tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN August 9, 2016 10:07am-12:56pm EDT
year, top of the around 5% on average. we may see some expanded options in terms of centers of excellence in some of these other alternative delivery models as part of their offerings but over all it should be a pretty normal annual enrollment or open enrollment period. if we take a deeper dive into medical trend, you will see that medical trend has been consistently running around 6% topline and around 5% after plan design changes after the last three or four years. consistent or stable doesn't mean good, as i mentioned earlier. health care trend running at six topline were cpi is below 2% and general wages projected to be 3% in 2017, you still have this challenge around the affordability question and how long will it take before health
care from affordability perspective is really a challenge, really a concern. 2015 costs came in at 4% for large employers, even though the projected atb five. carries out what it will be for 2016 forecast is still overall 5% and a net 5% for 2017. so what are the major cost drivers for health care costs? as we go into the 2017. as an agent of the beginning of specialty pharmacy if th is ther one our top driver is looking to 2017. in the mix with specific disease conditions such as -- or musculoskeletal or cancer or diabetes. high-cost climate are always up there as well but in that group of very specialty pharmacy has jumped to the top. it's jump to the topic of strength for specialty pharmacy for twentysomethings are
projected to be around 17%. these are very expensive medications. they run into thousands to tens of thousands per treatment. they are typically have challenging administration or dispensing. they require monitoring and often cases, patient monitoring to make sure those is correct and maybe some care management. they're expensive, complex. when you look at trends for 2017 a lot of that is driven in part by pipeline of potential new breakthrough medications. and some of the categories those medications are in, hemophilia, gastrointestinal disorders, ms, oncology, muscular dystrophy, psoriasis, asthma and diabetes. so intentionally sing new drugs coming out in those classes that potentially can be expensive
also be very beneficial in many respects. when we look beyond specialty pharmacy, or we try to look at what our employers during to manage calls as we going to 2017, obviously no surprise the focus and pharmacy management is never want if you look at the next slide. full replacement consumer directed health plan is still considered the top way of controlling health care costs but we are not seeing a lot of movement to full replacement as we look into 2017. i will show you data related to the. the big focus is specialty pharmacy management. look at the next like a tedious sense of what are some of the specialty pharmacy management techniques employers are focused on as we move into 2017. we are seeing a number of companies, doubled from last year to 2017 who require medications to be obtained through a standalone or freestanding specialty pharmacy.
missing a doubling of the number of companies up to 38% who require a fourth tier, a specialty tier for pharmaceuticals. we are seeing more in the way of high touch case management again because of the complexities around these medications, some of the side effects. we are also seeing a fair amount of sight of care management, 30% of companies focus on sight of care management. when you look at price differentiation you can see a seven x. difference in price depend on the site after a selected. if there is a more appropriate efficient sight of care moving from hospital to possibly a standalone and fusion center or moving from a outpatient facility to a physician's office or possibly moving from a physician's office or even to the home, that there's quite a variation in price if it's appropriate to have care delivered in one of those alternative settings. you can see there's a lot going on in terms of specialty pharmacy management but there's
also some focus on opioids as we look at 2017 as well. if you look at the next slide you can see a number of companies, 30%, are implementing restrictions on prescription opioids, really inform of pharmacy management, maybe requiring employees all to go to a particular pharmacy to get opioids, or managing multiple prescriptions. the shift we see from employers is more towards looking at the delivery system for solutions, moving away from plan design and moving to the delivery system. part of the reason is want to go to a high deductible plan which most employers offer today, where do you go from there? a plan to already high deductible. you really need to turn your sights on the delivery system if you want to drive efficiencies and control health care costs. so they're looking at
alternative models for delivery health care and alternative payment models as well. what is the alternative models that has really grown over the last five years or so is telehealth. telehealth five years ago 7% of employers offered it. by 2017, 90% of employers will offer telehealth. by 2019 to will be pretty much universally offered by companies to their employees. so what's the value of telehealth? telehealth is a much more convenient access point that a number of different venues. emergency room costs $700 on average per visit. urgent care costs 150 on average per visit the physician office $100. telehealth $40. telehealth is not meant to be a replacement for primary care. it's meant to supplement primary care and to give people access when they can't get after our coverage when they have a long
time to get an appointment or a long wait and can't get time off from work by going to see a physician for a select group of services. telehealth is one alternative vehicle to access health care. one of the interesting things about telehealth is a mobile application. today if your strategy doesn't include mobile, in your strategy is not complete. 80% of workforce has access, or has a smartphone. most of the information, from a decision support perspective as those access for telehealth and other services is being pushed to mobile. when you look at alternative delivery models, we are seeing growth in the use of accountable care organizations the use of select high-performance networks. accountable care organizations are when providers come together to take on responsibility for the cost and quality for a
defined population. i see ultimately because these are works in progress. acos when you first come together are not really going to take on risk or not be accountable to that extent. there's a lot they have to do to get up to drive care coordination, primary care at a high level, have the analytics to manage the population. this takes time. so there's a developmental period for accountable care organizations, but about 25% of employers now have acos as part of the strategy, mostly through the health plan, some going direct. high-performance networks it in the same category. in many cases they are leveraging an acl as part of that network and about a quarter of employers are also using those. a number of employers are still unsure, most employers are still unsure what do you get from these new delivery models? how do they differentiate from the market? how do i know that they're
providing or delivering a better service or even a better cost than the market? one of the questions we asked employers, look at the next light, time to get a sense of what the expectations were for acl performance versus the market. both from a trend perspective. so how much can acl affect trend or bend the cost curve, and also for an acl that is highly efficient how much better the market should be from a total cost of care perspective? in this slide you can see for three levels of an aco would look at these as featured in that or levels of maturity. an aco that is launching within the first couple of years, what do employers think the impact will be on trend on lowering trend? most respondents said no impact. that there would not be much of an impact the first couple of years out of the gate for an aco. for developing aco, an aco that has established their care
model, has established their patient-centered medical home, has better data analytics, better data sharing, the expectation is that they will trend by one to 3% of the trend is six, take it down to five or 3%. most respondents believe that was probably a realistic exit addition of acos. but for mature aco, and aco that is driving at all competency levels whether its network, whether it's the care model, whether it's technology, the financial model, that they should be able to be trend by two to 5% which means if 5% think it's getting in line with cpi or getting in line with general inflation. even 2% is taking it down to four that making any plan changes. the other question we asked was round the maturity, how much more efficient than the market should they be. in other words, you have a well
functioning aco in the market, what's their total cost of care versus the market? most employers said that it should be between either three to 5% or six to 10% better than the market in total cost of care perspective. we are trying to get the sense e of a lion, a sense of what do employers think and what you providers, health care plans think another we find that thinking about expectations when it comes to the delivery of care with these new models? doing more as more and more employers move onto this space. if we shift out of the delivery system and look at plan design and call sherry, as i said there's not a lot of change for 2017. consumer directed health plans are inversely offered if not by today but 84% of companies offer the. certainly over the next couple of years that would be pretty much universal offered.
we've seen a small intimate increase the number number of companies offering them for 2017, and so we know that the focus is shifting away from plan design to the delivery system. if you look at the medium cost sharing for employers for 2016 from a deductible and out of pocket perspective, for all plans the average individual median individual deductible is 1425. 600 tpo, 1600 consumer directed health plans. employers pay on average 70% of the overall premium employees picking up the difference. that's been consistent over the last four or five years what it's a little higher for employees, a little door for dependents but on average about 70% and that hasn't changed over the last several years. when you think of high deductible plans, employers contribute to health accounts, and 85% of employers who offer
consumer directed health plans and health savings account contribute to those health savings accounts. on average they contribute $600 per employee, $1100 for a family. for those health savings accounts. this is important because it helps offset the deductible. when you think about how that compares to a public exchange, then that deductible is $1000. you give a $16 employed only deductible, the company is putting $600 into the savings account, so that deductible is around 1000. so the average employee deductible next out to be a round $1000 for an individual. would you compare that to public exchange is silver plan, that deductible is around $3000. would you compare out of pocket maximum's with an employer plan, it's about 4000. within the public exchange it is around $6500.
when you look at the change we are seeing in the volatility around premiums right now, on average employee contributions go up around 5%, we are seeing a double of that and what has been proposed for public exchange is. a lot of volatility still in the public exchange market, and back to the point where the employer based system still the best solution for providing affordable, quality health care to employees. a couple of other changes or considerations. when we looked at -- employer actions were not sing along. we see more on the retiree side where we see more earlier retirees moving into public exchange of. and a part-time employees who don't have access to coverage, can access to private exchanges but not a lot in between. employers would have done much to push employees to public exchange is. one of the tactics that has emerged over the last soldiers as more countries have moved to
high deductible plans is wage-based co-sharing. want that the reason for that is employers are sensitive to the affordability and the challenges with a high deductible plan. about 45% of employers have implemented strategies to balance that out a little bit either by adjusting premium contributions based on wages or adjusting health account contributions based on wages, meaning lower wage people get more into it health savings account than higher wage people are adjusting out of pocket maxims or deductibles more tied to wages to try to make these plans more affordable for lower wage employees. the other areas we are seeing some research and i was in the area of mental health and behavioral health benefits. we talked about telehealth in that most companies offer telehealth today. we are seeing a growth until have been offered a month large employers on the behavior health site. about 34% are offering how the
behavioral health services where it's allowed by state. we are seeing i would see a resurgence of on site mental health counselors. most all companies offer it today but a lot of it has become telefonica greasing a migration back to putting resources on site, possibly in health centers, merging them with primary care are just making them available on site to give people access. access and mental health is a big challenge in this country to providers, and by bringing them on site it's an enabler but also it makes it more convenient for people to access as well. just a few of the comments, one on private exchanges. we've seen interest in private exchanges declined over the last several years. if you think in 2014 the peak at around 35% of employers were considering them for the future. it's dropped over time to about
10%, and we've only seen about 4% of employers actually move to private exchanges, police large employers move to private exchanges. we have seen more activity on the retiree side were 26% of employers have moved their retirees to private exchanges and we will see that 20% are considering moving over the next several years. it's a strategy that seems to make sense for retirees but it hasn't been for the active employees. if you look on the next slide, it will give you some sense as to why. so the question we asked in the survey and asked for sober years is how confident are you in the building of private exchange to do the following better than you do today. if you look at the bottom of the slide, it's really about your ability to control costs is that an up or down, your ability to advocate on behalf of of my employees, better than i can. and your ability to drive engagement and health programs
better than what i asked an employer can do today. that confidence is pretty low. a model is still evolving. employers are not willing to take a leap of faith to jump into this until they can get a better sense of the ability to reduce costs and sustained that cost reduction over time. and affect change within the underlying delivery system. i think that's what they're waiting to see before they are willing, more willing to move into private exchanges. excise tax, most employers stipulate that they'r their plaa high school that will trigger the excise tax in 2020 if it is government. is allowed to question is whether that will actually happen as there is bipartisan support not in both houses to appeal the excise tax. but because of the way it's structured and how it's indexed
to generate inflation as opposed to medical inflation, regardless of what was due to control because they will eventually trigger the tax if it goes into effect. i wanted to close with what employees can expect in 2017. again i mentioned at the start that it's going to be more business as usual. they will not see on average a lot of change. about a 5% increase in premium contributions which is consistent with what they saw last year and then change deductibles and co-pays. some of expand access to centers of access. they will see more tools to help them navigate the delivery system in help support the management of their conditions. that's pretty much what 2017 is looking to shape up into. so happy to take questions at this time.
jack? >> kaiser health news. consumer shopping tools, what is your sense of the tools that employees and their families have to shop for care? those been sort of widely panned in the past. are they getting any better? are employees of your members able to make smarter choices, and is priced transparency actually going to someday maybe happen? >> i think that they continue to get better. they continued to be a vehicle to integrate other resources. if you're searching or provider of orthopedics, they are starting to leverage those tools to push other resources that an employer may be offering. maybe there's a decisio decisiot program that can help you identify best place to go for
care as well as treatment options. so they're getting a little more sophisticated in their inability to bring other information in addition to just shopping on price. i think the challenge right now is engagement, the number one issue, and this is not out of the survey, a different survey, the number one issue for employers is engagement, how do i engage people in using all of these resources? how to optimize these resources, whether it's transparency tools, telehealth, decision-support, concierge services. employers are offering a lot of services but it's hard to get in front of people just in time, just when they need them. where we are seeing the technology going is a the emergence of engagement platforms that you can plug all these resources in that use addictive analytics that push information to people at the time they need it. and to drive engagement up. i think that's where it's going,
to try to leverage the usage. some of these tools are great. whether they are decision-support are actually web-based tools, but it's getting people to use them which is more of a challenge. i think we're seeing an emergence of enterprise-based engagement tools that you can plug in these resources that will leverage claims data, pharmacy data, consumer information to push the information to a mobile, somebody's mobile phone to ping them at the time they get information to help them make a decision. i think that's what it is going to go. >> the washington business journal to you mentioned some the specialty drugs that are expected to come down the pike of what are some specialty drugs now for driving major increases? >> if you think of the top drugs, junior, remicade, the two that come to mind that are top users in the inflammatory space.
if i think of other areas where i can get a sense of class as opposed to actual drug, multiple sclerosis, oncology, hep c obviously which hepatitis c which are probably come is become the poster child for specialty pharmacy. those are the current classes where you sing a lot of the cost in specialty pharmacy. the other ones i make it is where we see a lot of new drugs coming up. .. with the aca in trying to improve and drive improvements in the aca.
if trump is elected, i'm really not sure what that means at this point from a healthcare perspective. there's a lot of bipartisan support to repeal the tax, will it be replaced with something, there's been talk about do you look at the taxation of benefits, that could be on the agenda as we look to next year, but it's anybody's guess at this point what it ultimately means, but that's my best cristal ball at this point. other questions? all right. well, great, thank you very much .
>> you can watch this program again starting later today on our website c-span.org. the reporting that a new study finds that obamacare medicaid expansion led to gapes in access to health care in two southern states. the study published in the journal of the american medical association finds that patients faired better in kentucky and arkansas, two state that is accepted the expansion of medicare compare today texas which has rejected it. the study finds that there was a much steeper drop in the unsured in arkansas than in texas. republicans have argued that medicaid is low-quality insurance an it does not end up
improving people's access to health care. and more from the hill, a conservative group is launching a multimillion dollar ad campaign against medicare proposal from the obama administration. advocates for center-right policy is putting forward $4.8 million ad campaign against the prose pole which would change how medicare pays for certain drugs with the aim of fighting high prices. the campaign which includes print, mail and digital ads targeting 61 congressional districts focuses on republican lawmakers. more at the hill.com. >> on saturday, c-span's issue pot light looks at trade deals and impact on the economy, job and for presidential election. >> and we will defend american jobs and american workers by
saying no to bad trade deals like the transpacific partnership. >> the state of pennsylvania have lost one-third of their manufacturing jobs since the clintons put china into this wto. >> the programming includes a look at nafta, 1994 free trade agreement between united states, méxico and canada. >> this will weld us together in the cause of more jobs for our people, fur exports, for our markets, and more democracy for our allies. >> a discussion on how the founding fathers viewed free trade. >> the fact that historically the united states simply was not a free-trade nation for most of american history, the u.s. is, in fact, a tariff protected economy. this goes back to our very constitution. >> an in-depth examination of the world trade organization, the body that enforces trade rules.
>> at the time the wto has been negotiated or evil smaller sister, 800 more pages of specific rules and regulations, nothing inevitable here, my book would be very different. when these two were being negotiated, the u.s. had as official advisers 500 corporate advisers. >> watch our issue spotlight on trade deals on c-span and c-span.org. >> tonight on q&a peter baker, the husband and wife journalists talk about their careers and move to israel. q&a airs today and through august, weeknights at 7:00 p.m. eastern time. coming up at 8:00 p.m. book tv prime time features books on education, first ed bollen, my year of hope and despair in the new york city high school.
after that george thomas, authors of the founders and the idea of national university. also monique morris whose work is push out to black schools in america. and john shield who talks about passing on the right, conservative professors in the progressive university. after that andrew hacker on the math myth and other stem delusions. all on book tv prime time on c-span2. >> now a discussion on the state of school choice and vouchers, specialists talked about new ways parents are given more choice in education including education savings accounts, milton freedman first introduced the concept in 1955.
[inaudible conversations] >> good afternoon, welcome to the heritage foundation and we welcome those who are joining us on the c-span network as well. for those here in-house we ask your kindness to check that cell phones and other devices have been silenced as we prepare to begin, for those online, you can send questions or comments at any time throughout the preparations, simply e-mailing email@example.com and, of course, we will post it on the heritage homepage following today's presentations for your future reference. leading our discussion mary, she works in our institute for family, community and opportunity, she earned her bachelor of arts degree in political science and currently pursuing a master's in public policy at george washington university. she previously worked here at heritage as both intern and
intern assistant. and appropriately for education, she spent a year teaching sixth grade at national presbyterian school. please welcome mary claire. >> good afternoon, everyone. we are pleased to have everybody here today and been joined by the panel of experts to discuss the life, work of melton freedman. the public school system today still faces significant challenges. too many families particularly low-income families must send their child to local public school based on which zip code they live in. the assignment of zip code model millions of americans children trapped in underperforming and often times in dangerous schools. 61 years ago freedman changed the conversation about education in america by suggesting that education financing neat not be
tied by delivery. the government education he opened the doors to freedman school and gave hep that parents would have a say in their child's education. we are still a long way of freedman's dream for universal choice for all families. american parents have more options than they have before. 46 states have charter school laws, five states have account program and 26 voucher program and 21 tuition tax credit programs range across 16 states. according to ed-choice formerly the freedman foundation have of american families now have a choice in their child's education. this is a tremendous victory for our families. much of that success is due to the ground work layed by melton freedman. as he wrote back in 1968 a far better alternative to political control is to introduce competition and school to go give parents a real choice.
freedman would later argue we have so far only seen the early fruits from this introduction of vouchers from giving parents a choice. the best is yet to come as competition markets work their wonders. as we will hear today we are begin to go see the best come to fruition. growing innovation school choice has led to options through education savings account. milton freedman has the incredible foresight to make this prediction 61 years ago. the movement has been of parental empowerment, parents see the opportunity to exercise school choice. here is to discuss legacy of milton freedman and the school choice movement and the states we have an incredible panel of experts and i will start with introducing patrick j. wolf and the department of education reform at the university of arkansas college of education and heat professions. he is the principal investigator
of dc scholarship program and leading research team conducting multimethod evaluation of the milwaukee parental choice program. dr. wolf has authored, coauthored and coed ited two weeks and more than two dozen articles on school choice, special education, public management and campaign finance. wolf has designed and managed results from education studies that play wide variety of research methods including experimental, analytical and techniques. a 1987 graduate of st. thomas in st. paul, minnesota he received ph.d from harvard in 1995. next we have virginia, a visiting fellow here at the heritage foundation and a board member. she took up the cause of school choice after her son received a private scholarship to leave a failing dc public school.
sorry. next we will have jonathan butcher who serves as the education director for the goldwater institute, he researched education policy and school choice programs at both the state and national level. jonathan was director for the south carolina public charter school district. south carolina's only charter school, worked as a school choice program. from 2002 to 2005 jonathan studied education policy, education and family policy here at the heritage foundation, he has appeared on fox news and many radio programs. commentary appeared on papers
around the country and fox news. bachelor' degrees in english and master's of economics from the university of arkansas. finally we have our own lindsey burke, federal and state education issues and education policy at the heritage foundation. devoted time to research in two critical areas of education policy, reducing and empowering families with education choice. the commentary and op-eds have appeared in papers and magazines, published evaluation of school programs and options for vary public policy foundation, bachelor's degree and master's of teaching degree in foreign-language education from the university of virginia. she also currently studies education policy as a doctoral student.
please join me in welcoming our panelists. [applause] >> well, thank you, mary claire. if we could pull up my -- my presentation here. there we go. okay. i'm delighted to be here on this panel to talk about milton freedman's vision for parental school choice and the impacts private school choice has on students in various outcome areas. you'll notice that there's a definite arkansas theme. three of us, majority of us have lived in this great state of arkansas, the well-spring of expertise on school choice and we tried to get lindsey. even in a wonderful place like arkansas we have suils and one rule is when any employee is speaking publicly about a policy issue, they have to issue this disclaimer that they are
speaking for themselves and not as a spokes model for the university. every time i open my mouth i speak to a public policy issue so i have to flash this disclaimer a lot but it's done. so, what i'm going to do today is review the latest evidence about the effects of implementing freedman's vision of private-school choice. briefly i am going to talk about freedman's idea and what we might expect to come from expanded parental choice and then talk about a meta analysis of the test score of choice and obtainment choice of test scores and finally talk about a fresh study on the effects of school choice on reducing crime. so as mary claire pointed out, 61 years ago a young economist
came up with this idea about universal parental school choice and freedman's argument is that, yes, of course, government should fund k-12 education because an educated citizenry is good for society and necessary for self-government in the united states. but that doesn't mean that the government should be the seoul -- sole provider of k-12 education and other providers should be encouraged to be involved in delivering the service of education even if it's funded by the government. now, what might we expect if alternatives to a public school governmental monopoly were offered to children for k-12 education? well, one thing we might expect is -- is more access to quality schools due to the innovation
hypotheses that basically granting schools autonomy, we should expect greater innovation and that should lead to higher-quality education. but another way that school choice could help children is through what's called the match ing hypotheses is that one size does not fit all. we know that. kids have different learning styles, different educational needs and so basically parents know children better than anyone and if they have a variety of schooling options, they're likely to match their child to a school that better serves their needs than if just some government administrator was determining where that child would go to school and third, there's the advantage of competition over monopoly and this is well entrenched in the theory, in the profession of economics, we know that when organizations face competition,
there's a stronger motivation for them to improve and there are incentives for them to operate more efficiently and we should expect this to hold in k-12 education just as it holds in every other aspect of society. so basically with greater parental choice, students should learn more, they should go farther in school and should have better lives. so what does the evidence say first about the achievement effects of school choice? well, there are lots of studyies -- studies and they vary in rigor, size and in their lengths and in their conclusions, so often times this set of research is described as mixed or worse, certain people cherry-pick the studies that reach the conclusion that is they prefer and ignore the studies that contradict their ideological
priors and so we see statements that of stern which says education reformers ought to resist, unreflective support, don't produce verifiable results in the classrooms and he's talking about school choice in the classroom. or moving to the other side of the spectrum, left-leaning center, similar to those of their public school peers, period. full stop. and then finally, dian of dian land, there's no evidence that students in voucher schools get higher test scores. know she doesn't say evidence is weak or questionable, she says there is no evidence. there are no studies showing that students in voucher schools or using vouchers get higher test scores.
these statements and others and just our own curiosity led to outstanding students of mine, danny to do a meta analysis, private school choice through voucher through tax credits and basically what a meta analysis is reliable evidence that speaks to a particular policy question. it's sort of like what a prosecutor does before taking a major case to trial. they elect all of the evidence because a full scope set of evidence is going to point more clearly at what the conclusion should be than just bits and pieces of the evidence and that's what meta analysis seeks to do is bring together all the evidence in a single study to point to a single conclusion.
basically we are able to draw from 19 experimental evaluations, the gold standard studies that we often talk about where students are randomly assigned to receive a private school choice opportunity or to serve in the control group and these 19 studies were drawn from 11 different programs in the -- across the united states and around the world. you see the list there. it's a great variety of places, large cities like new york city, small cities like toledo, washington, d.c., right here in the nation's capital and bogotá, colombia, rural india and urban area in india, so a great variety of places where private-school choice has been tried and has been evaluated using gold standard studies, so when we pull all of that evidence together from all these places, what do we see? these are the results and you
can see on the far left you see the results for math, on the right you see the results for reading. let me briefly explain the logic of this graphic. the zero line would be parody between the voucher students and the control group students. the -- the lines that go hors on -- horizontally connect the average effects year by year from accessing private school choice and the bars are the confidence intervals, plus or minus. if it's above or below the zero line, the dash zero line then we say the result is significant. we could be confident -- at least 95% confident it's not due
to random statistical noise. it's a real finding, real effective program. we see on the math side that actually in the first few years there's an adjustment period and access to private school choice actually leads to a slight decline in math scores in that second year, but by the third year that decline is gone and clearly students are benefiting in math from -- from access to private school and through vouchers and the positive effects on math grow quite large and very clear by the fourth year. in reading the effects are even more positive, they are clearly positive by the second year and grow quite large, over half a standard deviation after four years. so what we see is, yes, there's an adjustment period. these kids are changing from public schools that have a certain set of expectations and norms and culture to private school that is have very
different expectations norms and cultures and there's an adjustment period students go to and we don't see immediate positive test score effects of choice, but over the long run and that's what really matters for children, we see clear test core gains as a result of private school choice, just as milton freedman predicted. now, test cores are important, we study them, they're easy to measure, maybe we focus on them too much because there's a lot of social science research that suggests that what makes the most difference in a young person's life prospects is not necessarily test scores. it's other outcomes linked to educational obtainment and the development of a strong character and sort of behavioral factors that lead to a much better life, specifically graduating high school, attending college, graduating college, they have a strong effect on student's life
prospect and avoiding contact with the criminal justice department. for young males this is the single most important factor that will determine how well their life plays out for them. these factors, graduating from high school, avoiding contact with the criminal justice system, increased life-time earnings by about 30%, they boost employment prospects quite dramatically, they preserve the human and social capital that young people are developing and they maintain that person's status in the community and their orientation toward that community as a positive contributor. so these are very important outcomes that are seriously understudied in the area of education policy and we are just now starting to study them in regards to parental school choice. one of the first studies to incorporate these noncognitive outcomes of private school choice was a study i led for the u.s. department of education of
the dc opportunity scholarship program. the only federal school voucher program in the united states. we looked at the effect of the program on high school graduation rates for students and what we found here, this is just a simple bar chart, we found that the effective using a private-school voucher in dc was to increase the likelihood of high school graduation by 21 percentage points from 70% to 91%. so the controlled group students that lost the voucher lottery, they graduated at a rate of 70%. the students -- the effect of using the voucher was a gain of 21 percentage points. that's a 30% boost over the baseline of the control of 70%. that's a huge effect and we see with the three stars there, we can be 99% confident that that
is a true effect of the program. we found not only in dc but also in milwaukee, in another study that i did and here i'm -- this graphic returns to the approach where the zero line is parity and the blue lines indicate voucher student advantage and the bars below the line indicate public school students, the comparison group advantage. and we see there are two areas where the public school comparison group obtained at a higher rate but they're sort of the consolidation prices when we talk about moving through the education system and obtaining education. five-year graduates, there were five-year graduates, that was because the voucher students graduated on time at a much
higher rate. similarly the -- the comparison students enrolled in two-year colleges at a slightly higher rate. but that was because the voucher students were enrolling in four-year colleges at a much higher rate. and vitally the voucher students persisted in college at a 6 percentage point higher rate as well. so not only did they enroll in college at a higher rate because they experienced private-school choice, they also clearly were well prepared for that four-year college experience because they persisted into the second year. finally, another outstanding graduate student of mine corey and i embarked on a study of the effect of the milwaukee parental choice program, the first urban school voucher program in the united states on the rate of
criminal activity for young adults. we use it had same sample of students we used for the milwaukee obtainment study. this is a match sample carefully matched to a similar group to public school students and when they were between 22 and 25 year's old we searched a public database in wisconsin that -- that makes available all of the crime records for every citizen in wisconsin. boy, if you go to wisconsin, you don't want to get arrested because the entire world is going to know it, but it was a great resource for us. ..
basically they were eliminated, just not present in the voucher group. 93% reduction in drug crime convictions for the voucher group compared to the public school group. theft down 87%. these are really large reductions in the single factor that's most important for young men and these are the results for males. fortunately, for females they commit so few crimes that you can't really do an analysis of get but we bad boys, we are the ones who are at risk. that's will be see the really big positive effects of private school choice on reducing crime.
so in summary what we find from the latest evidence of school choice is about private school choice boost test scores, increases educational attainment and it's just young people away from crime. there's the evidence on it but if you want more context, virginia of course is going to get some excellent first and context about this. also have to throw out a plug, my book the school choice journey is coming out in paperback this month by popular demand. and so there's much more information in that as well about the d.c. opportunity scholarship program and it has a killer forward by senator joe lieberman. [applause] >> good afternoon. i love when patrick does the research because i consider and think yes, that's right.
we saw them firsthand and we saw how it really affects kids. first i'd like to talk about my own son who, which is how i got so involved in as a parent. and who was the recipient of a scholarship, and we saw such a dramatic change in the kind of person he became. he had been a young child who didn't want to go to school, you would drop off at school and he would leave. in school would coincide your kid is not here. i dropped him off but he was gone, to really find a student athlete. the changes we saw in him were incredible and life-changing our family. but i watched his life change but i watch my neighbors lies not change much but i saw children in our community that
were really not doing well in traditional public education, many of which end up in the criminal justice system, dead, on drugs, teenage fathers. so you know, all about our community which is what kind of got me excited about being able to be a voice for some of those parents. i was really lucky to connect with members of congress who were very, very interested in making sure that d.c. kids particularly and ultimately kids all around the nation were going to be recipients of a better education. i got started doing that and organizing parents and talking to parents. one of my first experiences talking to parents in d.c. was somebody came up to me right before i went on to talk to went on to talk to a group of parents and said, you can get up to talk because those parents are not going to respond. they don't care about their
kids. and i said i'm going to talk anyway. the response was overwhelming. i mean, parents in the audience just came up to me and said we needed somebody to tell us that we have a voice in what happens to our children. once we started advocating for the d.c. opportunity scholarship program, thousands of washington, d.c. low income parents came forward and became a part of that effort, which passed and became an incredible program. but wonder what to talk to you about today are some of the kids. i have followed many of them. they have lived in one of the most troubling sections of d.c. their mother told me at one point that they did not, she did not allow them to go outside because she was afraid they would get hurt or, you know,
hurt mostly because they were seventh grade and eighth grade when the program first started. i remember the first time talking to calvin. i said, where do you want to go to school? he said i don't really care, and kind of dismissed me. when i asked carlos was the older of the two boys what his plans were, what did he think of this program, what did he plan to do with it, he said, my momma dragged us down and on and to sign up for it but i'm going to probably do what i'v i see in my community, which was selling drugs or getting in trouble or whatever. he was just really dismissive of the program. but i watched him four years later graduated from georgetown day, and as a top student who was the first african-american student body president, graduated with a four-point grade point average and went to northeastern in boston.
anti-graduated two weeks ago. his mother called me just to have a conversation about the journey that they went on and how, at the beginning when they first met us, those of us that were advocating for it, how she didn't believe that any of this could really happen there and now she's watching her two sons, carlos graduate and calvin just finished his sophomore year at st. augustine. so both of them are doing really well in school, and their whole direction in life has changed. they still live in this troubled community, their mother pamela told me that when they saw the children in their community be successful in school, they changed how people felt about the community. there were changes in people's lives. what we found is not not only
does it change the child who is the recipient of a scholarship program but it changes their parents, and what they see as what every parent wants their children to do better than they did. but it also changes the community and that was kind of a bonus to his going out and seeing how everybody embraced the kids that were in the scholarship program in every community that we visited. but we also had wonderful experience of like jordan white. jordan white is not necessarily been a bad student. she was just really bored, and she told me when she was in seventh grade that are teachers didn't get her. i remember thinking, what does that mean, you know? she just said they don't give me, ms. virginia. they don't understand what i need. so she got a scholarship and she also went to georgetown day i
believe. and graduated the top of her class, went to college after study, her lesson study was japanese studies, you know? a little african-american kid from washington, d.c. majoring in japanese studies, graduated and is for the last two years she's been a translator for japanese company in japan. her mother just went over to visit her for the first time in japan and called me when she got back and said, i'm just amazed at how well my child is doing. those are the kind of stories we hear over and over again, you know, that children had access to scholarships just took a different journey, you know, and parents were happy about what they were doing and was more excited to isolate in my own child, you know?
he graduated valedictorian, and this was a child, people told me, i remember when he was about 12 some suggested i might want to send it to an institution because he was just out there and not doing well and breaking all the rules. and he turned out to be a really fine young man. but the best example of what this program has done for the children of the district that i've had exposure to is tiffany dunston who is a young woman who's been raised by her grandmother for whatever reasons, and told me when she was 13 that she had to be the hope of her family. i didn't understand that. what do you mean, you have to be the hope of her family? as she talked, i found out she had lost a cousin to violence in d.c., who would then the hope of their family and she felt like she had to take on that role.
i remember she was there by yourself applying for scholarship and, of course, we had to tell that you need your parents, they've got to sign. so we had to do good work to help her through it but she brought herself there and she was determined that she was going to really do well in life. and tiffany got a scholarship to syracuse, went to syracuse, did really well and then i lost, kind of lost track of her. about a year ago i got a message on facebook that said hi, ms. virginia, i failed you. i called her and found out that not only had tiffany finished undergrad, but she's working on her ph.d and she got her ph.d in june, june 23. so last month. and i remember thinking, that is just the coolest thing i've ever seen in my life. because this was, you know, when i lost track of tiffany i think that i thought when i would
reconnect with her that i would, she would've finished college but then i never thought she would go further. so i was really delighted to find out. but in talking to these kids, young men and women now, what i find is that they did it, what an opportunity they had. they understand what a chance they had to make it in this world. they totally understand that had it not been for a chance to go to school that best serve them, that their journeys within totally different. that pleases me. and more and more of the could you coming back and talking to us and telling us what's going on with allies, because at that point we started realizing we need to follow these kids. we need to find out where they are and what they're doing. and i'm just constantly happy when i make a connection with a parent and find out that that
child graduated or that child is doing something extraordinary. and we see it more and more these days. this is a program, as i go run around the country i see the same thing. in all of the scholarship programs that are out there and i meet the children and i meet the parents, i see the specialists about understanding that i had the opportunity that other people oftentimes don't get. so i became a milton friedman father watching what happened with these children -- follower. i didn't know who milton friedman was when i first got into this. i got involved because i was a parent who cared about kids and i wanted to see kids do well in d.c., and period. but as time has gone on, i understand it. we've got to be a part of making sure that every child in a place where they can thrive, where
they can soar, you know, and watching the young people in d.c. that i've kept in touch with has been an incredible reward for really hard-fought battle here in d.c. and continues to be a hard-fought battle, it will continue to fight for them because we have tiffany and carlos and calvin and jordan, and many, many other children that will stand up and say i get it, i understand why it's so important. never when asked them to come back and speak to programs, never do they say no. because they did it. they understand. and so we will continue to work with the students and remember what doctor freedman said, you know, that for every student receives a scholarship you'll see success in life. and that to me was important that's what he said to me. he encouraged me to continue fighting for kids, that's when
you got me really, you know, because hearing him say keep fighting, virginia, was enough to keep me going for a long, long time. that's what we have to continue doing. dr. wilson research always excites me. i always have a copy of your book somewhere around. because i want people to see that i'm not just telling stories just, the research supports what we see happening out here with the children, and also we have to continue to work on. thank you. [applause] >> good afternoon, everyone. my name is jonathan butcher and i'm the education director at the goldwater institute which is headquartered in phoenix, arizona, active around the country in preserving constitutionally limited government and protecting individual liberty.
i know at this event as we talk about doctor milton friedman, that you be so proud that his legacy means as well as the research and the numbers that support this movement that we are all a part of as well as the stories that virginia talk about. so that's a very powerful legacy. so as my presentation comes up, take a moment with me and we're going to go to nairobi, kenya, where john operates in nondescript real estate and transportation company. he uses what may be the most advanced way to send and receive money in the world called -- a telecommunications company created it in 2007 and 21 in kenya with a cell phone can use the program to deposit money, pay bills and transfer funds to famine and fund.
he also uses it to pay his employees and transfer money to his customers. he explains when one of his vehicles breaks down he does have to run the risk of care and large amounts of cash to remote areas. he says just call me, tell me a problem and how much you need and i will text it through the transit system, is what he told the bbc in 2010. i don't need to go to the bank when i have the bank in my phone. so as would never, milton friedman today in his lasting legacy and parental choice in education, what does a mobile banking system in kenya halfway around the world have to do with how youth children learn? so with that let's come back to arizona where in 2011 the goldwater institute along with our partners at the friedman foundation as well as the american federation for children at the heritage foundation passed what is the nation's
first education savings account program. with an account the state deposit a portion of a child's funds from the district formula in a private bank account that parents used to make educational products and services to purchase education products and services for their children. in arizona education savings account parents use a visa card to pay for personal tutors for their children, educational therapists, online classes, private school tuition and textbooks as well as save for college to mention a few possible uses. in some cases parents will find a tutor or a therapist for their child and the provider will swipe the parents guard across the top of the iphone just like you do with a taxi or even at some restaurants. the dizzying map of state funding formulas with qualifying tax rates in a position basis, based support levels and more terms that probably meant about as much to you as opposed to an arizona.
arizona. who also want to do is find a quality learning experience for the job has met its match. thank you. >> with the research that lindsay and i have conducted a partnership with heritage goldwater and ed choice, we found that approximately one-third of arizona families using an education savings account do in fact make multiple decisions simultaneously with their child's account. these families are using the accounts as they were intended to take the idea of a voucher and transform it from a checkpoint coupon and put into a flexible spending account. today nearly one in five students assigned to arizona public schools are eligible for an education savings account, nearly a quarter million children in the state of arizona. that's not all. so today, tennessee announce the opening of their enrollment period for education savings accounts for children with special needs.
that law passed last year. last friday nevada court held hearings on their education savings account which would be available to every public school child in the state of nevada. a half a million children. so over all as a pie chart shows, across five states nearly 1 million children are eligible for education savings account in just five years since the first program became law in 2011. so dr. freedman would be proud as ed choice posted a few years ago, doctor friedman once said the purpose of vouchers is to enable parents to have free choice and the purpose of having free choice is to allow the educational industry to get out of the 17th century and get into the 21st century. he went on to say why not let parents spent part of a voucher from out in one place and then which resides somewhere else? and so the essays which are functionally different from
vouchers and provide even more choices in education than a private school shall our ship did just that. the programs going in arizona, having doubled in size every year since its inception. as you can see. in the coming up with suspicion will be close to double once again. so let's go back to kenya and what was significant. it is widely acknowledged that kenya is the world leader in mobile money. more people are using mobile money there than almost anywhere else in the world with m-pesa, some 20 million kenyans use of this service. 85,000 vendors operate across the country as safari pages with sickness called a giant grid of human atms. the u.s. and we've been slow to respond to the growth in mobile banking. for the sake of time we will run through just a couple of reasons why for more information please see the paper available on goldwater institute.org. for those of you on twitter is available on my twitter page add
on facebook. if you don't use any of those there's no hope for you. [laughter] just quickly in the u.s. there are not enough team and terminals at merchants. so for starters we so we don't have enough hardware. secondly, banks are already skeptical of vista technology and have been slow to adopt it into the practice it. so if state department of education. we also need a sizable threshold of users for mobile banking in order for larger companies like banks to take advantage of the way that technology is changing. finally, we are highly banked population into united states. as mentioned kenya's m-pesa system was a solution to help what is, what was largely and then banked population. yet this flexibility and access provided through esa and what they've brought to families across the country and in these five states mentioned earlier, they are moving us closer to a
day when a child reaches a school age. instead of being assigned to a local school district, getting a letter in announcing what school your assigned to, we are getting closer to the date when we will hand her family and account from which they can choose a public school or private school services, pay for online classes, et cetera, all the things mentioned before. even pay for the certificates at a tremendous discount compared to traditional college courses. data from u.s. federal reserve, this is, demonstrates how can you is, in fact, leading the world in mobile payment technology. this was a chart similar to something done by the economist several years ago, data for the tide, comparable dat data was nt available but you can seeking is outpacing nations even like china. wine now and why does it matter for us today? data from u.s. federal reserve
indicates the millennial generation, what we call the folks write about age 18-mid 30s, the two groups on your left. they are the generation most prepared for such a transition from the old school assignment method to this new method of using account based technology to provide a learning experience for their child the day, fourth installment of his survey of the figures looking at how americans use mobile devices are financial services. so this current and future generation of parents and workers are more likely to own a smartphone as you see on the chart, far more likely in many cases. they are also more likely to use their smartphone for mobile banking, in the past 12 months you can see the green bar. and then also making mobile payments with a smartphone. not, they are still outnumbered
by those who are not but you can see in the graph that the younger generation are more likely to be using mobile technology to make financial transactions. we are actually not so far away from these convenient mobile payment systems as kenya's progress may make the united states seem. in arkansas as we talked a little bit about to become arkansas as part of the company to specialize in different smartphone applications for public services called for national information consortium, the company that created the app. they created a mobile app that allows for personal property and real estate tax payments. residents can use an app to pay their taxes. in missouri the state enables child support deposits and payments to debit cards through partnership with visa. there are the education savings accounts i described in arizona. in beta with the program has been suspended in court to do a lawsuit from the aclu, lawmakers are planning to take the next step even further with education
savings account. the greatest treasurer contracted with a company called benefit wallet to manage education savings account financing. benefit wallet is a health savings account company they are a subsidiary of xerox and they serve some 2 million agencies around the country and at $1.74 billion in asset. the point be this was an established helping take interest in this movement in the education space. in an interview, the nevada treasures staff explained their state education savings account system has key differences from those and other state. in arizona parents report that education savings account spending quarterly. the report to the state department of education which didn't reduce their expenses to make sure they are in line with the law. families will only receive the next education savings account deposits to use for the children's officials have
confirmed all of the families purchases. in this what arizona can protect against fraudulent use of the account and keep them from spreading by being able to stop the every fiscal quarter. that doesn't stop that transactions are happening. arizona's agency conducts audits for parents and students after they use that account, after the fiscal quarter. innovative, however, educational vendors must first register with a state treasure and benefit wallet. participated families will be able to initiate a payment via, ready, a mobile app on a device or on a computer. think m-pesa. or by visiting and learning provided in order for a savings account purchased the complete benefit wallet check to make sure the merchant have registered to participate. benefit wallet requested funding directly from the state to complete the transaction. this may sound like a number of steps and more steps that are
involved in arizona's program but all of this is happening in the mobile banking behind the scenes and parents will never have to see. it's all taken place so parents don't have to worry about it. furthermore nevada's multistep process is meant to prevent some forms of fraudulent transactions from occurring in the first place. that's the point of while also expediting the payment portion of the transaction. this is potentially an improvement over arizona's method which is effective at a different front after this occurred like we said. but it does not prevent from making a mistake in the first place. they recommended arizona's department of education do more to put their reporting process, all of the receipt reporting we describe, put it online and have more fraud prevention tools online. like an online form to prevent, to thwart misuse works over the
auditor was pushing the agency into the future and more reliable systems than checking thousands of expenses by hand. for now there is a combination of checking by hand and matching expenses with all unregistered that bank of america has created for arizona. while nevada is beginning to implement this partnership with benefit wallet, the potential is noticeably closer. last year i met a gentleman named donnie newsome who has a ph.d living and working in reno, nevada, and he operates a tutoring service in the state. we were at in a hearing about rules would be governing the esa program in nevada. a process like the earlier about how much is made educators will need to register with the state, it's interesting because it turns out that his company called fit learning as part of a network of tutors that he has a college in of all places, phoenix, arizona. sure enough his affiliate called
blossom park provide service to arizona children using education savings account you can see vendors that would be providing these services are offered in states all over the country. when safari, and as part of want to make it easier for kenya's to transfer money they had no choice but to be created. we had no roadmap but created solutions other within persevered with a pilot slated to take several months took almost two years. state lawmakers that have enacted or are considering education savings accounts are taking similar ambitious steps. such courage has benefited thousands of students to no one to a roadmap for how to operate and education savings account program. we had to take the great ideas from dr. friedman and others that have been around for years and create a whole new concept for parents have multiple choices and can make multiple decisions at one time. policymakers should integrate mobile payment solutions into payment platforms for education savings account but lawmakers
should take advantage of existing relationships with financial institutions like benefit wallet to expedite the availability of mobile payment systems like m-pesa and other services so that consumers and parents of school-age children can take advantage of them. the effects of such policies can only multiply. as the economist explains, established a base of initial users, m-pesa benefited from network effects. the more people who used it the more it made sense for others to sign up for it. education savings account purchase goods and service providers can benefit from the same network effects that help kenya's program grow so quickly. the future of learning is an exciting hopeful place for students from all walks of life. every child should have access to education savings account in the same way that every child has access to a public school. the future is full of opportunity and we simply can't get there fast enough. thank you.
[applause] >> great. thank you all. i just want to say a few quick words since we are here in d.c. on what we can do at the federal level two events some of these exciting options that we forgot to did with her by the some real-life stories, innovative options like education savings account but can we advance these ideas at the federal level, particularly if we recall what milton friedman said about what happens when you put the federal government in charge of anything. that famous quote if you put the fans in charge of the sahara desert, in five years they would be a shortage of sand. that often gets attributed to milton friedman. so should we do something as important as a school choice program in the hands of federal policymakers? i want to walk to a couple of options for doing that really quickly. if we think about education financing, the vast majority of that financing comes from state
and local taxpayers. but it is derived from state and local taxpayers about 40% of that comes from the state level roughly, to be a what state you're in, maybe 30 from the localities. then we have that remaining 10% that comes from the federal level. ever think about that, we've got about 90% come from state and local taxpayers and about 10% from washington. just as a practical matter if we want to advance choice options that robust options, it has to come from states and localities. beyond that, of course, there are concerns i think rightfully about federalism issues, about public schools and private schools and charter that impact of regulations as the result of federal options expanded the having said that there are quite a few options that are entirely appropriate at the federal level to consider when thinking about how to advance a choice. i want to walk through really
quickly five of those. the d.c. opportunity scholarship program, this is the voucher program at virginia talked so eloquently about a few minutes ago and a life-changing it's been. i'll talk more about it, the administration has tried to face up that program, almost every single year but it is still here and going strong and vibrant so think about expanding the program. thinking about transitioning the district of columbia in its entirety which is under the jurisdiction of congress. so instead of funding as with traditional public schools in d.c., making all of that funding entirely student centered and portable in the form of an education savings account. bureau of indian education schools provide education savings account for those children, title i portability. i'll talk more about in the second, and a corollary to that which is portability of my va fund for children with special needs. so just really quickly, the d.c.
opportunity scholarship program costing we got over that pretty extensively but kids get a voucher for between about $8000 to about $12,000 depend on whether they are in elementary school or a high school student. there are approximately 1244 kids who are currently benefiting from the d.c. osd and we have ever taken corrected if i'm wrong but i think about five applicants tougher every available scholarship so high demand for the d.c. the average household income, you know this is as much as $20,000 a year. is our low income children who are benefiting. i mentioned a second for the obama administration unfortunately has tried to face out of this program year after year. we see it happen almost every year when depression is budget comes out at the d.c. osd is there out in the budget picked has been a real travesty. it's a school choice option
right in the presence back of the receipt really single out everything to do. and getting jeopardized. this is a student in the program we had runs of advertisements when it was really being jeopardized the future to and whispers successful blanketing union station at some of the buses around the city. there's an important reason i think to think about not only retaining the d.c. osp but extended patrick and dr. wolf with all of the information about the impact of the d.c. osp, 21 percentage point increase in graduation rates. if you keep that in mind as you think about how funding in d.c. a structured come i think it's difficult to justify. one of our colleagues who sat the foundation for excellence in education but a difficult issue before us to just about education financing in the district. ever think about the fact he says that the system, and by that he made the d.c. public
school system, routinely spends $29,400 per year, that's rabid per-pupil, routinely brings in 29,400 per-pupil for high income students come for high income students, it provides system, provides $14,000 a year for high income students to attend public charter schools but on a maximum of $8000 to $12,000 for low-income students who would like to attend a private school system using an opportunity scholarship program that increases thei the chance of gre high school by 21 percentage points. he's right, it's a financing system that should be incredibly difficult for us to justify. if we think about and remember the fact d.c. is under the jurisdiction of congress, transitioning to get you into an all esa district were all spending that occurs on k-12 education is student centered
and portable in the form of an education savings account that jonathan to script earlier that you could use for whole post of educational related services and products and providers. so the third option, i said i would be quick, the third option can ever think about bureau of indian affairs schools, i don't anyone saw this article in the politico that you probably six-month ago, the title says it all. how washington created some of the worst schools in america. it's an apt title because politico in the article said the network of schools for native americans children run by an obscure agency of the interior department remains arguably the worst school system and the united states. a disgrace that government has known about for eight decades and never successfully reform. the 48,000 children i'm lucky enough to attend have some of
the lowest test scores in the country and those graduation rates, even as the education they're getting is among the nations most expensive. that's a direct quote from politico. if you get a chance to read, i think it is apt to call it an exposé on bureau of indian affairs schools i urge you to do so. if you look at the data, reading scores for native american children to attend bureau of indian affairs schools score 182 on the fourth grade reading exhibit to put that into perspective their native american peers who attend public school score 207 on average in reading. that's the one of about two grade levels of learning. inbreeding for these kids. only half of children who attend bureau of indian affairs schools graduate, it's 53% at so low graduation rates. you heard how important graduating high school is. funding for the schools is almost entirely federal.
we are a kid in a unique position to think about transforming that funding into an education savings account at the federal government, a combination of department of interior and department of education funds spent $830 million a year of the 48,000 children who attend those schools to attend something about $16,000 per child. lastly i would just note title i and ida portability, i will love both of those together. title when we spend about $15 billion a year on title i. this is title i of the element and second education act. it's although the federal funding at the k-12 level for low-income district. there are maybe seven experts across the country who could tell you how we title i funding formula works and whether or not funding will actually make it to a child in poverty. thinking about doing us a per-pupil allocation, attaching it to the child and giving states the option, that's
critical, giving states the option to make those dollars portable in the form of an education savings account to follow a child to any school or provider of choice. the same could be said for individual with a disposed education act funny, that's about it 1.5 million dollars figure giving states option in there as well. i've already mentioned dr. matthew wants on reforming education so another shout out. he says everything about the traditional school voucher model which is a great model, we can think about is sort of like the rotary phone. it did this technology really well but it did this one technology. that's how i think about a voucher. btg debility to go to a single private school choice and it's a lifeline for students who get it but it's sort of for your flexibility and. as johnson described, not only to the one -- now do they do that one technology well, like the rotary phone does, but they
also do all of these other things. all of these applications that you get on your iphone to everything about net savings accounts you can hide the private to do. you can purchase online the options, special ed service entities, textbooks, curricula and judy biggert private school tuition and you can walk over funds year-to-year and bullet into a college savings account. it really is the next generation of education choice. notice we hardly even state school choice anymore because with so we find that thinking that it is not education choice. just a quick recap. those five items, d.c. opportunity scholarship program expansion, converting to dish it into an all esa program, bureau of indian education affairs schools, giving this gives education savings account and portability of both title i and ida funding i think our five really smart options at the federal level that we can think about working to advance to achieve some of those we've heard about today. thank you.
[applause] >> thank you so much to our panel. now we have a few minutes for questions. so if anyone in the audience asked question, just raise your hand and we would be happy to answer them. >> my friend jason recently wrote a piece in the "washington examiner" about the prospect for the next administration and education secretary. obviously, we know -- [inaudible] how you see her potential victory influencing what the fight would look like to protecting like the opportunity
scholarship? >> i can only speak to the policy and not any of the other very interesting parts of your question you brought up so i will just say from a surely policy perspective, that i think moving forward, no matter what happens in the next few months it will be frustrating to see the types of progress that we've seen in the states not continue to advance. for whatever reason it might be. whether it's continuing union stranglehold over anything else that might come our way come see the progress that mary clare to describe, how we see state not only that choice options but innovative options like education savings account's. i think that would be a real travesty to see that progress sorted. having said all of that i am hopeful. i think they're quite good at a tipping point. epic your heritage puts out an index. liberal i have a of some of the data that the american
federation for children collect on use of school choice options across the country. every give those a day to look better and better. i think that we are almost at a tipping point when it comes to choice. i would say no matter what happens moving forward that tsunami of choice is going to overwhelm most states. present most states, most people in both states will be able to look around and say why don't i ask is to but if i'm in texas, and tocaloma makes that happen, why can't i have access to it? i don't know, i am eternally optimistic but i think we're at a tipping point that it will be hard to stop moving forward. if anybody else's into else to add to that. >> washington deals with an enormous amount of money which comes to education but it's the states, that's what the kids live. and so to the extent that states can determine their own destiny and provide programs like education savings account, there are still seats that don't even have charter schools.
there's still a place for state lawmakers to be well aware of what is out there and what they need to do to give children quality opportunities. that will be really important regardless of what the shifting sands in washington and who was in charge. it will be really important for state leaders. >> i think organizations like ed choice at our event, robert who's the ceo said we will do bigger and better things, we will make sure those things can change happen, whatever happens. and we are going to keep moving forward because children and parents are demanding that. >> what we have seen recently with every student succeeds act reauthorization that replaces the no child left behind, there's a strong clinical and policy movement toward decentralization of education, as jonathan mentioned. traditionally education has been a state and local policy, and no child left behind was a bit of
an aberration or move away from that. and now there's a strong pushback towards decentralizing and delegating and no delegation is more complete in the education field than placing decision in the hands of parents. i think it would be difficult to take that away from so many families in some and states across the country. [inaudible] >> the american federation for children put out a document yesterday called america's underdog. it shows hopefully the whole country, the horrible situation
and the conditions that these children are stuck in at these schools. start encourage the joy to watch the video. virginia, i heard you say that when you first started talking to d.c. parents, they didn't realize that they could have a voice in this area. i'm wondering if maybe the parents stuck in these schools feel that way? what would you suggest? how do we start encouraging comes to might not have known that they can have a voice to start talking more about the issue in getting involved more? >> thank you. that's a really good question. when we first started off, parents kind of held back and said we never realized that we could complaint or we could speak out or we could be advocates for our children. that's something we really encouraged them to be. you have to be advocate for children. in this particular case, i think there are a whole lot of issues
that even go beyond what low income parents in d.c. for african-americans for the most part we are dealing with. i've had some experience with native american families, and so i think spending time talking to parents from a parent, you know, saying to them you have every opportunity, every right to speak about half of your children as americans, you know? that's kind of what we constantly told them over and over again. until they realized that they give every right. so i think we're to go back to the fundamental, you know, what it did with parents that we started in the '90s, telling parents that they can do this. most parents that we dealt with early on, you know, said we've never been told he could speak out. i mean, to the contrary. people told us to get away and we run this.
and so once parents understood that they had a chance, that's why we organized a way. in d.c. because we said to them over and over again our it's your right. these are your children. you can tell people what you want to i think that's what has to be done in this case, and even harder. because those circumstances, i'm from arkansas, i'm close enough to oklahoma. i've seen really bad situations. >> i think we have time for one more question. [inaudible] a voucher program funded by an individual or corporate tax credit. i'm wondering how i'm not aware if milton friedman ever talk about that kind of school choice stop before his death. if not, what do you think you would have had about th that tye
of program? it does seem to be will be the biggest critiques of voucher programs is that they take money away from public schools, were as that's not really the case with this tax credit. is funded simply. what are your thoughts on that? >> i would say bring it all on, whatever it is. there are i think huge benefits. there are also limitations like there are with any option that's out of there. maybe you're in a state that wants to phase out your income tax, for examples i think it is support for states to be just like us, sort of all of the above of what they're willing to embrace to advanced school choice. quickly, to give you the sort of 700 level course on school choice, we can even get to a point where something like a tax credit funded education savings account but if you're in a state
that has a very, very restrictive maybe a blank admin or compelled support clause there something to be said for moving the tax credit scholarship esa tack sharp. >> in our meta-analysis with enough cases of government run voucher programs and privately run scholarship programs or tax credits osha programs, and we look at the results separately that test score impacts were somewhat higher for the coveted voucher programs. we think the reason is that the funding was significantly higher. i don't think there's any problem with a mechanism, the funding mechanism. it's just they tend to be a smaller resource for families and, therefore, don't deliver as much in terms of test score gains for kids. a fully funded, a full-bodied tax credit scholarship i think we would see the same results we see with voucher programs your.
>> one more thing. you mentioned there's the critique that it drains funny from the public systems. funding follows the kid as we would say but i think that's a feature milton friedman would have said is a feature. that it is the competitive pressure that plays on the public system that allows all those to rise. obviously, you speak for him but i would imagine he would be supportive of the tax scholarship credit model as well spent as a child is no longer there. so why would you find a school once the child has left speak with great. thank you all so much for coming in today and for your great pleasure. please join me in thanking our panelists. [applause] mary clare.
time on c-span2. >> air force lieutenant general joseph lengyel was weaselly confirmed by the senate as the national guard bureau chief. defense sector ashton carter delivered remarks episode over the ceremony at the pentagon where lieutenant general joseph lengyel was also promoted to 4-star general.
>> [background sounds] ♪ ♪ ♪ oh, say, can you see ♪ by the dawn's early light ♪ what so proudly we hailed ♪ at the twilight's last gleaming? ♪ ♪ whose broad stripes and bright stars ♪ ♪ thro' the perilous fight ♪ o'er the ramparts we watched ♪ were so gallantly streaming ♪ and the rockets red glare then
>> let us pray. lord our god on whom this nation was founded, and to whom we still look for strength, guidance and peace. as we begin the ceremony we bow our heads to you. we stand in this hallowed place to remember with love and devotion those who have served with distinction and gave their lives for our freedom. today we thank you for sending us john of grass and general lengyel, your servants and faithful sons. this day and always they make us
proud. ask you to extend your hand of blessing on them at all who serve this nation i would love and call home. me out efforts in this troubled world bring us justice and peace for we are always proud to be one nation under you, our god, for ever and ever. amen. >> thank you, chaplain robert marciano. .. >> thank you. thank you very much. let me just start, thank you.
[applause] thanks. thank you so much for that warm welcome and what a great opportunity i have had. secretary, we have been together when you were deputy secretary and as secretary. what a great leader for our nation. when we are out and about, traveling a lot, hard to get us all together. secretary of defense carter is in town. he sits down with us for an hour and will carve out time to give us what is happening in his world, what do we need to know about the rest of the world. thank you for your leadership. it is phenomenal working for you. it has been incredible. [applause]
>> for my wing man, my battle buddy, joe, sally, thanks very much. i could not have picked a better person, but as you said, who should follow brass, this gentleman right here was my sounding board in so many ways, tough issues you have to deal with with the sigil -- fiscal situation. what he did for the nasco -- national guard, before he steps in as chief of the national guard, don't let him get too big, and lieutenant colonel joseph lengyel, we watched your children go off, what a greater force family. thank you for your sacrifice, time that you end up, tough time for your family in vietnam. look who has followed in your
footsteps, thank you. [applause] >> general dunford, what great partners, the joint chiefs, friday was a special day, we had a chance to chat for a few minutes and i would tell everyone here you couldn't ask for better leadership team of the united states of america than this joint chiefs and that chairman. thanks for everything you did. [applause] >> my good friend and mentor sitting right here, a very difficult job being chief of fema where we have to respond to the needs of american citizens.
he has been my hero from day one. we had a chance to sit and talk. he is domestic ops master. i picked his brain, the work we have done on integrated planning in the homeland, thank you for what you continue to do. [applause] be change so i don't blow my time, serving with the joint chiefs, backseating us, leading us through so many challenges, making it better for our men and women, thank you. for the congressional staff. [applause] >> the mlas came, see what they do for us in difficult times. this team has been phenomenal to
work with. i think them and the members for the great work they do and support they provide to the department of defense. to everyone here, a lot of senior statesmen, i will get fired, thank you for everything, so many retirees come in, i treasure that forever and make the difference. for advocate general, 54 partners, like a family and a family -- we have had some of those in the worked through some tough issues where they are trying to defend what the state needs and have their men and women ready to go overseas to support the combat reserve of the air force and army and make sure they are the most ready because they might fight a flood
somewhere or respond to a hurricane or tornado. for each one of you, thank your wives for allowing you to do what you do and providing such a tremendous sounding board and support that we can move things around the map, 10,000 guardsmen today. we couldn't provide combat ready forces, men and women flow overseas and active counterparts. my xos, you are on your eighth chief now, carol, you have to grade each of us someday but thank you all and everyone watching. let me shift gears. we don't do this without support from the family.
finishing up the first tour as an enlisted soldier, we got married and she has been with me ever since. thank you and i will be ready to take on that list. [applause] >> we will do my official retirement in missouri where i was sworn in as a lieutenant and kids will all be there but many of them will be listening. amanda and grant, three great grandsons, joe and ashley, we are looking forward to seeing them. the other sophia and kaylee, two wonderful granddaughters, we will see them tonight, integrate sam houston, hope to see you soon. last thing i want to say, put
this message out to 453,000 citizen soldiers and airmen, 47 years i have served, i have never seen a force so dedicated, so equipped, so trained than this force today. we had a chance to visit so many. every one of them do this, the first reason they do this is so their children and grandchildren can live in a country like they grew up in and they are so dedicated, i salute them all today. and that salute, every person that serves in the military, the sacrifices i have watched, 5 or 6 rotations overseas and they
stay with us and packed up again when our nation called us. the last thing, i think the group for this, the protocol has been phenomenal, they are tremendous, thank you so much for what you do every day. thank you for coming today, thank you for the great nation and god bless america. [applause] >> thank you, frank grass. ladies and gentlemen, secretary
ash carter. [applause] >> good morning, fans of frank and fans of joe. glad to have you here and i am certainly one of you. thank you. general goldstein, general geller, international partners, friends, family, all of you, ambassador, thanks for joining us. good to be here with all of you as we pass a critical responsibility between two of the military's most accomplished leaders. general frank grass and general joseph lengyel. i speak about the character and contributions of these extraordinary officers. i want to speak to all the citizen warriors here today and
the entire national guard family. i am so proud of all of you and we are grateful for your vital contributions to the security of our nation. we keep our skies from being in danger and respond to disaster with compassion and professionalism at a moment's notice, you stand watch at home and around the world, you responded when we needed you during the conflicts in iraq and afghanistan all those years. you helped keep our most solemn commitment to provide our citizens with security they need, raise their children and live full lives. even if that means putting your own lives on hold or online. that has been the spirit and mission and enduring commitment of national guard troops for centuries but never more so than
the past 15 years. since september 11th the men and women of the army and air national guard and families and to the nation's call to deploy 787,000 times. as a result, the guard is battle tested, flexible, deployable, combat experience and broad range of skills gained on the battlefield and in civilian life. the national guard is a critical component bringing to bear the experience and skills of citizen warriors wherever and whenever needed to confront challenges of a complex world and we have them. today our nation faces and our guard is helping us to meet no fewer than five evolving challenges. first countering the prospect of russian aggression and coercion
in europe. managing historic change in the vital asia-pacific region where china is rising just fine but behaving aggressively which is not, strengthening deterrence and defense forces in the face of north korea have nuclear missile provocations, checking irani and aggression and influence in the gulf and confronting terrorism, accelerating the certain defeat of isil, it the tumor in iraq and syria wherever it metastasizes. history has shown we can never predict the strategic future. it perfectly shows the opposite of that. we must be flexible and agile, preparing for unknowns we can't anticipate today. we don't have the luxury of choosing among these challenges. we have to do it all and does it
all, from eastern europe, north carolina national guard, participated in exercises of 24 nations polled, to the pacific, the national guard stands ready to respond throughout the pacific rim. in the middle east 8000 national guard members are deployed in the air and on the ground including wisconsin national guard, the 101st airborne division to enable local forces to take on and defeat isil. at home cyber warriors like the washington national guard's squadron who i met earlier this year, wonderful folks, using the skills and experience they gained in america's innovative technology community to protect our networks and counter isis's
influence online. the days of the national guard exclusively as a strategic reserve called up only in emergencies are over. the post-9/11 environment is proving the guard is an indispensable component of the total force. day-to-day activities, large-scale operations, planning and execution and conventional conflicts and novel threats. the national guard will remain critical in accomplishing all of our nation's security. insured preparedness, the army will be doubling the number of rotations for the guard in combat teams. and increase the number of helicopters in the next several years enhancing capabilities of strategic reserve and providing more flexibility for missions in the here and now including the homeland. the guard will be instrumental in fighting and winning on today's battlefield and shaping
tomorrow's conflicts, cyber and space domains are increasingly contested the national guard will be on the vanguard of these missions. by 2019 the national guard will have 30 cyberunits to support services in us cybercommand. the more deeply integrated guard becomes the better prepared the nation becomes. the presence, skill, readiness of citizen warriors across the country give us the agility to handle unexpected demand home and abroad, an essential component of the total force and linchpin of readiness. that is one reason the position of commander of the national guard elevated to the joint chiefs of staff in 2012, the first national guard bureau chief to serve a full term in
the tank, general frank grass has led this transition with character and skill. building the good work of his predecessor, craig mckinley, where are you? general grass worked tirelessly to form the most integrated and total force in our history. rapid deployment capability to respond to any crisis and strengthen the guard's partnership in federal and international levels, strong and steady voice at the table for the men and women of the national guard because for his entire career he personified the finest qualities of our citizen warriors. frank grass has been committed to the defense of this nation since he turned 18 and enlisted in the national guard as a private in 1969.
president harry truman said progress occurs when courageous, skillful leaders seize the opportunity to change things for the better. at every step in your career when the first commission of the engineering core through steadfast protection of the homeland, as chief of the national guard you have been a courageous and skillful leader and seized every opportunity to make progress with total force is strong as a result, you said your self three critical traits of the leaders you admired most are they are analytical, decisive and compassionate. in the time we served together i have seen the way you met all three of the standards, strength and readiness continue to benefit us long in the future. homeland security and disaster
situations helps inform and advise the president during time of challenge, and national security planning to protect our nation at home. your decisive action to prioritize skills, through times of budgetary uncertainty turned the national guard from post-9/11 operational reserve of necessity into a enduring design your compassionate dedication has resulted in stronger community support networks, greater employer cooperation and deeper connections to all who serve. you have never forgotten families of the foundation of our force. i appreciate everything that has been done for our national guard families. you mentioned laura, patrick,
and many grandchildren through the years as well. you and pat earned well-earned retirements, the national guard family has been in good hands for a citizen warrior, served as vice chief of the national guard bureau. joe knows what it means to serve, he logged 3000 hours behind the controls of an f-16, 34 years of distinguished military service, operational staff and commit assignments include service in desert storm, provide comfort, southern watch and enduring freedom among others but most importantly, joe knows what it means to be a military family, service and
sacrifice and joe's father, joseph lengyel was shot down over vietnam in 1967 and held as prisoner of war for six years. his sister, his brothers, now a major general in the air force, john milton wrote they also serve who only stand and wait. joe's entire family served through those long years of uncertainty and strain and continue to serve, turns the service in vietnam in 1975, one of only two former pow pilots to do so. joe's parents i hear today, i think them for their service. [applause]
>> we pray that no military family ever has to go through joe's experience growing up again but any deployment is a strain, i am confident joe will continue the good work frank has done for our lawyers and military families before, during and after deployments. our greatest resources our people, there is no finer
example than joe's family. we are joined by his wife sally, you have been aboard for a while and now stepping up here. air force veteran, his daughter katie, sons joe and mike, who like his mother, an f-16 pilot, the men and women of our national guard stand by and will be well served by general joseph lengyel, and accomplished pilot and also a military son, husband, brother and father. it is a big world out there and we are a great nation, extraordinary responsibilities, opportunities and challenges around the world. we cannot predict how or when or where the men of the national guard will be served on to serve their fellow citizens but we know thanks to steady leadership of general frank grass, the
national guard of today is an indispensable force ready to respond wherever needed. we know joseph lengyel will be this force with 60, clarity, full confidence and trust, general joseph lengyel, general frank grass, all the men and women of the national guard, thank you for everything you do and for always remaining, always ready, always there. [applause] >> thank you, secretary carter.
frank grass asked that his decoration be presented during the retirement ceremony later this month. will frank grass diminish will joseph lengyel join ash carter in front of the flag for the presentation of the distinguished service medal for his term as vice chief of the national guard bureau. please stand. lieutenant general joseph lengyel, united states air force, distinguished himself by distinguished service as vice chief national guard bureau from august 2012 to august 2016. the decisive leadership, superior professional skills and efforts of general joseph lengyel were instrumental in improving national guard engagements around the world. despite significant physical challenges and reduce resources general joseph lengyel insured the national guard remained a operational national force of the united states premier first responders. is the first three star vice
chief national guard bureau he collaborated with senior department of defense partners, state governors, adjutants general and foreign military leaders enabling the national guard to effectively serve our nation during this critical time in our nation's history. is extra ordinary service and pursuit of excellence insured the national guard was well-positioned for future challenges. the distinctive accomplishments of general joseph lengyel reflect great credit upon himself, the united states air force into the permit of defense.
[applause] >> secretary carter will promote lieutenant general joseph lengyel to the rank of general. by order of the secretary of the air force and direction of the president, joseph lengyel is extended federal recognition it appointed reserve of the air force and the grade of general on the third day of august, 2016. [applause] ladies and gentlemen, please be seated. >> general joseph lengyel's wife sally, his father, retired veteran, pow lieutenant colonel lauren will pin on the new leaf
that i will support and defend the constitution of the united states against all enemies foreign and domestic, that i will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, but i take this obligation freely, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion. and i will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office i am about to enter. so help me god. [applause] >> thank you.
thank you very much. my sincere thanks to you for nominating me for this position, the greatest honor of my life. ambassador patterson, happy to see you, to serve with the ambassador, right after the revolution and professional development part of my life, interactions, i learned much from her, how to run a country team and something i have never been exposed to before, i am honored that you came. former chief said everyone here, thank you for coming, general grass, sir, my thanks, it is a
hard job. i have tailored my talking points to you it had all your talking points in mind so i will try not to repeat everything general grass says, an honor to see this, and friends all over this building on the hill, so i will endeavor to follow your model. for the last four years. so i will wrap this up really quick because 5 minutes was our
limit. you heard a little bit of the talking points from the secretary. i want you to think about the national guard, three things, this could be my focus as i endeavor to take on the role of chief, homeland partnerships, it is to take $25 billion this building gives the national guard to be part of the army and air force. i have been in the national guard 25 years and i have lived the transformation of the national guard from competent, qualified force that it was to the operational force it is today. lived up to what the air force demanded it live up to be and we have similar equipment and same tactics, the combatant commander will have anywhere in the world whether it is russia, china, iran, violent extremists, that is our number one focus. national guard going in the same
direction and couldn't be more pleased with what i see about the integration of reserve components. we have no choice but to leverage the business model of these components as we go forward and i believe that with all my heart. the homeland piece is connected. we bring resiliency to america all over the place. men and women under command of these adjutant gentlemen are the only uniformed people, in every state territory in colombia, they organized and equipped forces for these two men here. we are prepared every day to secure our communities. i got a call from governor abbott from texas who told me congratulations, proud to see a texan and we want to tell you how important the guard is for the state of texas for what they
do every day. half 1 million mandates, have 1 million times they were called to serve the community for a variety of reasons, natural disasters, terrorist activities, were postured everywhere to do it and it is what we do 24/7, 365 when we are not fighting wars. it is our job and responsibility. that is the second thing we do. the third thing, filling partitions around the nation, we have 70 state partnership programs, highly successful leveraged relationship so the military as a force for good. we deployed 80 times, 15 countries to iraq and afghanistan who said they would go provided i go with my state partner, to get another flag on that war, that coalition as we fight for the security interests of the united states. the last thing i would say is the thing that makes it all
worth it, what general grass mentioned, the 453,000 people and women i am honored to represent here. we can't do those things without them. they are the most important weapon systems. it takes as long to develop them as it does to buy a new bomber or carrier or -- all those things take decades. it will be my huge important task to continue growth and developing of the leaders of this force to do the things i talked about. i was worried i might forget to talk about my family. i will do that right now. we have a pretty good joint force down here almost worthy of a demon quite frankly.
mad about that. i remember flying a 727, it was snowy and windy and raining and i thought i'm glad the air force trained me to be such a good pilot. it is not a wasted resource. with the adjutant general, to allow the system so they don't have to choose. all the airlines doing similar things. around the world to do this. i will leave you with this. and with the yankees, talked about the red sox fan and the secretary of the harvard red sox
>> a number of house and senate across the country from wisconsin its first district where paul ryan is running for a 10th term against business executive paul nealon. here is more on that race. >> good morning. all eyes on paul ryan's primaries. what are the predictions, another eric cantor repeat? >> guest: this primary has drawn a lot of attention no one
expects. no one expects ryan to come close to losing today. $100 on cash in the campaign account compared to 200,000 the primary challenges. >> host: when were those numbers dated? they would have to be spent by today to make your point by election day. >> guest: there is no indication ryan has been spending heavily. polls have showed ryan was an enormous lead over his opponent. >> host: people watching returns, what do you expect to know about that ryan race? >> most accounts, i would not be surprised if they were called
in. as you mentioned, paid a lot of attention to the primary, majority leader eric cantor's law outside in virginia to take washington but might shock. the press has overcompensated here, treating a long shot candidate. >> host: expecting any comment from donald trump? he is a figure in the primary campaign. cannon house office building -- >> he did way and, limiting him instead of -- it appears when paul ryan is over, i would not expect him to weigh in. someone getting blown out in a primary. donald trump only endorsed,
officially endorsed in one republican primary in the house. that was rené elmer in north carolina, the only pundits to lose a primary, doesn't have the best track record. >> host: in the other races today, are other incumbents in danger of losing their primaries? >> guest: this has been a good year for incumbents, and three lost so far and no one was lost so far, sort of a tea party challenger in the way mister neil did. >> host: there is a competitive primary happening in the second district at the seat of john klein, expected to be competitive in november, what will happen tonight and how was
that shaping up? >> guest: there are other open seat primaries, and in minnesota, republican congressman john klein, has weighed in the candidates at a late date, but it is expected james lewis will be the favorite and in wisconsin's eighth district republican congressman is retiring, a c democrats c has a target, they want any chance to gain the majority this fall, two republicans facing off for the chance to hold on to that seat. mike gallagher, a former marine is the favorite. >> host: you mention a democrat you had to the fall, possibility
of taking control of the house, i democrats putting in place candidates necessary to take advantage of a wave if it develops this fall? is the house in play? >> guest: democrats could be in play though they shied away from making old predictions that they will retake the house. they have a slim path to retaking the house. they don't have candidates in a huge number of races was when republicans reach the house in 2010, they ran a huge number of candidates with substantial resources and many of them won. democrats would have to prevail in almost all the races that they are competitive in to retake the house so it is expected to be a tougher climb
for them. there are two primaries, the one in wisconsin's eighth district today and the one in minnesota's second district taking place in minneapolis where they have to win in november if they want any shot at retaking the house. >> host: a campaign pro reporter for politico, we appreciate your time and a preview of tonight's action on the congressional primary, thanks so much. >> thanks for having me. >> polls close at 9:00 pm eastern time for we bring you the candidates's speeches live when they happen on c-span. >> on saturday c-span's spotlight looks at trade deals impact on the economy, jobs in the presidential election. >> we will defend american jobs and american workers by saying
no to bad trade deals like the transpacific partnership and unfair trade practices. >> pennsylvania lost one third of their manufacturing jobs since the clintons put china into the wto. >> the program includes a look at nafta, the free-trade agreement, mexico and canada. >> more jobs for the people, exports, markets and more democracy for our allies. >> a discussion on how the founding fathers view free-trade. >> historically, the united states is not a free-trade nation. for most of american history the us is a tariff protected economy. this goes back to the constitution. >> an in-depth examination of the wto enforcing global trade
will. >> the wto being negotiated for its smaller sister nafta, 800 more pages of rules and regulations, my book would be very different. when these were negotiated, the us had as official advisors, 500 corporate advisors. >> watch our spotlight entrée deal saturday at 8:00 pm eastern to c-span and c-span.org. the c-span radio apps makes it easy to follow the 2014 election wherever you are. it is free to download from the apple apps store or google play, get audio covered and up-to-the-minute schedule information for c-span radio and c-span television plus podcast times for popular public affairs and history programs. stay up to date on election coverage, c-span's radio apps means you have c-span on the go.
>> what is expected to be a short pro forma session, no legislative business on the schedule, the sessions are held every 3 days in august because there was no adjournment resolution passed before members started their summer break. >> the senate will come to order and the clerk will read communication to the senate. >> washington dc, august 9, 2016, and paragraph 3 of the standing rules of the senate, appoint the honorable david vedder from louisiana to perform duties of the chair,