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tv   Book Discussion on 1941  CSPAN  August 24, 2016 10:13pm-10:56pm EDT

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spent imagine one racial lynching per week in the south that as a psychological divisive you are black your afraid it could happen to you. >> est. teenager the youngest of seven children home with his mother and he is asked about to give up pack of cigarettes he goes out in the old buick pulls up behind him
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speak i if good afternoon welcome to the roosevelt library we are delighted to have you here today. president roosevelt i assume will also be happy because he wanted it to be a
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community organization for his presidency and the issues that he confronted. we are glad you could be here as well also because it is the 70th anniversary and we invite you to be a part of the festivities and if you enjoy these types of programs go to the website at fdr library spee10 if you have then here you know the format t9 will speak for half an hour then we will have questions that afterwards he will go to the lab -- lobby.
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>> marc wortman is an independent historian his book t11 is an advertisement for our anniversary also the author of the millionaires unit. he has written for many publications including town and country he appears on cnn and is the graduate please give him a welcome. [applause] >> it is absolutely
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wonderful to be here this afternoon. thanks to the archivists i came here to do research and they may get possible to create books. as mentioned also thinking president fdr for the title of my book that is all around the place left last 75 years ago as he mentioned it was not an accident. not his founding of the library and and of the intended that to be my title be. but seriously his planning for this library was well
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before and he was thinking he would it be retiring from his presidency when as the crisis began to develop, he thought nobody else in government could lead to the nation that he saw the war of the horizon and he was right. but seeing it is not the same but action is what was called for on june 18 so that is today's 76 years ago so think back about that date which was one of the zero lowest points ovenbird freedom and democracy. french vs. had just capitulated to the germans
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and the not seek soldiers in paris at this point hiller add occupied the state's virtually all the scandinavia and western europe. but that day bill is also in many ways a turning point to push back the forces of tyranny. there were trees speeches that took place this very day 75 years ago. nineteen the most celebrated in modern history one is little known today. speaking to the house of commons the recently elevated prime minister winston churchill warned the hiller would turn his ship on the british isles by wife
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made the promise that i would not do a winston churchill imitation of life lab last and he graveled the battle of britain is about to begin but upon this battle depends upon the christian civilization he called for resistance, for if we fail then bill whole world, including the united states, making sure americans heard him, including all we have known and care for will sink into the abyss of a new dark age. he roused the people for war in despite is desperate plea he would freeze them for that battle that would forever be known as they're finest hour.
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will no and is then his conclusion of that speech he warned invoked the the notion that should britain fall, because there was no guarantee that it would not fall with the impending onslaught better america and one day come to liberate the old world. broadcasting that save evening from london to the french general also emphasize the global character of the war. he said i can talk enough french accent but my wife would kill me be slowed to france is not alone but the french national army he also
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looked across the land take one for help. this war has not been decided by the battle of france it is a worldwide war pdf now a few hours after did all and churchill spoke in his speech to place and the baton was taken up across the land to cushion. this one was little remembered national radio address broadcast from backhouse believe diversity. which challenged americans to respond to the unfolding catastrophe the man who addressed the nation was stinson a 72 year-old private citizen at the time but regarded does the elder statesman he held numerous
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posts since the roosevelt era while moving in and out of a successful career as the wall street banker and then stop to head up the army artillery regiment in france on the western front a progressive republican republican, served taft as secretary of war and herbert hoover as secretary of state . he told his listeners the country faced probably the greatest crisis of its history threading the world based upon what and justice instead of force. that seems like a quaint notion knobs. with china and southeast asia, the world was divided between fundamentally
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opposing camps that the world cannot permanently into were but it should pretend fall been our men would soon be fighting for our own lives on american soil the nation when he declared faced emergency that it was ill-prepared and was prevented from facing with the neutrality laws expressly designed by congress in the thirties to keep the nation whiff from being drawn into foreign conflict. by la the government could not even do friendly belligerence all goods sold by american manufacturers
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had to be paid for in full and in cash american ships were forbidden from carrying purchase weapons and munitions to the war zones and the citizens were prohibited for providing support to any nation at war. in effect while hitler attacked japan and china in europe the neutrality act out why did the u.s. assistance to the victims of aggression. stinson called for the repeal of those sacks to arm of british and also that the u.s. ports be opened to their warships for repair and resupply and called on congress to permit sending aircraft and munitions to the allies pdf under:48 with the german navy attacking the convoy that meant almost inevitably he was saying we
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should be prepared to go to war. but most significantly he called for the creation of a draft army. the united states in the 154 years had never drafted an army in peace time. not a single soldier except in time of war pdf. he concluded that talk by saying i believe should be fined our people ready to take their part in this world to carry through to victory and freedom and reconstruction. that was a tall order with hitler's troops in paris-based and having
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conquered almost all of europe's. the next day roosevelt called simpson has a republican and asked him to come see that secretary of war and he specifically told him i it agree with everything you said did your radio address. like many people he thought the president would move too soon declare war. but fast for another year. june 181941. by this point germany had consolidated including over the previous two months yugoslavia and greece moving through north africa threatening the vital suez canal heller held the arctic circle in the northbound in the southern shores of the
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mediterranean from the north sea english channel all the way to the border of the soviet union. and that this instance 75 years ago he had amassed more than 3 million troops on that border for that invasion taking place six days later. in what was going on here? at that moment we were switzerland in the spring of 194175 percent of americans thought the fall of great britain would pose a serious danger to the united states it also found almost 85 percent said nonetheless no americans should fight the foreign war pdf. you cannot get 85 percent of americans today to agree
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that the sun rises in the east. [laughter] but they agreed no american troops in european. fdr instituted that draft. but he also promised and congress said that not basing polymeric and boot would go to fight a foreign war unless we were attacked. he'd made day united states with their arsenal of democracy we began to send aid. we he agree edberg none of
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that goes in the american ships under protection of the u.s. navy. said those tanks and gone - - and guns and bullets and aviation fuel that the british were dependent on to continue that fight one year after the fall of europe we were in the arsenal of democracy not the army of democracy. reworking very hard to give the brits and the chinese the weapons. why was u.s. so isolationist? library coming be to the
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data the nations of the world? of those wars sand atrocities and others in not see germany? wiry the arsenal and not the army of democracy? the isolationist came from the political spectrum and the communist party riding through the invasion 1941 when they did you turn to say this time for the u.s. to come to the aid to defeat hitler. but there were also bought sympathizers among them is phillip johnson who later is the most influential architect in the world and is already a major case
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maker he went into poland dog with the not the army -- nazi army as a reporter whiff be anti-semitic promote nazi publication. p. was pared by administering a as a cbs radio correspondent and then came back to the united states basically talking about what he had seen and warning about that inevitability of war with hitler roosevelt's fifth
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cousin he was a hero from world war i and co-founder of the american legion and later a hero of world war ii but waster bay hated the hyde park roosevelt it was a family battle in the political battle and that was with the isolationist as they pushed toward the interventions anti-war
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fervor almost as much as vietnam's. pdf banks to the goods back and the purchases, we had good times since the great depression you can understand people did not want to go to war they wanted to enjoy 25 lead by a car. they finally had enough food to eat. of course, the enduring memories wiping out the generation and beyond european men and also the basic questions about the king of england with the
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largest colonial empire. through this all alike president wilson food he served with the run-up that we have to be neutral in thought and act, president roosevelt pursuits but we would recognize is not neutral actions of most significantly sending the american nav ever deeper into the men to cushion toward europe at the neutrality patrols those involved american ships and then announcing on clear channel and plain english their presence usually long enough and for the british to come up enabling the
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british to attack by sending a naval air been flying with the raf was an american who found this market was almost blown out of the sky by the aircraft fighter. and brought did what was the destruction of the bismarck. he was unafraid of constitutionally dubious means but those anti-war forces or organized and
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passionate and the majority of american opinion but a group of yale students became the committee for america of first. of platform no arms for foreign nations increase should build up the home defenses. that could depress and of yale ironically during the vietnam war and the ambassador to london a future supreme court justice future president gerald ford. joseph kennedy, jr. was the head of that chapter.
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sending a $100 donation from the america's first committee but by and large opposed to intervention. but also the "chicago tribune" in the upper midwest. there were deeply opposed to fdr. win lindbergh became the first chief spokesman the organization's membership grew at 800,000 members. with the lindbergh speaking america first rallied to see
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h. robert like quality to them heavily anti-immigrant labor. and how you are highly reactionary. >> sometimes they turn violent with the pro intervention supporters. >> i was going through lindbergh's diaries at yale university. of the leather bound books obvious with those daily activities with those biographies i was pretty shocked by how many anti-semitic entries and the
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obsession with the jews but
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in derby searching his image from of the jews of media and advertising. there is clear evidence and go that ownership of media and the time. as part of the election ended 1940 the political scene in america became a dual in the hearts and minds of american people. fdr was not above using the white house power.
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there was another shadow war going on at the time with foreign agents from great britain, and germany and japan in the united states. they were engaged with public opinion spying on each other and tempting got british of the german activities in south america to close off trade and the possibility there even involved hollandaise sympathizer in airplane
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crash of unexplained causes. no intelligence force compared to the british security quarter nations set up in rockefeller center in midtown and hand -- manhattan. they had 3,000 agents. churchill sent sir william stephenson here among the agents who work with him the use is that experience feeding us by a operations over the border they would send protesters, identified german agents to the united states of the sympathetic
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newspapers and other media. blows that tried to implicate germany of the western hemisphere. fdr got a map supposedly showing the reorganization of south america after the takeover may and refused to show it to anybody but apparently it was obvious it was a forgery. no i do an injustice to my book if i don't talk about a man i consider a hero of the period called harry hopkins. moved back into the white house may 1940 with the
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invasion of france and the guest to never left. and he and fdr became engulfed. calling in the deputy president. it stuck in washington in sent harry hopkins as his emissary to meet with the churchill as he was in and he could depend on as an ally. hopkins came back to say be have to do everything we possibly can to keep the british isles afloat. he didn't been the administrator running out of his bedroom in the white house. with no salary. eventually there president
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sent him after the invasion of joseph stalin he was no better than hitler according to many americans. and they created a relationship unbacked one dash to make what many thought would be a quick fall of the soviet union with a pass play to the destruction of hitler. what fdr did before the british then the russians was vital but to win would require u.s. entry into the war.
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he was hamlet to win the world needed henry v he would do were human tell david fire the first shot. now shockingly the shots that finally brought the u.s. into the war in doubt of the shadows were not germans. to tell you spoiler alert the climax epilogue in entity end of my book u.s. was attacked and pearl harbor. we went to war and joined the grand alliance. . with that i will end. [applause] >> please use the microphone
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>> how badly does that harm his legacy? that was a mixed legacy with the major u.s. airport by hand in many ways the spirit of st. louis . and is legacy and writing a terrific novel and america
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first was actually planning in 1941 to term political in 1940 to. then at the rallies wednesday when deberg for president there was no evidence that i have seen he had any intention to run for office. but it is a very murky and ambivalent there is no question about that. i complex man. and brilliant and brave. that took place and end world war ii. and after washington came for pearl harbor to ask for his commission back he said
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anybody use boca against the interest of his country the way you did cannot leave our fighting forces so lindbergh never regained his military commission and was forced against his will to work stateside with the development of aircraft. and then to go to the pacific with the fighting missions. >> >> i read once with the influence has that alumni for that peace movement is
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there any truth to that? much to the '30's? pemex of the question of unbacked the organized efforts was received from the german embassy they were actively supporting those various organizations. i would say the communist party is far more influential on college campuses with the antiwar movement. i have not come across that evidence that says there was specific infiltrators from nazi, germany but no
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question in these organizations have support from the german embassy. although americans were dash isolationist, they're also highly sympathetic to what was happening to the british as the reports came back things to edward murrow. as the reports were coming back there was always a danger and then they would get in trouble.
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and those that had german embassy personnel some of that aspect. >> there were some certain activities but they had to be very careful not to be discovered. >> day violated the law. but i don't recall reading to what degree is there a the dual challenge mounted grex to block them from
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occurring? >> that is a good question. i am not aware. but when that was passed by congress but as far as his other actions and further out to occupy iceland and. a sovereign nation in july 1941. to have american forces and to be deep into the combat zone of great britain. they got the opinion from the opinion of the lawyers
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even without congressional approval. only very late did he begin to said the convoy out. good. with that, i am happy to talk with you further. [applause] >> i plan on doing for thanes specifically. about teddy roosevelt and william power word taft


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