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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  August 5, 2016 10:27am-12:28pm EDT

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investigation starts on a terrorism such as -- by the fbi, the first place they are going and look asking to the local agencies and the reason that is is because the people that commit these acts are the ones who live in our communities, we are the ones who have had contact over the years, we are the ones that might have some type of background information that we are able to provide to get the investigation started. so future outlook on terrorism, so indicators of lone wolf terrorism. like i said in the international definition, it's about influencing government. what we are seeing here in lone wolf attacks is that many times there is personal motivation in which to do something. you also have to remember that terrorism in and of itself, acts of terrorism are a crime and if you, again, break down to the local level crimes consist of means, motive and opportunity
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and anything that i've mentioned before whether it's the olympic park bombings or san bernardino shootings, you can go back and dig down and some where in the story you can find out -- we know that they had the means because they committed the act. you can find out what their motive is. again, sit personal, is it politically motivated and obviously the opportunity existed because they took advantage of that. san bernardino was a holiday party at a government facility and the suspect who worked there left, the male suspect and then when they returned with his wife, then the shootings started and the chaos erupted. as far as the future goes too, i will tell you a lot of the reason these things take place is commit bid individuals and individuals are much harder to detect than organizations. again our federal partners have
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done an outstanding job in the past 15 years since 9/11 with detecting groups and organizations that, you know, are ramping up who appear to have the intent to commit some type of act and i would wager to say that there are many times that plots are disrupted that we do not hear the story on the back and, you know, about what happened and that's for reasons of security and the fact that, you know, perhaps they're onto other informations with that information. so unfortunately it takes these incidents to happen for us to learn from them. we do the best we can up front trying to figure out how would we approach these things but until they happen, you know, we really don't know that we have the best way. so some of the things that have resulted not just from 9/11 but other things like hurricane katrina, hurricane rita was the management system that we used
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at the local level. there's federal mandates for that. the national response framework and from what we are talking about today the national strategy for information sharing and that is to say that we have information that we gather at the local level that gets put into a system where our federal partners can do investigations can see it and likewise there's an information exchanging that takes place. ..
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things that just seemed out of the ordinary. i remember san bernardino, one of the neighbors who thought the shooters were suspicious but they did not, they chose not to report because they didn't want to appear as though they were profiling them based on their heritage. they didn't report it. you see the result, 14 dead, 17 wounded. they had ieds, or than 5000 rounds of ammunition that were not extended. it could've been even worse than it was. that's what we are looking for. >> as a nation we're currently seeing a shift in the causes, the motives of the attackers, the lone wolf attackers and a shift in the targets. i chose not to focus on the past couple of weeks but it give law enforcement has become one of the targets in the past few weeks. vast majority of the public is
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good and does work with law enforcement, realizing that here in this country were essentially the first line of defense. when you call 911 it's one of us who shows up. the thing that general gray and foreign services have dedicated their lives to overseas to keep the united states, the best country in the world, those are the things we're trying to do at home. we can't do this alone. we depend on the public to be our eyes and ears, especially in these recent times. that's it for my comments. thank you. [applause]
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>> first of all thank you, professor alexander and general gray for inviting me here today. i'm especially honored to be here, given the caliber of my fellow presenters, and they showed me the list of some of the attendees and the caliber of those of you in the audience, so i'm grateful. thank you. grateful and honored. on the subject of global terrorism there are a lot of different definitions of what is lone wolf. some people even hate the idea of calling them lone wolves because it sort of glorifies them. some say they should be lone dogs. that's an insult to dogs i suppose or lone offenders. but for the sake of successful recalling at the very i'm going to call the lone wolf your definitions of lone wolf. again all over the map. last summer i led a task force
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at georgetown to look at this issue of who is a lone wolf and what is in the wolf. a definition we came up with, not a legalistic definition but one that we thought would help you develop a framework whereby you could really analyze the different kinds of lone actor's. so we came up with a definition that is first and foremost deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or threat of violence. so in other words, they are terrorists or they have an ideology and they're trying, they have a political agenda that they are trying to further through fear of violence or actual acts of violence. the second criteria we came up with was, it's a single actor. this is different from a lot of definitions. a lot of people will say san
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bernardino couple were lone wolves, as are my brothers up in boston are lone wolves. i suppose you could do that but the lone actor operating really alone has a differentof all vanessa different psychological profile and the means by which you detect a person who truly is operating alone is different and more difficult and the process of radicalization is also a bit different i don't talk about that in a moment. third criterion, pursues a political change link to a formulated ideology. that relates to the first, are they terrorist acts lately no command and control or material support from outside organization. so that so we decided for the purposes of our study we would
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call a lone wolf. we've already talked about the difficulty to detect a lone wolves. notoriously difficult, particularly if they are operating by themselves. the tools of intelligence and the tools of law enforcement really don't work very well. if you got it individual who is not talking to anybody else. because law enforcement and intelligence you sources, and source who hears about this. he got an individual is not talking to anybody or even a couple who are just talking to themselves, very, very hard to detect because we find out through sources. we find through their commute nation. they are not communicate with anybody, you are not going to do about it. just devilishly difficult to detect.
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one of the other findings we had, you can really use profiling as a detection tool. most of lone wolves are male. most of them, not all, historically over the years are unmarried, not always, quite often unmarried. if often heavy brush or two with a lot in the past. sometimes minor, sometimes more serious. so they often have issues of social isolation or they are not socially very competent. unfortunately, this particular profile fits a pretty large proportion of the general population. so it's not very helpful if you're going to figure out if this particular individual is a lone wolf terrorist. let me talk a little bit about the trends we are seeing in the growth of the last few weeks
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that has been just grateful what's been going on in europe and in the united states in terms of these seeming lone wolf attacks and i would say global packet tax or it's just a single actor in some cases by more than one. first of all there has been a growth in these lone wolf attacks over the last few decades. in the 1950s in this country, we have on record just a handful of attacks. maybe that's a matter of reporting but there were not very many. about 32 attacks in the 2000s, depending on how you count them. i don't have numbers for this next decade but seemingly these attacks are going up in number. the barrier to entry is really, really low. if all i have to do is get a knife or a hatchet, i can go
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over to home depot and buy it, and i won't raise any kind of suspicion by doing that. again, anybody can do this. the other interesting thing is i think as european authorities get better and better at preventing these potential foreign fighters from traveling to syria, the number of potential lone wolves in europe is swelling, is growing. because they are just there student and not able to travel. the other interesting trend i think is isis has become very quick to get attribution. i sort of wonder do they really know whether these guys were motivated by them or do they have any sort of connection, or are they just quick to claim? i think more research and study and more information about the
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recent attacks in europe will give us a better idea of that. another phenomenon we all talked about the use of technology and social media to fuel the rise in these lone actors. so that, in terms of radicalization, that's a big trend. there are more of these folks self radicalizing, and self radicalizing more quickly. another i think really for me personally disturbing trend is the increasing views of social media during the attack itself. i mean, it's sort of what i think of the selfie generation. they are taking salafis of themselves, taking videos of themselves. they are communicating with the 911. we saw that with omar mateen in orlando. we saw it yesterday try to attack where they took a video of the attack.
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again, these are some of the trends that are worth watching. in terms of the actual radicalization process, i won't go into all the details. there are people who are experts at radicalization. historically, both terrorists get recruited basically to others. they have personal associations with someone who's involved, maybe their community is sympathetic. maybe they've got a relative or a brother, tsarnaev in boston a good example of that. however, with a lone wolves it's really self radicalization and it's more about having that, and ideology are finding an ideology that is attracted to them. personal grievances or projection of their anger about some sort of historical event or
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foreign intervention, or again perceived social injustice that leads to radicalization. so those are some of the trends i see. again, i'm afraid at this point it's hard to be very optimistic about detecting them, given again the lack of communication with others. there is one interesting statistic, and it gets back to the "see something, say something." even for these lone wolves acting alone, more than 60% tell somebody else what they're going to do. there's a neighbor, relative, a buddy. dylann roof, a little over a year ago, who waged a dreadful attack on the ame church in charleston, who had a blog and this white supremacist ideology, he went drinking with a buddy a couple weeks before he was going
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to do it, had a little too much to drink i guess and told them exactly what he was going to be. so often when this happens the buddy dismisses it, he had alluded to drink, these kind of like that. but i think it goes back to that "see something, say something." another model we are looking at, we have another task force that is looking more broadly at countering violent extremism you're one of the models we're using to look at is the public health model where you have primary, secondary and tertiary prevention t if it's a heart disease, primary prevention is good diet, exercise, going to the doctor regularly, avoiding stress. secondary prevention is okay maybe are starting to get high blood pressure so you are taking medication of some sort to lower your cholesterol your tertiary is we've got heart disease and
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are doing bypass surgery or you're having a heart attack and they're treating you. again with terrorism, if you look at it, a lot of the causes for radicalization are sort of the same causes that caused other social ills like drug abuse, gang activity, crying. and the cures for those, the primary prevention again is opportunity, job training, with health, all those things are going to making strong and healthy communities. you will never be able to study and get a metrics for the terrorist who prevented, but those are a lot easier than getting them on the other end and catching them when they're getting ready to throw a bomb. so i believe you without. [applause]
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>> professor alexander, general gray, thank you very much for inviting me here today. is an honor to be with such a distinguished group of panelists. and thank you all for coming out on a very hot summer day. so the more we've learned about the isis foreign fighter phenomena, the more we uncover domestic terror plots right here in the u.s., the more we see there is no one path to radicalization. we see it as a very complex process, and the motivations for engaging in this activity vary widely. heritage foundation did a study bringing together many of our different regional analysts looking at the isis foreign fighter pipeline and looking at a global approach to dealing with this.
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what we found is initially when people start looking at the foreign fighter problem idea, a year and half ago, a lot of these people motivated by the atrocities being committed by the bush are al-assad regime against the syrian people. now what we see are many people are motivated by religion to be it's their religious duty to either go fight for the caliphate in iraq or see or commit terror acts in their own country. so we've seen since 9/11 90 plots have been uncovered here in the u.s. 25 of those in just this last year and a half. any of those 25, 21 have had connections to isis. and this means either people were inspired isis ideology or in some cases they have contact with isis operatives over even directed by isis.
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so first i think we have to understand what contributes to the radicalization process. dr. alexander raised in his opening remarks. but second we also have to better understand how isis seeks, finds and nurtures people who have already started down the path of radicalization from their online activities. this brings into the case of bangladesh and i see we have the bangladesh dcm to any audience so you can probably talk more about it later but let me just say a few words about that horrifying terrorist incident we saw on july 1 when five young bangladeshi men attacked a café in an upscale neighborhood in the capital and murdered 20 people, mostly foreigners. they had asked people to recite
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the quran and when they could not, they were brutally tortured and stabbed to death. what has really so prized bangladeshis is that most of those involved in the attacks were actually from wealthy families and then went to expensive private education institutes. this is something i think has really shocked the bangladeshi nation and it's something also that we need to keep in mind. there was recently a raid two days ago on a local militant hideout. the government says they were behind the attack but there also seems to be a isis connection to although the government denies any large-scale i.c.e. is present in bangladesh, it does look like these local militants had some kind of links to isis.
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we know this because there's also a hunt on for three bangladeshi ex-pats of canada, australia and japan. it looks like they may have been running recruitment and training pipeline for isis. and recent study from the national bureau of economic research actually backs up this idea the isis is not necessary targeting those from the lower echelons of society are those where lower socioeconomic strata. another study done by the eu found out of 140 cases of so-called lone wolf terrorist attacks, actually only three of those were actual lone wolves. all of the other set some kind of contact with radical or extremist groups. we need to dig deeper into this lone wolf phenomena and explore
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how is isis perhaps tapping into these bubbles? or do they start out as lone wolf but they have some contact whether it's a virtual or face-to-face? -look at the bangladesh example, windows investigation before and we find that more and more i think i will help a lot in how we address isis globally. so the obama administration has been reluctant to talk about the ideological underpinnings of terrorism and the relationship between political islam and terrorism. but i think counter to the efforts have to take into account this direct connection between islamist ideology and the attacks that are often born of it. it would be impossible to uproot support for islamist extremist ideology unless we can talk about it candidly in our society and political environment. a recent study by the center on
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religion and geopolitics found that half of 100 violent jihadists that were surveyed initially came from nonviolent islamist groups. one in four came from the muslim brotherhood or groups associate with the muslim brotherhood. we have to think of political islam as providing the fertile ground for extremist terrorist mindsets to grow and develop. at the same time outline large islamist political organizations like the muslim brotherhood, or excluding them from the political processes in the countries in which they are part of the. that is not the answer either. internationally, we have to find a way to simultaneously counter islamist ideologies without driving the islamist parties underground. and at home we had to figure out how to best to counter islamist
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radicalism without trampling on muslim civil liberties here in the u.s. and here i would like to talk about a case, this was a report that was published by the new york police department in 2007 called radicalization in the west, the homegrown threat. it became very controversial to produce a backlash from the muslim community in new york who claimed that it tried to justify racial profiling and aggressive surveillance of mosques so eventually there was a lawsuit brought against the nypd, and it took down the report from the website as part of the settlement with the muslim community. but i would also say that this report in some ways was ahead of its time. this was in 2007 when there was talk about lone wolves and the some of the findings in the report we should actually pay attention to and not throw out the baby with the bathwater. so what else can we do? we heard a lot from captain
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martin about what our local law enforcement is doing, and i can't emphasize how important it is to develop relationships with the muslim communities, you know, that helps produce intelligence on potential extremist networks, and just continued to keep the communication flow going. there is an inherent tensions process and i will point out an example from australia. many of you remember that this will -- december 24 attack in sydney, australia, when a terrorist held hostages in downtown sydney. one of his requests from the local law enforcement was to have an islamic state flag. as part of the negotiating process they were trying to fight an islamic state flag and they contacted some members of the muslim community at best them, could you fight an islamic state flag? it turned out after the attack
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was over the next few days, law enforcement actually rated the homes of those people who the muslim community members had contacted, to get an islamic state flag that caused tension between the communities but also we can ask ourselves is a legitimate to worry about somebody who has an islamic state flag? i would say yes. second, in terms of way forward, when it comes to countering radical messages it is sort of the private sector that has to lead the way. the government is just not credible when it comes to trying to counter radicalization messages. i think the recently announced department of homeland security program to provide 10 million in grants to private organizations are working on countering radicalization and violent extremism, this is a step in the right direction. i think the state department is
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moving in the right direction and its a tapping the weight it engages in the ideological battle against extremism. previously a small office called the center for strategic counterterrorism committee patients in the state department had its diplomatic sort of record engaged online with radicals and try to counter radical messaging but it was known that their messages were coming from the state department. they had the state department moniker. they figured out that wasn't working and achieving the objective. now they've replaced the office with the office of global engagement which focuses on partnering with other non-governmental groups and also other governments in developing counter messaging strategies rather than trying to directly engage online. i also want to highlight the work of a nonprofit organization
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in the u.s. called the world organization for resource development and education. they are actually operating in montgomery county, maryland, which i could understand as a whole the world from frederick county but even though they're next to each other, but this group is doing really stellar work in talking about youth radicalization with the muslim communities, engaging, encouraging a lot of communication with other faith leaders, community groups, law enforcement. but they are a small group what they are doing needs to be scaled up. i think they can serve as a model for other groups working in this space. i think also we had to consider about talking about radicalization in our schools. we see that children are going online younger and younger. we see that terrorists even these lone wolves are getting younger and younger.
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teenagers, in many cases. so i think it's not out of the question to start teaching about these things. if you think about it, the way that extremists prey on younger minds over the internet is a lot like sexual predators and how they pray until the online. i think we have to think about the problem in the same way. so in conclusion let me just say that thwarting homegrown terrorist plots in the u.s. requires both an understanding of the islamist extremist ideology that drives them, but also a recognition that the religion of islam itself is not responsible for the terrorism. it's rather the people who are acting in the name of the religion. this is important when we talk about upholding our values of religious freedom. it's also important for practical measures in that we need to cooperate with the vast majority of american muslims who are peaceful and who are
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fighting the same fight as everyone else is. and i'll just end by making a quick plug for the heritage foundation has on its website an interactive timeline of all of the nearly 90 plots that have been uncovered over the last decade. each incident has the full details as part of this interactive timeline so i think it might be very useful for those of you who are researching this issue. thank you very much. [applause] >> general gray, professor alexander, one of the key principles of economics is
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advantage. as a look at the panel, i see my comparative advantage is i grew up in the middle east and i speak the language of isis and al-qaeda. byway of introduction i would like to make two comments. first of all, the symbiotic relationship between the terrorist organizations and the social network. social network including publication author promoting or depicting acts of violence, have become the most important weapon in the hands of terrorist organizations in recruiting, and training, indoctrinating, encouraging, directing and glorifying lone wolf terrorists. these organizations have become savvy in dramatic water to the war against them can no longer be limited to military action.
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second, 9/11 was perhaps last of the most strategically well planned and operationally effectively executed act of terrorism in modern history. where there have been many such activities on a smaller scale since then, we are now beginning to witness smaller but more frequent operations carried out by a lone wolves who may or may not be associated with terrorist organizations. in fact, today the "washington post" captured the change in an article on page one about the amateur attacks. the new strategy leading terrorist organization is to achieve maximum terrorism with minimum input of resources and man power. hence, the rising importance of the role of the lone wolf. island mentioned briefly three
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terrorist acts, one in the u.s. and two recent ones in europe, to underscore what the importance of social media and the role of the lone wolf. the first is the bombing on boston marathon in april 2015. the second is the attack in nice, and the third is the attack on train commuters in germany. the last two were carried out in july 2016. american bombing investigation has revealed that the two brothers involved in carrying out the bombing were inspired by al-qaeda magazine, ironically called inspire, which published an article in 2010, how to make a bomb in the kitchen of your mom. the article was found with the terrorists. following the bombing of al-qaeda, following the bombing, al-qaeda in the
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arabian peninsula, this is one of the branches of al-qaeda, posted a special issue of the magazine inspired on the quote-unquote the blessed boston bombings. the magazine contained pages of glory and praise of the brothers, but it hit its emotional to send a page 26 with an admission photo of the two brothers, of the martyr who was killed by the police against the background of heaven, designer sunglasses, and clouds behind him. ayman al-zawahiri, now head of al-qaeda also released a video in which he praised the boston bombings, and rallied lone wolves in america to carry out similar operations.
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these dispersed strikes, he said, can be carried out by one brother or small number of brothers. a brother in arabic year means to the meaning of most of brothers. such packets will bleed america economically by provoking it to continue this massive expenditures on security. i should also point out that the inspire magazine uses the word -- as a clearinghouse for jihad. i look now at the second case in nice, a lone wolf terrorist by the name of mohammed, a french tunisian ram a truck into a large crowd celebrating bastille day in the city of nice to the islamic state, also referred to as isis, sometimes isil and daesh in arabic, publishes an electronic magazine in arabic
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called depth. in an article titled -- addressed to isis fighters, and i quote the english translation, now, my brother, let us be honest with one another. let me tell you the truth. there are not many of us here. but there are enough of us. allah be praised. we are facing the beast. we are breaking its -- and we hope to chop off its head. but we are in the belly of the beast, my brother, so if you want islam to be victorious, why would you want to come out of the beast and face its fangs when you can tear out its heart and its liver? since the nice attack on july 15, supporters have posted
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dozens of banners on various telegram channels, gloating over the terror attack and threatening to isis will continue striking france until the congress the country, raises its flag over the eiffel tower, and on the rules of paris, most notable landmarks. the third case is the one in germany on july 19. isis and a news agency released the video issuing a message by the perpetrator of the train attack, recorded the day before the attack. isis claimed responsibility for the attack, which was carried out by a 17 year-old afghan refugee. the video identified the attacker as mohammed riyadh, explaining how he planned to attack.
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and vows to perpetrate an attack greater in magnitude than that in france. the social media is also used by the terrorist organization to encourage action by lone wolves. al-qaeda in the arabian peninsula published on july 19, 2016, on telegram channel a piece that will inspire the believers, which identified a list of 17 targets for lone wolf attacks during the upcoming 2016 summer olympics. the post included an english-language schedule of events for the olympic games. it encourages lone wolves by claiming that they traveled to brazil is relatively cheap and easy. and i quote, lone wolves from anywhere in the world can move
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to brazil -- sorry. visas and tickets, and tickets and travel to brazil would be very easy to get. god willing. suggestions for attacks include attaching a small explosives on point drones, perpetrating a night attack against americans and israelis and injuring bars and pubs in the area to attack, kidnapper rob drunk patrons. social media is also used to recruit volunteers for new initiative. that's on february 20, 2016, isis announced the creation of the islamic state scientists and engineers. they trust members of the group must have a degree in scientific or mathematical field such as chemistry or aeronautics.
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what's the problem for the future? it is precisely the danger emanating from the lone wolves that has become a source of great concern to agencies dealing with terrorism in general, and with lone wolves in particular. in charge of eu terrorist organization, terrorist coordination, raises a serious question for the future, which is how does one capture some signs of someone who has no contact with any organization? he just inspired and started expressing some kind of allegiance to a terrorist organization such as the islamic state. most significantly is the fear that self radicalized assailants, which i would call terrorism entrepreneurs, will have little or no communication with militant or terrorist groups that could be intercept
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intercepted, that could not be intercepted by intelligence agencies. that beaches do well, quickly what is the difference, one comment, the difference between al-qaeda and the islamic state. al-qaeda from the very beginning was organized to attack western targets. isis by contrast is an organization determined to occupy territory. and to introduce islamic sharia into those who are under its occupation. in keeping with the practice of prophet mohammed, isis and
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demands that those who come under its control declared oath of allegiance to the head of the organization. what is the arab reaction to all of us? some has already referred to i think a scrimmage. most arab world has been concerned about the emergence of islamophobia as a result of terrorist actions in the west by organizations like isis. here i quote abdullah, a somebody writer, writes in a daily article, devoted article on the crime of nice and the root of terrorism. i quote here, contemporary terrorism is largely associated with islam. this is a fact. many nations and peoples
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enduring many stages of history have engaged in terrorism, but at this moment of human history the vast majority who practice terrorism are those who claim islam as the religion. and one more quotation on the significance of education and the relationship between education and terrorism. so again on july 17 in an article published by the arabic daily in london by a palestinian writer and academic, he called on -- to admit terrorism perpetrated by muslims is indeed tied to islam, and the education in their schools and mosques establish as implicit support for isis. and then to work to improve the phenomena, it does great harm,
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he writes, we must first of all admit that education in our schools and mosques lays the foundation for implicit isis is them. it is the largest and most important source feeding the barbaric isis-ism that has managed to acquire weapons and implement large parts of the implicit isis-ism that was not given a chance to express it so. let me break one final comment and then i finished. the glorification of the lone wolf. as a rule, a person killed in the line of duty is considered a martyr. i have one particular case about which i wrote an article in february 2005. a suicide bomber detonated a car bomb in the front of the
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recruiting station for soldiers and policemen south of baghdad. the explosion killed 152 people and injured 120. the car bomb was the work of zarqawi, the head of the al-qaeda bridge, made a name for himself as the chief of the slaughterers. eventually killed by u.s. forces. the so-called martyrs families honored this act by holding a festive ceremony known as the wedding of a martyr. in arabic, to symbolize his wedding in paradise with 72 virgins. on these occasions i guess congratulate the family for their son's martyrdom. these types of weddings are performed often. thank you. [applause]
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>> general gray, professor alexander, i appreciate the opportunity to shove -- shearson professes an also are to be on the panel, these distinguished individuals. in light of the background that was sent out on my colleagues, i thought it might be helpful to focus on a few different issues one in particular trying to find these lone wolf.
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in particular, islamic state in smart individuals in the u.s. at some of the same lessons can be utilized with transnational jihadists or same thing with lone wolves here, either with vis-à-vis traditional crime or other political extremism. so with to the type of topics i'm going to be tougher in are many fold initially easy with a few cases of isis inspired attacks here, as professor flint noted, the issue of lone wolf is complex and in some cases you're talking about a unitary unit, one person individual. in some cases you have a cabal that is doesn't it as lone wolves but generally speaking focusing on the former, not the latter we'll talk about some other issues as well. a couple of items. next, my contention and others as well, they don't operate in a vacuum so some of these folks
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are discoverable and these are some methodologies that can be utilized. there aren't any signs of terrorism that some cases people fall step-by-step, with its own rules or more complex incidents. we've also seen unfortunately some missed signs the it's not monday morning quarterback but there are some examples where some people that were monitored by law enforcement either here or abroad subsequently undertook attack. again it's impossible to find all lone wolves all the time. there are also challenges of having so many radicals. according to one, there's more than 10,000 radicals in france, and, obviously, limited manpower. people can't be monitored 24/7. in some cases they're using electronic bracelets as we saw with one of the two perpetrators in the attack yesterday at the church. we also noted other mechanisms
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to come across these folks are use of leveraging traffic stops. noted before also the use of informants and undercover agents, also leveraging immunity oriented policing and then as well reaching out to the private sector. and nonprofits, ngos. there's been some discussion on cd, countering violent extremism and leveraging global cooperation to i would go by without to speak. [laughter] i will touch lightly. as we saw the attack in orlando, omar mateen, i many counties alone will. there's a discrepancy regarding what motivated him. fbi past a week or two noted he appeared to be not involved with any homosexual activity, and then by and large obviously he
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called 911 saying he was conducting be tackled at the islamic state. you referenced some other individuals or other groups when he was negotiating with the law enforcement. any case that is used as a lone wolf attack. we will also see there were some missed signs on him but obviously by the fbi, but their -- there wasn't enough adequate evidence to prosecute. 49 killed, more than 50 injured. the we have an attack undertaken at the university of california merced, perpetrated college students. he undertook the attack, took a knife to a classroom, stabbed several of his classmates at the several others who was ultimately killed by a police officer at the campus. according to law enforcement he was radicalized online. so again we need to weigh the
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issue of whether someone declares the undertaking the attack on behalf of ideology x, y or z. obviously, these folks in many cases have conflicting issues, some cases perhaps some mental challenges as well we can't discount when these folks say that they're undertaking the attack on behalf of x or y ideology. then we have the attack against leaves office in philadelphia. also undertaken on behalf of the islamic state. again, various background, socioeconomic backgrounds. the individual came from an affluent family. mr. mohammed came from affluent county. mr. archer had a criminal record. so there's not one cookie-cutter by which you can sit and lone wolf comes from this background. it may be economically, politically marginalized or others. again as i noted they don't
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operate in a vacuum. they are notof. fans in some cases they are but mostly they are not the they have friends and family. the articulate sometimes their animosity to their target but they're online or off-line which will get you. they're active in economic system. bishop, have credit cards. in some cases they purchased component parts for explosive or weapons. in some cases we will see the private sector comes across these folks and in some cases notes some peculiarity and then reaches out to law enforcement. in some cases we saw in the omar mateen in the omar mateen to speak in one incident they didn't have enough information about him so they were concerned about his interest in buying a large amount of ammunition and bulletproof vests, but they didn't, they didn't get his name, they didn't get his phone number. they didn't get his license plate. so against law enforcement can only work with what content is provided by the private sector and others.
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these folks as well go to schools. they attend a recreational centers and religious institutions. we see sometimes throw up barriers religious institutions are concerned about radicalization in their own communities, and reach out to law enforcement. we've seen several dozen cases where the moslem community in the u.s. has been concerned about operatives and the contact law enforcement. sometimes your sting operations or other meetings with the operative. they also the economic footprints in some cases. in some cases they're utilizing intricate technologies and more sophisticated technologies so it's difficult to discern their activity. but we've also seen that in some cases they have a real desire to articulate their radical tenets either online or off-line to sometimes they do it in a very non-sophisticated manner, and only once they plan on taking
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the attack they'r there were cod or more circumspect regarding their activity. we have seen some cases radicalization process occurs quickly but in some cases it can take a much longer time period and in some cases these lone wolves indeed are not lone wolves. they are impacted, if we're talking about a just lone wolf, they are impacted ideologically. they are impacted by content that disseminated by there is extremist groups online and off-line. they may be lone wolf in terms of actor but the content that there are viewing and in baby is coming from outside actor. we noticed some of the marginalization and some of the mental issues. in terms of offer and we can talk about later, there is indeed this notion of having mental health professionals becoming more involved in the cve process that has hopeful as well. can find the elsewhere, sometimes hiding or moving pre-attack the post-attack.
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we will talk about the eight signs of terrorism as well. as some of her other colleagues noted about the active use of online materials by isis and other groups, disseminating 24/7 multiple languages through different websites, different internet, using telegram and other mechanisms that are sometimes difficult to discern. there are also modes for discovery by law enforcement or tips from the community. there's also a lot of content regarding different modes of radicalization, recruitment, who to target, what modus operandi to utilize. begin to slow balls even if they're acting singly are impacted externally. we have a couple of examples. this one case in kansas, mr. booker while he was in u.s. military be reached out on facebook saying he wanted to
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become a martyr. in the fbi met with him and subsequently he interacted with the informant and tried to drive a van onto fort riley, kansas, and commit a suicide bombing. he also received $100 loan from the man he met at the mosque. his colleague new that he was planning on utilizing this money to undertake the attack but he did not want to purchase. these lone wolves are not completely singular. another incident, mr. suarez, he reached out online also through facebook. he invited different adventures to join the islamic state. there was a tip from a recipient to sheriffs deputy in florida and they contacted jttf and did a sting operation and he was arrested trying to place explosive on a beach and kill
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dozens. so there are other opportunities for discovery but also off-line, not only online and off-line are some of the same places where people be, radicalized as we noted before in the interest of time. will not focus on all the including and prisons, and religious institutions. also we see during investigations of traditional crimes opportunity to come across individuals that may be undertaking the traditional crimes in order to raise funds. some of the eight signs of terrorism was it's done by a lone wolf or a cobalt or by a directed attack on a group either here or abroad are these that you may be aware of them. conducting surveillance, vis-à-vis the target, gather intelligence can be done online or in person. if it's done in person a higher propensity for discovery depending on how they interact with the target. testing security.
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again to see what level of security exists, they include some dry runs later. raising funds as was noted by some of the panelists. a barrier to entry for some of these attacks are very low. so if you just purchase an item is relatively inexpensive so the need to garner funds is quite low in contrast to the much more sophisticated attacks. and then gathering supplies and in some cases the individuals acting suspiciously either on their way to undertake the attacks as we saw with the nice attacked with the individual did a dry run. as well he had the truck along the path of his attack, and police interacted with them. he said he is going to distribute ice cream at the event but from what i recall, they didn't check the back of the chuck.
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so there are opportunities for law enforcement, for the public to interact with these lone wolves. they are not phantoms. in some cases you have a dry run as i noted or deployment of the assets. sometimes you get tips from security guides for the public. we saw a suicide bomber attitude ago in germany where security guard had some interaction with a suicide bomber in germany and persuaded him from entering the location. some of them is signs we talked about omar mateen. there were two tips, fbi investigated both. again the same thing with the tsarnaev brothers. tamerlan tsarnaev, there was an investigation by the fbi. at the same time we are not blaming anyone but just to show that there are examples of some interaction with these perpetrators and given us a threshold that the law provides is not possible in some cases to
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arrest or prosecute individuals. so the trend one case, he was a us-based individual radicalized while he was in yemen. and came back to the u.s., met with fbi. and monitoring fortitude and he undertook an attack in arkansas in 2000 against an army recruiting station. and with nidal hasan incident in fort hood, you had to separate investigation by the fbi and also the duty regarding his radicalization while he was in the us army of interacting online with anwar awlaki. sort of equivalent to being in the us army and interacting with one of the spokesmen or propagandist for the islamic state. then a few other examples, vis-à-vis traffic stop the uniting individuals stopped in michigan. at the same time of the traffic stop you actually had to undercover agents interacting in
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line regarding different plots. during the traffic stop the individual had a weapon as well as marijuana pictures could be detained and some weapons charges. then in relation to calls for service you have mr. sullivan. his parents called 911 in relation to him trying to burn down the home. and within about four weeks he interacted with informants in relation to undertaking an attack in north carolina. another example, utilizing informants, mr. cornell, again, he played undertake an attack against the u.s. capital. so again while these folks may be marginalized economically or allegedly are they have some mental issues, they are not doing these activities on an island or in a vacuum. they do interact and want some
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cohesion or comment out or camerata in many cases. sometimes they don't but in some cases they do. then with reference defining these folks come utilizing undercover agents, in many cases discover these hundred or so individuals have been prosecuted in the past two and half years in connection with isis activities. some of them have been discovered through online activity, about 50% of the cases that had sting operations. .. there is indeed some tension on the one hand reaching out to community and then concurrently
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targeting them but that's at least the approach that's being utilized at this point. also a different cve program and a number that have been utilized here and internationally with mixed success. some attempts to offer offramps for folks that don't allow nexu and a few examples, anaji, two trips to syria and provided different military supplies and other assistance to the islamic state and tip from the muslim community saying that this guy was very aggressive trying to find other adherence to the islamic state.
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then the role of the private sector. they noted before these people are not phantoms. buy products and services and sometimes they may try to acquire very large chemicals, large amounts of chemicals and others or purchased weaponry or rent storage facilities. so there's now outreach as there has been in the past by the fbi and the department of justice in relation to raising awareness by the private sector amongst two dozen business sectors including storage facilities and otherwise to report and provide guidance regarding suspicious activities and purchases or appearance of the purchaser. so again, not to have hysteria the utility of reaching out as well as utilizing nonprofits, nongovernmental organization
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that is have connections and credibility in the communities and they have insights and contacts that can be utilized. they also have some bridges with the community that perhaps a government may not have and also not viewed as a credible actor as ms. curtis mentioned in some cases as well. lastly, more or less the focus on the need to leverage international cooperation. a lone-wolf issue is a global issue. we have seen the participants, 300 u.s. linked individuals who have traveled iraq or syria, some have been killed there. some have tried to return here as well as the other some 30,000 plus foreign fighters. so there are opportunities, various entities, interpol and others focusing and also databases regarding stolen
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weapons, passports, foreign fighters that can be disseminated as well. also u.s. law enforcement and different instrumentalities, cia and otherwise, broad, fbi and others provideing context and garnering information and leveraging it here at home and internationally. so in conclusion, of points to leave you with, some of these folks can be found prior to these attacks but some of them obviously can't for various reasons. there's a very important role that the public sector and the community can play in relation to finding the lone wolfs, the propaganda and the tools that isis is disseminated, multiple languages, media and otherwise has been very impactful, both here and abroad, currently there about 900 isis-related investigations here in the u.s.,
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all 50 states, the issue of how do you designate the term lone wolf, in relation to terrorism or traditional crime or these folks have significant mental challenges some that utilize the term loon wolf, with that i will take any comments perhaps later. thank you very much. [applause] >> in the interest of time, we will develop a discussion dialogue. as moderator let me try to mention three or four areas that i think each of you mentioned. one in terms of the terminology, definition, if you will. i recall that going all the way
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back to the 1970's and '80's some of the academics wanted to make life simpler in terms of who is the enemy, so we had the three -- the three c's, one the crazies, two the criminals and three the crusaders. well, the first two, the crusaders are looking obviously at other religions and ideologies, so the point i'm trying to make is when we talk about who are the perpetrators and number two, what is their motivation, what triggers
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individuals to resort to violence in the name of some higher principles or whatever, and thirdly, the modus operandi and finally, the discussion about what kind of tools do we have as a society on the public level and private level to deal with that. some of you mentioned the role of education which i endorse, the community relations. again,s as a participant for many, many years, it seems to me that somehow we're not focusing on the role of the media in terms of trying to classify and
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to deal with that but because even going back 50 years or 60 years, as i recall, we still have a problem in -- when the media uses interchangeably different terms and concepts. all the way from fighters, to commando, soldier, perpetrator or actor and so on. the same goes now to the question of the lone wolf and we don't have time to provide a long list, even some leaderless offenders are going to terrorism and so on. so it seems to me that because the public and policymakers are influenced a great deal by the media, so the question is, can we provide a bridge betweethe
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media and the law enforcement and the public in general and ng's and so on, to provide some clarity, what are we dealing with in so what i'm really asking the panel maybe to react to that or to some of the other issues that we raised. we will start with you, captain. >> i would say, that, yeah, that was one of the reasons i try to provide some type of definition right at the beginning of my portion of the presentation, was just because literally playing from the same sheet of music is important in having -- in forms of discussion, terms may mean something to me, might mean something different to someone who is purely working in the academic field. so in terms of having a apples to apples discussion, you know, i don't have like a specific
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preference on terminology, but whenever i do hear something, i think one of the examples i had given was about, you know, we used to simply just say, lone-wolf actor, lone-wolf terrorist and now we have added -- the media has added in the caveat, isis inspired so at least we know that it's not an individual grudge that the person might have, but that it is coming from some other source and social media or, you know, the publickization of things that take place here in our backyard. >> okay. >> it's interesting because when you said the media, i initially jumped into my mind not the issue of the different uses of different terminology but rather, what role does the media
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play in exacerbating this problem? we see again through this use of social media to broadcast their intentions and real-time during the act, sort of a desire among these people to publicize what they're doing to achieve some kind of fame, and is the media playing into that by publicizing these so greatly? of course, nowdays the media is not a monolithic thing because anybody can contribute to the discussion. every time you see trending on the top of the screen, it's what people pay attention to which feeds a generation of more publicity for these types of offenders. on the terminology, i think terminology is important for a couple of reasons, one it gives
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you a framework for analyzing and studying the different type of actors. it also in the law enforcement world laws are based on certain terminology, so again it's important for that reason. iwould just highlight on what carol said and she talked about real-time posting, this is what what happened in bangladesh, they post it had pictures of the people they had just killed. in fact, i know of people who identified friends that had been killed by the pictures on social media that they saw long before the authorities had gotten no touch with anybody. and so we simply have to find a way to prevent the terrorists from being able to, you know, highlight what they're doing and
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to glorify what they're doing through social media. i know there's a group called the counterextremism project and i know townsend is involved and others and they focus on issue on calling facebook, instagram, sort of naming and shaming, brought to their attention things that need to be taken down and dealt with and if they're not doing it, sort of pointing that out. i think we do need to have this dialogue and i think you're right, i think the private sector can play a role in bringing, you know, the company leaders together with the government and other experts to figure out how we can prevent the terrorists from exploiting social media. >> first of all, memory has a large portfolio of reports and videos on terrorism and
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jihaddism, so if anybody is interested, you can consult this. i just want to make one comment about professor alexander. be ware not to use the term because this is the term used by terrorist organization to designate christian countries. they're referred to crusader. >> absolutely. absolutely. there is no question but the -- the point is now they try to develop, i think, the conflict, into the conflict of war between civilization and that's -- that's really the major challenge that we are facing and particularly after the terrible
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attack yesterday in france, at the church, we can see exactly what it can lead to. then you have -- >> in terms of social media, we have now also seen a trend of litigation lawsuits against twitter, facebook and other entities that are disseminating some of this content and you have civil suits that by disseminating the content, allowing the contact to do disseminating they are proud having support and as such they can be held liable, that's also an emerging issue. >> professor wallace, comments. >> i i usually thank yonah for putting a panel but i want to thank dean.
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he was once my research assistant. several observations. i think i'm trying to get what you think. i mean, this is an overwhelming set of phenomena, number one. overwhelming set of phenomena, but what i've noticed, most of the discussion comes after the fact, these are post analysis, studies. we cannot deal with everything in advance. are there any sort of solutions? i think that's what my wife would ask, my kids would ask and i ask. i never asked mr. snowden. i think another thing is if you see something, say something. i think that -- this has come up before in our programs. i think this goes to the heart of the matter because it goes to us, our society, are we prepared
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to change behaviors in such a way that we will snitch more. this annoys my wife when i say this, most of -- many of these people and there are very different types, some are radicalized and some are just murdererrers -- murderers quite frankly. usually there's a parent who knows, there's a brother who knows or a sister and they think it's bad for them to talk. wewith that goes against the very nature of our society in many ways. we are soft in a nice civilize way. yes, after the fact.
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you know, the french say that 10,000 suspects in france and can't follow them all. there's nine billion people in the earth, nine half are muslims, we talk about muslims quite often. 10million adults, 10 million muslim adults who might be in or outside the range of suspect. there's no way unless we change our society profoundly. another answer might be tough, sucking it in. my wife is an english and i'm afraid that's also part of it. our culture is really a melon waiting to be kind of ripped apart and we are lucky it hasn't happened yet. i wonder -- i admire general gray enormously, i believe in can-do. he used warfare. this is a very strange war and maybe word is not the right term to use. there is a definitional issue.
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yonah has been talking about what does lone wolf mean. i think dean has layed out almost all the factors but almost after the fact. the question is can we move forward with real purpose and determination realizing that we are not going to catch all of these guys, we are not going the change society to become an all-purpose solidify police state even in france, what do we call it, we have to get together. i think we are going to have to live with some of this or get a lot better with what's going to come down the road. the worst is yet to come. that's not my attitude. not think the worst is not going to come. the power of denial and just not focus on all of this and in your personal life you shouldn't focus on your problems, you should focus on your possibilities but i think this is yonah you set up a very difficult challenge with even your son will solve completely. [laughter]
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>> thanks, professor wallace. we would like to open up the discussion dialogue and get audience involved. we would appreciate, number one, if you identify yourself for the record. incidentally we are grateful for c-span to covering our event to bring it to a wider audience in the united states, and abroad and secondly, please ask a brief question and not make another speech, and i would like to develop that and then we will have another chance to respond to that. yes, please. >> i'm norman from the potomic institute, one question that i
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have or understood why is there speeding up of these attacks? if you take after 2011 the material that al-qaeda put out on encouraging was put systematic, granted most of it was in arabic and french until the man in yemen, but you see this phenomenon not only in the u.s., the ramping up, the speeding up, you see it in saudi arabia. many lone wolf attacks, why now? dakota del sur not that if there wasn't any encouragement or no direction before and they were everywhere after 9/11, you can't find as much now, very little. >> anyone? >> well, i think one answer to that is the pressure that isis
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is under in its strongholds in iraq. i think that maybe contributing, i think they my be calling out and looking to people overseas to conduct attacks because, you know, before the u.s.-iraqi forces were really going after their strongholds, they seemed to content to be building the islamic caliphate there. so i think that's a contributor and secondly, i would just say, you know, you probably have the issue of copy cats and that's probably what we have seen over the last few weeks, is copy-cat type of activity. >> i would agree with all of that. i would just add one other thing as isis loses actual territory, their caliphate is becoming more of a virtual caliphate online. >> yeah, i agree with the two
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speakers. as isis loses territory, they're extending their activities overseas. but i think we should look at two other factors as to why terrorism is expanding so rapidly across the middle east. one is political and the other is economic. politically 17arab governments have no political legitamacy. age 16 to 24 according to labor organization are unemployed and likely to be employed any time during their lifetime and there's nothing for them to lose except to make sacrifices.
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>> anyone? okay. next question, dr. murphy, right here. >> this is a little bit broader than just lone wolfs but i mentioned to a couple of you before that i have been watching ever since september 11th for a pro-american or antiterrorist rally by american muslims and i have yet to hear of a single one. if they would organize something like that, i think it would do a lot to diffuse the attitude of americans towards muslim but also muslim leaders are afraid of being taken by isis if they try anything like that. >> you want to comment on that? >> i can't -- >> same sort of thing, if not a rally, you get the general idea. >> i cannot speak about american muslims, but if you read the arabic papers you find numerous
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articles on a daily basis disassociating the arab regimes from terrorism and condemning and concern about the rice of islamphobia and how it would affect the relations between arab countries and western countries. >> okay, in the back. >> identify heard from several people dissatisfaction with the term lone wolf because it glorifies them as wolfs and the third reason because of the word loners, the one we are concerned on are not the loonis.
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so it seems to me we are talking about self-organizing isis adherence or self-organizing islamist terrorist or some variation on that and i wondered if all of the several people who are dissatisfied with the term lone wolf could get together and come up with a better terminology that doesn't divert us and minimize the issue and at the same time doesn't distort the issue? >> i would like to take a stab at that. not so much on the terminology of lone wolf, i will differ to anyone else who wants to come up with that, but in terms of how we looked at lone wolfs, we said, yes, they must have an ideology and political object i -- objective but doesn't have to be anyone else's. ted, lone wolf terrorist, he had a political agenda and he operated alone and used violence to try to further his objective and there's bravec in norway,
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again had his own -- he's the one who mounted a shooting attack against the student camps, summer camp. he had his own individualized ideology but he had a political objective. so i wanted to distinguish between some of the lone wolfs do have their -- have their own individual ideology, others have bar rowed an isis ideology or a white supremacist ideology or an antiabortion ideology, it just depends. >> you're basically talking about single issue on politics, obviously, and again, alexander tried to point out, it's not only the religious inspiration or direction, but also the antigovernment, let's say,
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motivations of ideology or the racist, let's say, or right-wing and so. so it is a broad spectrum of trigger points that encourage people to rise up and, of course, the copycat that is you mentioned before is one of them. let's move onto one more -- in the back. do you have a question? >> hi, paul from the potomac institute. i want to respond to the question that there was no rallies, there was one in london and quite a few articles on that and i pulled up a washington
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article rally in washington just to provide a response to that. >> yes, please. right here. >> the deputy chief of mission from the embassy of bangladesh. if i'm -- if i'm allow today make a brief comment, sir. >> why don't you come up to the podium for a second, if it's okay. >> that's a unique honor. thank you. i have a bit of difference with the terminology particularly when we say foreign fighters. the word fighter, i'm not at all comfortable with. fighter is a very positive word.
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bangladesh earned its independence through a war of liberation and we call them freedom fighters. don't -- i do not call a terrorist a fighter. so these are isis terrorists, al-qaeda, terrorists or for any organization whether it's muslim brotherhood, these are terrorists. my very good friend lisa referenced what happened in bangladesh, of course, it's certainly unprecedented particularly the attack in the catholic on first of july. and the way immediately the photographs went to the social media, what social media practiced particularly by these elements is certainly not democracy. it's perhaps demo-crazy so we
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need to look at that serious, globally how to -- i wouldn't use the world control but manage. if i may cite an example what professor wallace was saying, what do we do to prevent this, if i understand you correctly, sir. post event analysis, of course, it can go at any length, at any weight, any depth. beforehand what could be done? certainly things perhaps we need to look at. the rate among muslims globally, it's debatable but roughly 50%. certainly not a very impressive figure. in some statistics it's even up to 60%, so literacy is 40%. 22% of the global population being muslim produced. 5% of the gdp, so there are
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statistics, figures that we perhaps need to look at carefully and analyze beforehand. i'm not a religious person at all but on the eve day after the fasting month i just went to see, not really say my prayer, just to see what's happening in one of the congregations. what i saw was very impressive. the eve congregation, the prayer was held in a church and adjacent to that a senegal and the voluntary offered their parking lot for their muslim friends and brothers and sisters who came there to pray. i think we need to conceptualize
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this, the interfaith unity, bonded how to strengthen that. religion in many people's opinion has been very divisive since the very beginning -- very inception. that's a reality. we need to reckon with and we need to address. i think we need to do a lot of research but a very valid point by professor wallace. very good point. let us try and invest resources more into that. muslim brotherhood and islamy reference made by lisa, i beg to differ with the notion that they are actually political parties. they're not political parties. they're terrorist organizations
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that must not be confused as political parties. if we continue to allow the public political space to be used and utilized by these platforms, we know what is going to happen. islami is in bangladesh, 4% of public support. i would be the last person to see that entity going to what other organizations like muslim brotherhood did in some other countries. that's not our goal. terrorist organization must be branded as a terrorist organization. there is a fear, a narrative, that if those organizations are banned legally, they would go underground and perhaps create more offshoots and create havoc
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in a society and i think we really don't have time to discuss that at length. i would be very happy by any of the members and the audience and the distinguished panelists, i can discuss that privately and formerly, but i do not simply buy that, that narrative. i have one question for the panel. anybody can enlighten me, sir. what we have seen particularly in bangladesh that most of these terrorists were from the weldy families, educated not only in madrasas, the poor segment of the society where their parents
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send kids to private schools, private universities, one even studied abroad and this is something new that we all encountered. it's not only in bangladesh but also happening in other parts of the world. why this radicalization is attracting those young, bright, brilliant, well-educateed muslim youth? any thought on that? thank you. [applause] >> this certainly -- your question deserves a special seminar and -- [laughter] >> we are not going to go into it except to say as i mentioned
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before -- before me nothing is new. i mean, i think the concept that if we only eradicate poverty, then we eliminate terrorism and the way examples go all the way back to carlos in terms of the background of affluence, those who became involved and became leaders and there are many political and sociallogical reasons for that. i really think the key is we have to expect the unexpected from both the lower community to
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the upper community, therefore we shouldn't be surprised again by the surprises and when professor wallace indicated that clearly we have to try to prevent, we learned the lessons of the law enforcement and the intelligence community. we just had an event on sharing intelligence so on and so on. it's not that we surrender and we don't have some of the alternatives and some of the responses, so, again, academically, i think you are absolutely right. we have to go into that, but again, in the interest of time we have to conclude this so-called. we are running much further than academic, you know, hour, and we are going to ask general gray to
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have the last words. >> why me? >> well, the leader, that's why. >> well, i want to thank not only the panel but the audience as well. i think it's been a super set of discussions and viewpoints and the like, i couldn't help but think that, you know, cultures are really important here and i think we have to understand the cultures of america and the free world as we know it today and the democratic environment and related governments alike and the cultures that we have grown up with and understand very clearly that there are other cultures out there which are maybe equally important and certainly different. we will never get the first space in the entire challenge without understanding the cultures, the arabic cultures, the cultures of the middle east, the cultures of elsewhere around
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the worlds, the languages alike that they speak. i will give you just a simple example. it's extraordinarily difficult if you are intercepting or listening to social media conversations by terrorist activities and by people who are affiliated with daesh or isis, call it what you want, you can't really understand what they're talking about unless you understand their cultures. the words are different, the languages are different, the meanings are different and what i call the jenner, the generation of people who are doing if for the most part are totally different. i happen to be a big optimist and proponent of the younger generation. i think they are good, i think they are smart and i think they are quick and we better start listening to them a little bit and understand how they learn
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and how they do things and how they believe. this is a whole new educational environment, and old guys like me ought to stay out of it because we don't understand. my old computer doesn't hear the social media today. we have got to get smarter about this kind of thing. we also need to understand that you're never going -- you know, america in particular, we grew up, we like to be averse. we like to get rid of uncertainty. you better learn how to operate in chaos and make uncertainty your friend. you need to understand that one of the first things you have to do is identify the enemy and get with it. in this business of dancing around this topic is ridiculous and the sooner we get over this and decide to determine who these enemies are and what
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they're all about and how they think and what they're trying to do and begin to strategize appropriately and, you know, completely and with adaptive techniques and the like, we aren't going to make much progress. so we've got to get our act together here. you have to know the enemy and know how he thinks and that's how you defeat them. we are still fights in the information warfare arena. we have to use harness information and use information. you may be talking today about lone-wolf type of things but the whole environment is here. information warfare, cyber-attacks, all of these kinds of things critical today, and it's part of the whole maneuver thought process that we have to include this thinking and the like. so we've got a lot to do here, and we don't have to do it alone. we have allies, we have friends and the other thing is the
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american public, for example, since this is an american seminar today for the most part, but the american public needs to know how to play the what if game. we need to get street smart. i remember i use today tell my marines years ago in the guerilla warfare, we need to get spreet smart and start thinking about things. it's the marines that came from the east side of chicago that were always playing the what-if game with one eye, where are the cops. they never stepped on any booby traps and bombs. the people who trigger it had booby bombs my experience were from nebraska, 5'10 blonde, what i was trying to get across is play the what-if game. get street smart.
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seeing and talking, that makes a lot of sense. we have got to be much more observant and we have to do much more along the lines. with that, i think we will wrap it up today, thank you yonah and the panel for a good very good afternoon. thanks. [applause] [inaudible conversations]
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[inaudible conversations] >> coming up at 7:00 eastern it's q&a with associated press reporter jesse holland, he discuss the book invisible, african-mean slaves in the white house. also at 8:00 p.m. eastern it's book tv in prime time, we will show you books on global health issues and leading off is david kessler on capture on mental suffering. after that vincent on the death of cancer. they're part of a panel on
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pandemic health. ali khan, greatest dangerous. all this on prime time here on c-span2. >> book tv on c-span2. 48 hours of nonfiction books and authors every weekend. here are some featured programs this weekend. saturday at 10:00 p.m. eastern on afterwords wall street journal kimberly argue that is the left is utilizing tactics in her book intimidation game, how the left is silencing free speech. >> government abuse is one-sided. i think there's a couple of reasons for that. look, when i started this i cared about free speech and amendment, i'm a libertarian when it comes to this. i have no allegiance to one party or the other and i went into this.
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i had written a lot about the abuses on the left from my column but i assumed that i was going to find a whole bunch of stuff on the right too. i didn't. >> on sunday in-depth live with author and legal analysts, we will take your calls, e-mail questions from noon to 3:00 p.m. eastern. mr. toobin will be discussing book, wild saga of kidnapping of patty hurst. mr. toobin is the author of the oath, inside the secret world of the supreme court, too close to call, the 36-day bat toll decide the 2000 election. , the run of his life and opening arguments, a young lawyer's first case, united states v. oliver north.
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join in the conversation with emails and tweets. at 7:00 eastern danesh looks at impact hillary clinton would have on america. go to for the complete weekend schedule. >> shortly with will have more coverage of the urban league conference in baltimore, the group is holding a luncheon. it will start? just a moment. we will have live coverage here on c-span2. also coming live at 2:30 panel on voting, maryland democrat and other speakers will be a part of that. the panels including the one this morning an race and incarceration will be available on our website later today.
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[inaudible conversations] >> so it will be a couple moments before the urban league in baltimore. remarks from maryland governor larry hogan and author and commentator.
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>> thank you to mark moriel and certainly to all in the national urban league. i'm very happy to be at another conference of the national urban league and certainly my friend and colleague mark moriel, no one has done more and no one has fought harder to correct the ill that we face in this country than mark moriel has in his over a decade as the president of this organization. let me be very clear to you as we gather in baltimore, that we are at a very critical time in the history of this country and in the landscape of urban america. we are in an election that is as polarized and is hostile as we have ever seen it. but more than the rhetoric and
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theatrics is the reality, when we deal with mass incarceration, police reform, when we are dealing with questions of economic inequality and wage stagnation, when we are dealing with education inequality, all of these issues are front and center and cannot be dealt with in an emotional way. it must be dealt with for concrete solutions. i was saying last night on top of that, the optus will change because we are faced with the first time in history that we will see a white succeed a black president. so even our youngsters that feel the inequality, had the hope to watch a family black family walk out of the white house and walk across that lawn every day, that
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will be removed and coming january, and i hope the right white is coming across that stage, but nonetheless the cosmetic change will drive even more home to a lot of us that have to deal with this underground. it is in that climate, in that scene this we mustards the real basic questions of criminal justice reform and the reforming of our economic arrangements in this country, which is why it is critical national urban league and others that have a long standing commitment and ability continue to work together. we cannot just have flash-point movements to federal systematic problems. [applause]
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>> flash points are good, immediate reactions are good, but if you don't have permitted institutions to deal with matters, then we will not see institutional change. one of the things we say in national network is that one of the reasons t important to urban league and naacp and nan and what black women's round table does is that when you have a police matter, clearly all police are not guilty, most are not guilty of doing wrong, but when there is a serious allegation, they can depend on an institution, their union to provide them with resources and legal advice and media advice and family counseling, an institution can stand up against that. this weekend, when i leave here i'm going to ferguson, the second anniversary of the police killing of michael brown. this week we are here seeing a policeman in baltimore that was
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convicted of a -- of doing wrong to a citizen, even after the freddie gray police were let go. we are not in the beginning of seeing something in america become critical, we are in the middle of it being critical. we don't have to go back to sellma and montgomery to reference movement. it's happening right now in ferguson. in staton island. the question is will we be able to rise to the occasion that they rose to the occasion and dealt with those things in the 60's, this is our challenge, this is our mandate and i'm glad that we stand with mark moriel and the national urban league to not just be a flash in the pan but to change the temperature in the kitchen to make sure that all americans are dwell together. thank you. [applause] [music]
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>> urban league al sharpton, give him a good hand. let's change temperature in the kitchen and to change the temperature in the kitchen what are we going to do? >> vote! >> all right, urban leaguers. next i'm proud to welcome to the national urban league the president, ceo of the ncaap cornell william brooks, 18th person to serve chief executive of the association. ladies and gentlemen, consistent with what we have today, i want to note that the ncaap, the national urban league, the national action network and soon the black women's round table, we are all working together on issues of economic opportunity, education reform, criminal justice reform and voting rights act reform.
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just a little about cornell, graduate of head start and yale law school. he considers himself a grandson, heir, beneficiary of the landmark brown versus education decision which was argued by the legendary ncaap counsel. before becoming president of the ncaap cornell led new jersey institute for social justice. there he directed the institute's effort to win passage of three landmark prisoner reentry bill in 2010 in the state of new jersey. those bills are a model for the nation. ladies and gentlemen u he -- he is an expert and walk it had walk on criminal justice reform. we are so happy to welcome cornell william brooks. [cheers and applause]
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>> good morning. >> good morning. >> we are in a moment in our country's history where leadership cannot be taken for granted. there are those who are adept and articulate in front of cameras and then there are those who are skilled and deeply committed and committed to the work of the nation. you have that kind of leadership in mark moriel. i'm going to ask you to put your hands together for the president and ceo of the national urban league. [applause] >> this is a moment where the national urban league has convened in the hometown of the ncaap.


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