isis. i pointed out that at the summit, we mentioned three possibles of a nato involvement. firstly, defense capacity building in iraq. if requested. secondly, the coordinating role. thirdly, strengthen cooperation
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on intelligence and information-sharing among allies to counter foreign fighters. so the rest of it is quite hypothetical because we haven't received any request for a nato involvement, but nato allies are involved, and i really welcome that. peter, you added the question about u.n. mandate. when individual allies engauge in this, will they need a u.n. mandate? i'm not a legal expert, so i -- but i see the following. isis commits horrific atrocities, and i would say, witnessing manslaughter, their attacks against religious and ethnic minorities, in my opinion, it's pretty close to
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genocide. and in my opinion, that gives such a military operation legitimacy within the principles of the u.n. charter. i say this without being a legal expert. and finally, also consider this a kind of self-defense which is also committed within the u.n. charter. so, i would say that, as layman, as a politician, not as a legal expert, as far as i can see, there is a basis in the fundamental u.n. charter principles, to conduct military operations against isis. >> we have five minutes left. let me take two or three for the secretary general. sir, at the front here. just come to the microphone, please. >> host: i work at carn anything
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gee. my question is, secretary, during your five years, turkey has been involved in afghanistan and in libya, although noncombat mode. turkey is still weighing decision on missile defense, which has been for two years now, and we don't know the answer yet which, of course, very fortunate -- important to nato missile defense. we learned on friday that turkey will not play any role in the military operations against isis. after your five years, what would be your judgment without perhaps going as far as what the -- what the general said on saturday, turkey has talked a long ago being a friend of the west. do you see a problem there in the future? >> let me take another one. i saw a gentleman -- the blue shirt right there.
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>> i have a question. given the security volatility in eastern europe, can nato resources be applied to the allies? for example, by deploying nato troops to protect strategic infrastructure in the region. for example, the pipeline. thank you. >> lastly, there's a woman right there. >> thank you. my question is that there's some critics, doubts the capacity -- sorry -- the able of nato to use its forces in assault. how do you think about this? also, there's another question. do you have any detailed plan to rescue the hostage in the
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region? thank you. >> three very different topics for you, turkey, energy security, and the ability to do multiple things at one time. >> guest: first on turkey, i have to say i consider turkey a strong ally, and on a personal basis, i have had an excellent cooperation with the turkish leadership, since i took office as secretary general. and whenever we have needed contributions to nato operations, turkey has actually engaged and contributed to nato operations. now, in the case of iraq, first
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of all, we're not speaking about a nato operation, but so far a coalition on the willing. furthermore, it may play a role that isis has also taken turkish hostages. i don't know. it's for the turkish government to answer that question, but i have to say, seen from my chair, that turkey has played a crucial role within our alliance, and continues to play a crucial role, and overall, i would also have to say, turkey -- not least because of the radical location, is a very important ally and partner from a strategic point of view. and as regards missile defense, i'm sure that the turkish
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authorities have listened to concerns raised by fellow allies. next, on energy. first of all, let me stress that nato's core task is territorial defense of our allies. and as regards pipelines, on allied -- on allied territory, of course, it's part of the territorial defense to protect such pipelines and other means of energy supply. but first of all, i think energy security is much more about reducing europe's dependence on
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imported gas and oil. it has become evident that there's also an overall security aspect of being so dependent on one single supplier -- in this case russia -- and i think -- that's more the european union. i think it's of utmost importance to increase energy security by establishing a well-functioning european energy market with more free flow of energy across borders, so that this single most important supplier cannot blackmail one and single out individual allies, because energy will flow more freely across borders. alternative pipelines, development of alternative
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energy sources, all this is part of overall energy security, and i think it's for the european union first and foremost to deal with that. finally, can we actually address security challenges from both the east and south at once and the same time? i think that i answered to that question already at the beginning of this q & a, and, yes, we can. we have the capacity to deal with these wide-ranging threats. it was one of the very important outcomes of the nato summit in wales, that we will not become a one dimensional ally. we do have the capability to
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deal with more or less conventional threats, both to the east and to the south, as well as addressing newer security challenges like cyberattacks, missile attacks. that's why at the summit we decided to enhance our cyberdefense. we continue building our missile defense system. so i can assure you that the alliance stands ready and capable to address both these and the south and cyberspace, if needed. >> let me wrap this onement one last quitter question from a fellow dane. the foreign fairs spokesman for the social democrats. what the most important advice to offer your successor?
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>> i think actually the most important advice would be to continue reforming, modernizing, our alliance, and continue strengthening our collective defense, so that nato remains capable to address this broad range of security challenges, and then on top of that, he will need some patience to make sure that he is spent the necessary time and efforts to create consensus among 28 independent nations. but for me, it's been a great pleasure. it's been a very positive experience, and while it may take some time to create consensus among 28 nations, once we reach the consensus -- and
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there is a very strong consensual spirit in our align -- once we take a decision, all 28, then it is a very strong alliance that moves forward. that's been a big pleasure for me to see. >> thank you. join me with one more round of applause. thank you very much, sir. [applause] >> i've been told to encourage everyone after the event to join us for drinks outside, and down, and that wraps up this one. four and final for you here at carnegie. thank you very much. [inaudible question]ed in the v.
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this is 25 minute. s. ♪ >> ladies and gentlemen, the president of the ute. ♪
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let us play. we pray today to remind us of the value of sacrifice. how hero, the title, is a price paid by soldiers, like the two to be honored today. first remembered by persistence to defend his brothers, to never accept defeat, and to never quit. one who stays alive for his friends by selfishly and respectively giving up his own. these brave men, living and dead, consecrate our history and our faith, courage of our soldiers, significance of our -- sacredness of our values, strength of our nation.
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today we weave their actions into the fabric of our history as the served in the jungles. we, who are the living, never forget what they did, the friends they lost, the -- -- may we take to heart the words spoken by a grieving president, it is for us, the living, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought have so nobly advanced, god of redemption and grace, we ask you to grant these in holy name, amen. >> amen. >> please be seated. good afternoon and welcome to the white house. more than four decades ago, in early 1970, an american squad in vietnam set out on patrol.
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they marched down a trail, past a rice paddy. shots rang out and splintered the bamboo above their heads. the lead soldier tripped a wire. a booby trap. a grenade rolled toward the feet of a 20-year-old machine gunner. the pin was pulled. and that grenade would explode at any moment. a few years earlier on the other side of the country, deep in the jungle, a small group of americans were crouched on top of a small hill. and it was dark, and they were exhausted, and the enemy had been pursuing them for days, and now they were surrounded, and the enemy was closing in on all sides. two discreet moments, but today we honor two american soldiers for gallant triabove and beyond the call of duty at each of
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those moments. specialist donald sloat, who stood above that grenade. and command sergeant major bennie adkins, who fought through a ferocious battle and found himself on that jungle hill. nearly half a century after their acts of valor, a grateful nation bestows upon these men the highest military decoration, the medal of honor. normally this medal must be awarded within a few years of the action, but sometimes even the most extraordinary stories can get lost in fog of war or the passage of time. when new evidence comes to light, certain actions can be reconsidered for this honor and it is entirely right and proper that we have done so and that is why we are here today...
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then he decided to join the army but when he went to enlist he
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didn't pass his physical because of high blood pressure said he tried again and again, and again. in all it took a physical maybe seven times until he passed. because don sub i was determined to serve his country. in vietnam became known as one of they liked and most are siebel -- likeable guys in this company. his patrol was ambushed both times. don responded with punishing fire from his machine gun leaving himself completely vulnerable to the enemy. both times he was recognized for his bravery or as don put it in a letter home, i guess they think i'm really gung ho or something. and then one morning don and his squad set out on patrol pass that rice patty down that trail where the shots rang out. when the lead soldiers foot trip
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that wire and set off the booby-trap, the grenade rolled right to don's feet and in that moment he could have run. at that moment he could have ducked for cover but don did something truly extraordinary. he reached down and he picked that grenade up and he turned to throw it but there were americans in front of him and behind him inside the kill zone. don held onto that grenade and pulled her close to his body and bent over it and then as one of the men said, all of a sudden there was a boom. the blast through the lead soldier up against a boulder. men were riddled with shrapnel. four were medevaced out, but everyone else survived. don had absorbed the brunt of the explosion with his body.
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he saved the lives of those next to him and today we are joined by two men who were with him on that patrol, sergeant william hacker and specialist michael multi-in. for decades, don's family only knew that he was killed in action. they had heard he had stepped on a landline. all those years as gold star family honor the memory of their son and brother whose name is etched forever on that granite wall not far from here. late in her life dawn's mother evelyn finally learned the full story of her son's sacrifice. and she made it her mission to have dawn's actions properly recognize. sadly nearly three years ago evelyn passed away but she always believed, she knew that this day would come. she even bought a special dress to wear to the assembly.
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we are honored that don and his mom are represented here today by don's brother, sisters and their families on behalf of this american family i would ask don's brother dr. bill sloat to come forward with a rating of a citation and accept the gratitude of our nation. >> the president of the united states of america authorized by act of congress march 3, 1863 has awarded in the name of congress the medal of honor to special sworn donald p. sloat united states army. specialist donald sloat distinguished himself with acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty serving
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as a machine gunner with company t second battalion, 1st infantry regiment 196 lightning pair trooper. during combat operations in the republic of vietnam on january 17, 1970. on that morning specialist sloat's squad was performing a patrol and armored personnel carriers in the area. as the squad moved up a small hill information to lead soldier tripped a wire attached to a hand grenade booby-trap set up by enemy forces. as the grenade grenade rolled downhill specialist for sloat nelson picked up the grenade. after initially attempting to throw the grenade specialist for sloat realized that nation was imminent. pete drew the grenade to his body and show with his squad members from the blasts saving their lives. specialist sloat's actions to
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find the ultimate sacrifice to save the lives of his comrades. donald p. sloat's selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflects great credit upon himself, company t second battalion. 1st infantry regiment 196 light infantry brigade america division in the united states army. [applause] [applause] [applause]
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[applause] [applause] >> at this point i would like to ask bennie adkins to come join me on stage. now, let me just say the first thing you need to know is when
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bennie and i met in the oval office i asked him if he could sign back up. [laughter] his lovely wife was not amused. [laughter] most days you can find bennie at home down at opelika alabama. tending his garden or his pontoon boat out on the lake. he has been married to mary for 58 years. he is the proud father of five, grandfather of six and at 80 still going strong trade a couple of years ago he came here to the white house with his fellow veterans for breakfast we had on veterans day. he told folks he was the only person he knows who spilled his
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dessert in the white house. [laughter] and i just had to correct him. that makes two of us. [laughter] i have messed up my tie. i had messed up my pants. but in the spring of 1966, bennie was just 32 years old on his second tour in vietnam. he and his fellow greene berets were an isolated camp along the ho chi minh trail. a huge north vietnamese force attacked bombarding bennie and is comrades with mortars and white phosphorus. at a time it was nearly impossible to move without being wounded or killed. but bennie ran into enemy fire again and again, to retrieve supplies and ammo, to carry the wounded to safety, demand a mortar pit, holding off wave after wave of enemy assaults.
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three times, explosions blasted him out of that mortar pit and three times he returned. i have to be honest, in a battle and daring escape that lasted for four days, bennie performs so many acts of bravery we actually don't have time to talk about all of them. let me just mention three. on the first day, bennie was helping load a wounded american in to a helicopter. vietnamese soldier jumped into the hilo trying to escape the battle and aimed his weapon directly the wounded soldier ready to shoot. bennie shielded his comrade placing himself directly in line of fire helping to save his wounded comrade. at another point in the battle for bennie and a few other soldiers were trapped in a mortar pit, covered in shrapnel and smoking debris. they're only exit was blocked by enemy machine gun fire. so
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he dug a hole out of the pit and snuck out the other side. as another american escape through that hole he was shot in the leg. an enemy soldier charged in hoping to capture a live p.o.w. and bennie fired taking out the enemy and pulling his fellow american safety. by the third day of battle, bennie and a few others had managed to escape into the jungle. he had cuts and wounds all over his body but he refused to be evacuated. when a rescue helicopter arrived bennie insisted that others go instead. so on the third night's bennie wounded and bleeding found himself with his men up on that jungle hill exhausted and surrounded with the enemy closing in. and after all they had been through as if that weren't enough, there was something mo more, you can't make this up, they're in the jungle they heard the growls of a tiger. it turns out that tiger might've been the best thing that happened to bennie during those
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days because he said the north vietnamese were more scared of that tiger than they were a plus. [laughter] said the enemy fled. bennie and his squad made their escape and they were rescued finally the next morning. and danny's life, we see the enduring service of our men and women in uniform. he went on to serve a third tour in vietnam, total of more than two decades in uniform. after he retired he earned his master's degree, actually not one but two, opened up an accounting firm, taught adult education classes, became national commander of the legion of valor veterans organization. so he has earned his retirement, despite what he says. he is living outside auburn and yes he is a fan of the auburn tigers although i did a poll of the family and there are some crimson tide fans here. [laughter] so there's obviously some divisions. but bennie will tell you that he
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has everything to the men he served with in vietnam, especially the five who gave their lives in that battle. every member of his unit was killed or wounded. every single one was recognized for their service. today we are joined by some of the men who served with bennie including major john bradford the soldier that bennie shielded in that helicopter and major wayne murray, the soldiers, the soldiers thought they deserved -- saved from being captured. and i would ask them in all of our vietnam veterans who are here today to please stand or raise your hand to be recognized. [applause] [applause] [applause] and now i would ask that the
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citation be read. >> the president of the united states of america authorized by act of congress march 3, 1863 has awarded in the name of congress the medal of honor to sergeant first class danny g. atkins united states army. sergeant first class danny t. adkins dissing bush himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an intelligence sergeant attachment a 125th special forces group were special forces during combat operations against an armed enemy at camp eshoo republic of vietnam from march the ninth to 12th 1966. when the camp was attacked by a
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large vietnamese and viacom force in the early morning hours sergeant first class atkins rush through intense enemy fire and manned an order position continually adjusting fire for the camp despite recurring wounds as a mortar pit received hits from enemy mortars. upon learning that several soldiers were wounded near the center of camp be temporarily turned the mortar over to another soldier ran through exploding mortar rounds and drag several comrades to safety. as hostile fire subsided sergeant first class atkins exposed himself to sporadic fire while carrying his wounded comrades to the camp dispensary. but sergeant first class atkins in this group of defenders came under heavy small-arms fire by members of the civilian irregular defense group they have defected to fight with the north vietnamese he maneuvered outside the camp to evacuate a seriously wounded american and draw fire all the while successfully covering the rescue. when a resupply air-drop landed outside of the camp perimeter
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sergeant first class atkins again moved outside of the camp walls to retrieve the much-needed supplies. during the early morning hours of march 10, 1966 enemy forces launched their main attack and within two hours sergeant first class atkins was the only man firing a mortar weapon. when all mortar rounds were expanded sergeant first class atkins began placing effective require a list of rifle fire upon enemy positions. despite receiving additional ones from enemy rounds exploding on his position sergeant first class atkins bought up intense waves of attacking vietcong. sergeant first class atkins eliminated numerous insurgents with small-arms fire after withdrawing to communications bunker several soldiers. running extremely low on ammunition he returned to the mortar pit gathered vital ammunition and ran through intense fire out of the bunker. after being ordered to evacuate the camp sergeant first class atkins and the small group of soldiers destroyed all signal
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equipment and classified documents, dug their way out of the rear of the bunker and talk their way out of the camp. while carrying a wounded soldier to the extraction point he learned that the last helicopter had already departed. sergeant first class atkins led the group a with aiding the enemy until they were rescued by helicopter on march 12, 1966. during the 38 hour battle in 48 hours of escape and invasion fighting with mortars and machine guns require less rifle small-arms and hand grenades, it was estimated to sergeant first class atkins had killed between 135 and 175 of the enemy while sustaining 18 different ones to his body. sergeant first class atkins extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, detachment and a 125th special forces group for special forces in the united states army.
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[applause] [applause] [applause]
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[applause] >> over the decades, our vietnam veterans didn't always receive the thanks and respect they deserved. that's a fact. but as we have been reminded again today, our vietnam vets were patriots and are patriots. you served with valor. you made us proud. and your service is with us for eternity. so no matter how long it takes, no matter how many years go by, we will continue to express our gratitude for your extraordinary service. may god watch over don sloat and all those who have sacrificed for our country. may god keep safe those who wear our country's uniform and veterans like bennie adkins and
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may god continue to bless the united states of america. at this point i'd ask our chaplain to return to the stage iv the benediction. >> let us continue to pray. as we go forth be not afraid. have peace and courage and honor what is good. return no evil for evil to strengthen the fainthearted support the weak and helpless suffering. we honor all people. let us love and serve and may god's blessing be upon us and remain with us always, amen. >> and at this point, i would welcome everybody to join the sloat family and the atkins family for a reception. i hear the food is pretty good. and once again, to all of you who serve and your families who
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serve along with them, the nation is grateful. and your commander in chief could not be prouder. thank you very much everybody. [applause]
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>> now nato allied commander europe general philip breedlove talks about the recent nato summit held in scotland this month in the ongoing situation in ukraine. from atlantic council, this is an hour. [inaudible conversations] >> good morning and welcome everybody. we are delighted to be here at atlantic council. i very much appreciate you being here this morning for this commander series event. to hear from general philip
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breedlove, commander of u.s. european command and nato supreme allied command europe. in a few minutes he will give us his remarks and join a roster of atlantic council commanders series speakers that includes general martin dempsey, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff and general james amos commandant of the u.s. marine corps. the commander series is our long-standing flagship speaker series for senior u.s. and allied military leaders and i want to thank north america for their strong and consistent support for this series. you can follow the series if you are interested including today's event on twitter using the hashtag ac commanders. we have more great speakers lined up in the series later in the year including admiral jonathan greenert, chief of naval operations, general lloyd austin commander of central command and general jim kelly
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commander of southern command among others. we hope hope that you'll be able to join us for these upcoming events as well. but today we could not be more excited to host general breedlove, the generalist is returned from the nato summit in wales where the alliance charted his pass for the future while also working on how to deal with a brutal price devices, russia's invasion of ukraine and emerging threats around the alliance southern flight. this is indeed a crucial time for nato and i i think the coming period of time will help shape the alliance for many decades to come. finally with the atlantic council we like to consider ourselves the washington home of the dc-based nato community so we are especially pleased that we can host those top military leaders at the council once again. this time for his readout on the summit among other things. we are delighted to have the
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general and admiral greene who is traveling with him as well as many other members of the delegation. we have some midshipmen from the naval academy to match pitted like to give them an extra special shout out. it's always a pleasure to be in a company of our future leaders. without further ado i would like to turn the day is over to my predecessors general jim jones for additional comments. general. >> thank you governor and good morning everyone. it's an honor to be here to introduce or to help introduce the supreme allied commander of europe. i like to spell out that title because it has a special elegance to it that some people around washington don't appreciate. so good morning and welcome. as i said it's a real honor to be here. i would also like to recognize the 17th supreme allied commander of your comments are
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the 11th 11th. the 17th is to be introduced. general george allen, pardon me. general, always good to see you and thank you for being here. when the recently completed wales summit was first planned it was originally intended to mark the conclusion of nearly a decade of successful allied operations in afghanistan. the responsibility the alliance assumed many moons ago when i held general breedlove's position. while nato and its isaf partners did have a meaningful discussion on the afghanistan transition the summit will most likely be remembered for nato's response to russia's ongoing destabilization in ukraine and his discussions about the emerging extremist threat on nato's borders in iraq and syria. the crisis in ukraine and the dramatic rise of tensions of moscow have been on welcome developments in all matters
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pertaining to european security. secretary-general rasmussen has stated that russia's action in and around ukraine propose the most serious threat to european security since the end of the cold war. yet throughout this crisis general breedlove has provided remarkable clarity and decisive leadership of allied military forces in responding to a new strategic challenge. ..
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across all of europe, north, south, east, and west, buy land, in the air, and on the sea. meanwhile, he and his staff have been hard at work in advance of the summit to develop new measures to strengthen nato's continuous presence and readiness in europe's east and north. measures that were blessed at wales and i'm sure general breedlove will describe to you in more detail. general breedlove has impacted the alliance beyond the ukraine crisis overseeing operations in kosovo, the mediterranean, off the horn of africa and in insuring a peaceful transition in afghanistan. meanwhile, he has worked to strengthen nato partnerships around the globe as part of the alliance of missions of
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bolstering security. general breedlove assumed the title of commander, u.s. european command and supreme allied commander europe in may. an f-16 pilot by trade with combat experience in the bosnia and cause of a complex, general breedlove has a rich regional experience of senior command positions in asia and europe as well as the u.s. air force. he served most recently as vice chief of the united states air force and commander of u.s. air force of europe before assuming the best job title and the u.s. military, supreme allied commander europe. a great pleasure to have general breedlove at the atlantic council and a pleasure to welcome him back to the council for his public debrief of the nato summit. i would like to turn the microphone over now to mr. mr. jonas hjelm who will continue the introduction. thank you.
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>> thank you, general jones and governor jon huntsman. it is not easy to come after two such distinguished gentleman. allow me to elaborate a little bit about why saab is sponsoring this. first, i would say it is a pleasure to have general breedlove here today. i am looking forward to what you are going to give us for insight and good things from the summit. saab in the atlantic council have been partners for many, many years now. i think this is a fantastic relationship. the company and the council continue to grow and evolve. i think we, saab, as european, north european company makes business globally but also on both sides of the atlantic equal to the atlantic council. we'd read the transatlantic, soda say the values and
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cherish them. i think the events we see around the world today, all the tragic events and what is happening, these values are even more important than before. this is the core thing our partnership with the atlantic council. before the general is giving his remarks, let me maybe add on something to general jones describing what the general did before he assumed his -- and i agree, very, very nice title, the supreme allied commander. it is something you could kill for, to have that title one day. i want unfortunately. he was the commander of the u.s. air forces in europe as well as the commander for the u.s. air forces in africa. before that from 2008-'90 commanded the third air force out of ramstein, germany. before going over there the
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general also served in various positions here in the united states air force. he was the senior military assistant to the secretary of the air force. he also was director for strategic plans and policy, and he also was chief of staff for the united states air force. that was just a part of the very extensive and long, good career that you have had, general. so without further delay, could you please help me welcome the general to take the stage. [applause] >> so first of all, thank-you to the atlantic council for a lot of things, for this opportunity to speak to you but most importantly for all of the work that it has done through the years in helping shape the policies
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and the positions that take us forward in our relationships across the northern atlantic, and it is about shared values and things that were mentioned. and those of the visions that we continue to hold for the future despite some of the challenges that we see out there today to our naval cadets, this is your worst nightmare as a speaker. you are standing in front of a crowd, literally two-thirds of this crowd are qualified to great my paper. okay? and then secondarily, you stand in front of two of the nation's greatest leaders who have had your job before and know what doing it right looks like, and they are greeting me every day about whether i am doing it right or not, but it is a privilege to be in such an eye test group and a group that has the expertise that this group has about the atlantic alliance. thanks to both of you as you all helped me as i moved
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into, i agree, one of the greatest jobs in the world. it is right now quite a challenging job and quite 85 let's say there are not enough hours in the day to get to everything we need to do. the ark of instability that we see to ourselves and now instability that we see in eastern europe, a place we just would never have thought about it in the past, these are all challenges that not only in my u.s. european command had gives us a lot of work to do, but certainly for the nato alliance, this is a challenge that comes already in a busy time. he did not have to think hard about a factor we still have a lot of work to do in afghanistan. and giving this -- getting this change of mission under fire from resolute support, this is no small matter. we see issues in our south
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from the mediterranean, eastern, and northern african area that is clearly still very much on the minds of our southern nato alliance, and so there are a lot of things that need to be addressed. and i will talk a little bit more about that in a minute about our southern area. of course, right now we have just come out of the summit that had a lot of focuses, a lot of place in the air. one of the central place in the air is, how do we address this russia? how do we address a nation that has sort of broken those rules, morals, and is using force to change international boundaries. something that we thought was over with what happened in georgia, and now we see that that is not the case.
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our mission remains the same in nato, and we embrace that quite frankly at the summit. and we also, at the summit, began to look at, what is it that makes our way forward so important? and it goes back to a shared values. a shared vision for a europe free and at peace. that sometimes brings a little hollow because it is said so many times, but quite frankly that is still a central, guiding position for what we want to see. and i will say something that may be a little bit controversial right now, but i do not think that we can ever arrive at a europe whole, free, and at peace without russia as a partner. and so for the last 12 years we have been trying to make russia a partner. we have been making basing decision, force structure decisions, economic decisions of around the fact that russia would be a constructive part of the
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future of your. and now we see a very different situation, and we have to address that. what i would like to talk about today -- and i will roll a few grenades out of the table. i would like to talk about some of those very important results from the summit, the readiness action plan, our expectations going into this summit for the readiness action plan or measured. we knew that we needed to make some change. we did not know how much change we could affect. i am happy to report that, quite frankly, we got just about everything we wanted to. now, if we are able to implement the changes that we made in the readiness action plan i think that we can reset this alliance for this new challenge that we see in eastern europe. and quite frankly, the
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changes that we will make will also give us adaptations that will better position as where some of the problems we see in the south. this is important for our southern nato alliance members, that this is not just about the north and east. it has to be addressing all of our alliance. responsiveness, we have had a magnificent nrf, well engineered across the agency. it did all the things we asked it to do. we evaluated, look at it hard, and it meets every expectation that we set forth in the past. so one of the things that we try to make sure people understand is, we are not disheartened by what the nrf did in the past. it meant exactly what we ask it to meet. now it is inadequate to task for what we see is the future requirement on our
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nrf forces and capabilities. and that is why the readiness action plan will look at a series of measures that will adapt by the nrf responsiveness, about readiness. readiness is exactly what we asked for. now we ask to tweak their readiness but make major changes to responsiveness. we will talk about that. i am often asked, are you trying to deter or a share? and give a simple answer, yes. we're trying to do both. we needed immediately to ensure our allies when ukraine first kicked off the crimea but certainly when the russian forces came across the borders into eastern ukraine when needed to assure our alliance posture. allow me as an element to use an air force example. fourteen hours from go to show, our aircraft left,
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landed in estonia, and were flying gaps 14 hours from go to show. this is assurance. this is nato power cannot just air power assuring our allies that we are there and we can be their rapidly if required. we brought assurance to those nations. now, of course, as you know, we were tasked to build, as the general mentioned, a series of measures that our air, land, and see, north, center, and south. the alliance did a magnificent job of doing that. the air element immediately. the land and naval elements took a little bit more time, but they were very quick and very visible and very assuring to our nation's. i think that we head, in sports terms, a 448 -- for
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logger 40-yard home run with assuring quickly our nato allies. to weedy terror? i will allow you to enter that debate. if you want to talk about it in a q&a at think it's a good question. clearly when mr. panetta and now looks across the borders of these three northern nations he sees a nato alliance represented by nato forces that i they're exercising, preparing all of the things that we need to do should we ever have to take action in those areas. some who credible plot persistent, pleasant -- presence with capability that is visible not only to the nation we wish to assure but any aggressor we wish to deter. so we looked at nato and ask ourselves, as we see this new situation where you have a nation that will assemble
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a large force of the border completely equipped ephors, all of the elements of enablers that make it credible, bring forth operation and in some cases strategic resupply for that force all in the name of an exercise. and it goes across an internationally respected border and an ax is par for surf portion of a sovereign nation. so how do we react to that? how do we react to the possibility of us an area in the future? we looked at what a simple fighter pilot calls the three latest tool. it lays out like this. why would i call it a three legged stool? it is to make a point that if you take any leg aware of what happens? it falls over. these are interrelated, interconnected requirements. the first like his we need
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to change the responsiveness of the nrf. like we talked about before, the nrf does what we ask you to do now to what but what we asked to do is inadequate to tasks to the new threat we see to the scenario i describe of this nation not respecting borders and changing borders by force. the first element is that some portion of the nrf will become much more rapidly available for use. how much? that is a discussion that we will work on. we have put forward ideas of 48 hours and five days for some of that force. now we will begin to look at the details of will that work. i now have another sports analogy. i talk about the goal posts. whatever we do with this force would have to go through the goal posts of be affordable and sustainable. if is not affordable and
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sustainable, it is not credible for the long run. this has to be something that remains with us. the first leg was changing the responsiveness of a portion of the nrf, and i will be happy to talk about the particulars if you want later. meanwhile the second piece is again it sounds a tiny bit irresponsible, but remember for 12 years i have been treating russia as a partner. on a day-to-day basis we don't have any what i would call operation or tactical level headquarters in natal but is thinking about article five, corrective defense, the ability to defend an ally and he's clearly in my headquarters we talked about it and think about it. we are not an operational or tactical level. we need a headquarters element of ability, i think,
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at the core level that will be focused every day 365 days of the year 24 hours a day on collective defense article five responsibilities for the alliance. this is primarily, of course , and at the north vietnamese, and i will talk about the rest in a minute. this second leg of this three-legged stool is a headquarters that feels responsible to the alliance for article five collective defense all day every day. that is the mission. that will be the primary mission. that will be the second part command-and-control capability ought to be with collective defense article five. the third piece is the harder, more controversial piece and the one we hear talk about in the paper so much. some forward presence in
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these nations that does multiple missions. in peacetime, forward presence appears the battlefield, which at where we can expect forces, works on those infrastructure requirements and allow us to rapidly receive forces, put them a field to fight, if required. stated day exercises with the local nation to bring of those processes which makes nato much quicker to react if required. works to prepossession materials, works to establish local understandings that would allow a nato force if it had to rapidly respond to quickly come to mission. and then in that worst case scenario where we needed it this headquarters would be the backbone on which rapidly reacting forces from the new nrf structure would
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fall in on too rapidly constitute combat power and the forward area, if required. how do we define this forward presence? how do we define its mission, its role? how do we finance the requirements of forward positioning equipment? these are all the details. if you think about this three-legged stool i talked about, rapidly available nrf, command-and-control structure that is as be andretti, if required and a receding force that on day-to-day is exercising, preparing, setting the stage for a rapid acceptance of combat power that comes from that newly structured nrf if required. these are the three legs. these are the details that we will begin to work out.
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we have written a paper to lay out. these concrete pieces. the three legs require each other. can we do it without this or that? the answer is sure. it may not work. i think it requires all three. >> again, very encouraged by what happened. very encouraged by the solidarity that i saw in the alliance. i would hate to over characterize. i don't want to sound too positive. the feeling that we can get.
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the nation truly embraced the change. now the details to it the goalpost. i think that is the end of my prepared remarks. now we will enter into the more fun part of today's conversation. i will ask for help in choosing who will get to grill me first. [applause] >> in this spirit i am happy to stand as well. >> that's terrific. we will see how well we constructed. first of all, i really want to thank you for taking this time. we have all been impressed by your voice in this crisis , this moment of history, and the clarity of your op-ed in the wall
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street journal. it was brilliant. the one thing the three-legged stool did not address his what does nato do, what is the alliance to toward what one would call gray areas? let me ask this in two parts. give us our assessment of what the situation is on the ground at the moment in ukraine. what are you seeing during the cease-fire? and then if you could take it a little bit beyond ukraine to the general question of are we trying is in europe or can we avoid that? >> so many of you have served with me. i see more and more faces in the crowd of people i have worked for or with in my life. i would hope that those who have served with me would be quick to say that general breedlove is almost always an optimist because i am. i am well over a glass half
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full on all manner of things about nato, the progress that we made and wales, the solidarity are see in our alliance, absolutely rock steady commitment. some things are just incredibly, i think, positive. i would tell you that along that vein, i am a glass less than half full on what is happening in the ukraine. rather than get into a long discussion of what we all understand russia's actions have been in the east, they have now for a series of days been reducing their force presence. they have left behind some very capable and very tailored force in the east that allows them to bring continued pressure on president poroshenko and the leaders of ukraine. and with that pressure allows them to do is
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completely shape what i think is sort of the geostrategic context of ukraine for the future. i think that the cease-fire, while it has done many good things like stop the loss of life, what it also is doing is allowing a situation in eastern ukraine that could easily slip into another conflict. that worries me greatly. i think our will stop there. as far as these gray areas, we, as i said before, of a great commitment and a rock-solid commitment to our nato allies and what that means. clearly there are other nations in europe that are not made allies. i think the western world needs to come to grips with what is it that is going to happen in these states that are outside the alliance and
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between the alliance and russia and hell are we going to -- what are the expectations of the nation's four how nations will conduct themselves in these states in the future. i think this is work that i would ask the atlantic council and others to begin to ponder, the approach to these nations that are not in the alliance and may come under great pressure in the future by those who would try to exploit. >> let me just ask another question. welcome. talk to us a little bit about what you're seeing and what your watching on the ground in ukraine. what is the russian military strategy? what elements are involved? people talk about hybrid warfare. from the standpoint of your position, what exactly is that? >> so we have seen will we
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have all started turning as hybrid warfare in the early stages of what has happened in eastern ukraine. we watched this play out in crimea and then the hybrid warfare became more overt. they have essentially in next that portion of ukraine and we saw almost the same script play out in eastern ukraine. the little green men, the denial forces, the deniable presents and how the presence was shaping the support to the russian -- are call them russian-backed sforzas. some call them pro-russian forces in eastern ukraine. and what we saw was the ukraine was actually able to a symbol of military force and begin to reshape the
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ground. when the ukrainian forces brought great pressure on those forward russian-backed forces, now we are on the horns. can the russian federation see defeat in eastern ukraine? can they see their force is being cut off by the ukrainian forces who are having success? i talked. a hard-fought battle with great impact for all on the ground, both sides. but there were successors in ukraine command what we clearly saw is that they are not acceptable for moscow. the russian forces went from hybrid warfare, and discriminant little green man to overt action by three armored russian columns along the maps and along the
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coast. those forces turn the tide. reestablished wide-open support lines of that pressure could for resupply. that great pressure, those two ports that are so key to the ukraine fiscal ability to move forward. that is where we see ourselves now. i think that the lines of support are now wide-open, and i think that in this cease-fire the lines of supply will run at full tilt we see now some of the russian force that is bringing great pressure. you can look at that in two ways. it is either a coercive force to say, meet our terms
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in these negotiations are else. or it is a force that is well-suited for taking that course if required. that is kind of where we find ourselves now. >> thank you. we will have a ukrainian president poroshenko here on thursday after his joint session of congress. it will be interesting to hear his views. final question from me, your three-legged stool, thought it was a good image. i will not deal with the rapid reaction forces, command-and-control part of it. you did mention that the forward presence is most controversial. what is required for a credible forward presence? and then what triggers the forward presence? are the green man. >> that me we characterize your question a little bit because i do not think that the forward presence needs to be triggered. i think that we need it right now. >> badly put. >> we describe this as persistent presence, and it
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will be a persistent presence enables by rotational forces. how long those rotations are will be decided by much more smart men and women who do that kind of planning and look at duration verses understanding the mission verses other pieces, but i believe we need a persistent presence rotational enabled by significant duration so that we are not relearning something every three months . so this forward presence as, i think, in peacetime, as i have described, has lots of duties. first of all, exercise with the host nation to bring everybody stability of and everybody's interoperability up. secondly, establish a watchman, an area where if needed we could rapidly bring force forward. today we can relatively rapidly take forces into nations like this, but when they land they have to figure out supply, lodging,
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forward position, fighting material. now we will have a force for word in these areas on a day-to-day basis doing all that preparatory works such that they are available then to rapidly receive this new portion of the nrf to build to combat capability so there will be some command-and-control. we need to rotate through some of the enablers so that each can be able to work with the host nation to understand the challenges and the things that need to be done. we need fire supporters working with the host nation on a rotational basis to understand how you would use fires to support business in that area. we need communicator's occasionally to establish and workout lines of communication. we need logistics' people saying, this is how we resupply, move forward command these are the things that we need to possibly put
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in pre positioning so that it is available and we do not have to transport it when they come forward. so all hosts of the enablers need to be a part of that rotation so that we can work the squeaky wheel and get it all ready to go if we have to. and then sitting in there in that command and control capability with some force is attached if the worst happens ready to rapidly proceed. when of the commander, who to land and plug into, the ammunition kid. rapidly and fight it. or looking at that model right now now that we have the agreement for the requirement of it. >> article five is harder. it can be as cyber attack
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potentially. it is not likely to be a russian market tank. can't you look at all of that? >> a broad series of questions first of all, cyber, what constitutes an article five. and that we, frankly, have not been addressing. after the world summit we agree that there is work to do about what cyber means in this context. on the flip side to the little green men, we have clearly now seen the script play out in crimea. we have seen this could play out in eastern ukraine. we are beginning to see some of the script in moldova. so we are beginning to understand this whole track of how this hybrid war will
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be brought to bear. and so what we now have to do is look at those forces in our border nations where there are substantial russian populations and now we better prepare those nations to survive the initial onslaught of this hybrid war. i think what we all understand is that this hybrid war, if it kicks off, and it is attributable this is not a nato issue. it is an internal nation issue, and emmeline problem. now we better prepare our allies to characterize, understand, and survive the initial onslaught of the little green men scenario. clearly also we have great acceptance among the nato allies that if you attribute this little green man issue to an aggressor nation it is an article five action.
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all of the assets of nato come to bear. those are the lines of thought. >> very interesting. >> identify yourself. >> good to see you again. george nicholson, consultants. you talk about enablers. one large initiative was the establishment of nato special operations command. >> which is a huge success. >> well, one of the things that was tried but has been pushed back, he wanted to duplicate that capability for general kelly in south,. can you talk to how effective you think that is? >> it has been absolutely amazing. quite frankly, what you have seen out of the special operations unit of multiple
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missions in afghanistan is a result of this exact effort. the sharing of tactics, techniques, procedures, but everyone to a standard, working on interoperability of forces together as they worked in afghanistan. it is a huge success and a great force multiplier and will be a big part, i think, of helping nations understand how to handle themselves when they're under the onslaught of this little green man scenario up until it is attributed. and it is a different issue. >> thank you. >> thank you, general. i am francisco you were very discreet. i would like you to talk
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about turkey in the context of how they are actively working against western policy by supporting isil. the information has become public. thank you. >> here is what our would like to say about turkey. we need to remember that turkey is an important ally. right now than air and a pretty tough place. a border to the south, which is, as you know, quite exciting. now they have a neighbor to the north who we used to think was a partner who has put in place in crimea the
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ability through coastal defense cruise missiles and surface-to-air missiles to pretty much dominate the black sea. pretty hard on their ability to exude influence. so our ally, turkey, is caught between a rock and hard place. and so i think we need to understand the context in that way. the good news is that our alliance has responded, as you know. we are now actively involved in the air defense to the south end of felton to understand what is going on along the border in the intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance way. i am going to disappoint you because i am not trying to address the political piece of this. i think that is for others. as a military man, what i think we need to focus on is
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we have a member of our alliance that we have shown our support for and asked them to support us and actions we think are important. and that is a conversation that is, i think, just beginning. >> thank you, general. congratulations on a good cop and the washington post. >> general, in ukraine what you said about forward deployments case, what we're doing for allies, is that feasible to do for your great? -- for ukraine. a deterrent matter to try to at least held the russian advance where it is. it shall -- make sure they at least have to undertake an action that is probably
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bigger than they would feel prudent for them to do in order to move beyond where they are. >> let me broaden the question again. i think that a line of logic you just used is exactly what i think the western world and to some degree our nation needs to look and. now, there are nations outside of nato and not russia, literally in some cases between us. how does the western world approached those nations? and what are the expectations of all neighbors east and west as to whether their actions should be in the nation's? what are accepted international norms? i think this is first principle conversation. then you can begin to look at what you talk about. those assurances that we could give these nations.
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we would be an interesting personal pronoun in that sentence. is it nato, a coalition, bilateral? all of those things would have to be addressed. right now there is no nato policy on what to do in those nations that find themselves outside of the alliance and not in the russian federation. services, i think, a place where credit brinkley i would ask the atlantic council to help cover conversation along these lines. how do we approach these conundrums. >> thank you very much right in front. you first. >> peter sharp and. would you anticipate in the future exercises in which the elements of the nrf or
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other elements moved to practice reinforcement in the form of -- >> yes. >> i am being flipped by that one word answer. now let me elaborate. i don't think we in our nation have some of the most amazing rapid reaction forces out there. i think you would agree. the elements of the 802nd airborne and others who are on these short strings are truly incredible forces. you do not have that force if you do not exercise that force irregularly and sometimes off schedule. you really don't know if you have a 48 hour force until you ask it to respond insider 48 hours. so part of the original conversation that we had with the leaders of the summit is that this would be
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an expectation that we would exercise elements of these forces and speed in order to ensure we have it. the short answer is yes. >> thank you. the nato summit in istanbul, the last summit was about enlargement, what do you think about countries such as macedonia, an enlargement in the summer situation such as georgia and ukraine. >> i think obviously this is a good question to ask a military leader verses a political leader. how do you look at the whole issue? >> what our nations have a
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firm is at the door is still open. no one moved through the door, but several have their programs of engagement and prove and most notably ukraine and others have their programs of engagement improve. georgia clearly as well. i think that there are lots of things that nations need to do to come across the barrier into nato. what i would do is reserve now to make remarks toward the military pieces of those because those are the things i understand the most. clearly some of the nation's like georgia have done an extremely good job at becoming interoperable with nato and deploying with nato georgia has deployed in a very constant and high-level its forces and support in afghanistan and other places. and so what i see is the nation's continued to move toward their goal or have
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already probably in some cases that the military expectation that we have for their entry into nato. now some of the more political issues of being worked out by the political leaders. >> thank you, general breedlove. there are so many questions. i can only take two more. this young man year. two rows back please. those will have to be the last two. one after another. >> i was wondering, how are you keeping the administration's eye on russia with everything happening right now? secondly, with the european reassurance initiative to when you know, if appropriate how would you like to see that money spent? >> this last question. [inaudible question]
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>> i just wanted to ask, and provocative signal to putin. >> i apologize to all of those i was unable to get to. >> let me go back to the first. it would be a gross misstatement that ever keep our government focused on anything. clearly we have all lot of challenges out there. isil, isis, whatever we call these guys is an incredibly tough problem and clearly deserves a lot of focus. i think of we still have a government that completely understands that we have got to address what russia is doing in eastern europe, and we are working through those issues, an active debate inside of the bill way about how to address. i think that sometimes what we see in the headlines seems to tell us that we are


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