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tv   Opening Remarks Regional Views Panel 1  CSPAN  December 27, 2017 1:08pm-2:22pm EST

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two new democratic lawmakers. alabama dow jones in minnesota tina smith or the house of representatives returns a few days later in january 8th. in the new year, congress needs to consider a government spending bill because current government funding runs out on january 19th. also on the calendar, and this year's state of the union address. house speaker paul ryan has invited president trump to address a joint session of congress on january 30th. when congress is back in session, the senate is life here in the stand to in the house is live on a companion network, c-span. the center for strategic and international studies hostea daylong discussion on security threat in north africa. first, we'll hear from the president that csi has come and then the security officials from tunisia, algeria and morocco appear later, conversations with u.s. national security
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officials, journalists and a representative from the international crisis group. >> good morning, everybody. my name is john hamre and i'm very pleased to have all of you join us today for what is going to be a fascinating conversation. i was talking with our very distinguished speakers just as we were waiting for people to gather and i said you know, in washington, north africa is kind of a blank spot. so much in this region that we don't know. we tend to look out your appeared we tend to look at africa and the middle east. we don't tend to look at the mall grub and think about it in a systematic awful way. that is going to be the opportunity for today. we are going to have a dad with these remarkable leaders and i do want to stay thank you for coming. i'm very proud that you would be
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here. we are going to explore three different things today. we are going to take an honest look at terrorism in the maghrib. we are going to analyze what the governments of the region are doing and how they are thinking about it and we areoing to think of it strategically about what our goal should be and how it can work together. it is a real opportunity to have people in these leadership responsibilities and with this step of experience to help guide us. this is an opportunity for americans to listen. that is not usually our trade. we usually talk. we rarely listen. today we are going to listen and have a chance to learn. i'm very proud we have them with us today. i want to use a special thanks to the ocp policy center. this is a bright and shiny new think tank that has been created and morocco. we have got a chance to work with missile tribe for the last
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year or so and we are very pleased he's giving us an opportunity to host this event. i especially want to stay thank you to the support from the three embassy teams here. we've had great support with all that help and it's going to be a good morning. i thank you all for coming. you are going to introduce the speakers and we look forward to hearing from them. >> thank you very much, dr. hamre and probably for joining us today. welcome to the first panel. the fact so many people are here this morning i think illustrates just how important north african security north african security has been just how much of a hungry bear is for trying to get more information about security issues in north africa. it is an issue we had to see sis middle east program have been working on for over a decade, trying to understand drivers at changes in the region and trying to understand security trends and what drives radicalization
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in the terrorism challenge in north africa. we've been trying to shed light on how security challenges in the region are changing, what factors drive those changes and then what that means for u.s. policy. it seems that every decade or so there is a major change in the jihadi fallacy landscape, the nature of the thread. if we look back over the last few decades, every decade or so we see the site golem in phases. a threat emerges. governments counter the threat through different policies and a period of heightened violence. and eventually a new threat emerges that we didn't really for see how renders and. this isn't unique to north africa, but a recurring theme for anyone who discovers security and counterterrorism. we are one of those inflection points again for the nature of the threat is changing. the territorial or physical
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caliphate of isis has been largely dismantled. the flow of foreign fighters and libya, syria and iraq have dropped dramatically, yet both isis and al qaeda remain lethal. they inspire thousands of disillusioned young people and they seek to regenerate across a much wider landscape than ever before. the purpose of this conference is to really understand how the nature of the jihadi fallacy thread is evolving, how is changing in north africa, analyzed the government strategies to counter the threat and think about what an appropriate set of policy goals to counter that threat may look like. we are going to start off this morning by hearing directly from tunisians, algerians and moroccans security officials about how they see the threats in each of their country's emerging and then explained some of the most important components
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of their governments counter terrorism strategy. it's an honor for me to moderate such an distinguished panel and i'm grateful to each and everyone of you for coming this fall away to join us today. i'm gng to introduce our speaker is first and then give each of the speakers five minute to present some opening remarks and then we will ask a question and answer session and moderate the discussion. i am going to introduce them in the order they are going to speed. to my far left is for admiral kamel akrout, secretary tunisia is counsel appeared before taking off his post at the national security council, he had a distinguished career in the tunisian navy for over three decades. he previously served as director of military intelligence and the tunisia military attaché to the
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united arab emirates. admiral akrout teaches on security and counterterrorism at the higher were college institute of national defense and international security forces college. thank you for being here. next, ambassador el-haoues riache is in charge of international security affairs at algeria's ministry of foreign affairs. he is also a security and counterterrorism adviser to the algerian foreign minister. he has had a distinguished career in algerian diplomacy and the curious and served as ambassador counselor in charge of terrorism and migration issues to the african union and the arab league. he's also served as algeria's ambassador in switzerland, portugal and namibia. to my left as ambassador mohamed salah tamek with the delegate general of morocco's penitentiary and rehabilitation and is the market share of the
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security component of the u.s. morocco strategic dialogue. during his tenure as the head of the penitentiary system yet instituted what red reform throughout morocco's prison system. he has had a distinguished career in public service and has served in numerous positions including chief of staff to the ministry of interior and served as morocco's ambassador to norway and finland. ambassador tamek started off his career as university professor in the english department at the mohammed fake university and have unsolved services you are an excellent teacher. gentleman and i thank you to all of you for joining us and the floor is yours. >> ladies and gentlemen, thank you. but like to think you for giving me the opportunity to be here
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and talk about the security situation in tunisia. i'd like to address and i'm delighted to meet with dr. hamre, my professor in 2000. ladies and gentlemen, that the uprising of 2011, the series of terrorist acts in 2013, 2014 and early 2015. tunisia is still threatened by terrorism and by the impact of the regional security situation in libya. i will address in my presentation and the three topics. i will start with terrorism, the root cause of terrorism in tunisia and then the war and
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libya and now finished with the strategies adopted. the root cause of tunisian news after 2011 i was speaking general view of the young generation environment and radicalization of the feeling of restoration and a feeling of injustice and indignation, feeling a fair desire come a feeling of lack of opposition are having marginalization are experiencing disorder. the specificity of radicalization in tunisia up to 2011, the majority of our youth has the feeling of being conveyed -- they were convinced
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there's no hope that the situation would ever change because of employment, and so on. the reaction of the operation for political islam during this era with the sensitiveness of those that affect the number is somewhere after the fall of gadhafi's regime and the small terrorist groups in libya. in fact, since october 2011 after the fall of gadhafi's regime, the leadership is very passionate and a weak central government, libya is now murdered by continuous fighting and terrorists.
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there is no conflict -- security forces libya has become the terrorists. and part of the situation on tunisia, the multiple training camps not far away from libya and subversive elements in libya and we have the info and the terrorist attacks more than 100 terrorists. and the same time other new phenomenon have erupted in smuggling contraband smuggling
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with weapons in the second phenomenon is illegal migration and human trafficking. that threat is adopted to tunisia. tunisia to develop the expertise through nationally formed interagency coordination and capacity, information sharing, organization of the council in 2014. national intelligence agencies center and internationally with the intelligence information sharing that i can develop later in the session. by the one person that we adopt counterterrorism in 2003.
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we have the national commission commend the adoption of national counterterrorism in015 in november 2017. we have apt is regarding with the tailor-made approach with the hesitation to report -- [inaudible] in the transition program in the prisons. i want because at the time, we don't have enough time, just to return back to our counterterrorism strategy for principles adapted. the first one is human rights in
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the second is the rule of law. the third is the enforcement international corporation -- cooperation, information sharing and exchange. before this military and security means to counterterrorism. the most important drivers to lead to the spread of terrorism or social media, internet and cyberspace. in conclusion, a considerable improvement in tunisia despite the regional security situation in fact in 2016 tunisia was better. thank you for listening. >> thank you, mr. moderator.
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mr. president, participants, mr. moderator, first of all, i would like to think that team of the csis for the invitation to take part in this important gathering dedicated to the issue of security in our region. i've bee asked to present the major security challenge as in the region in the wake of the ongoing iraq and syria. they include first the participants in the region. second, the financing and radicalization for their radicalization and the growing
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threat of islam in some countries politics and common value and finally the intervention in countries and in violation of international law. on the first line in the first debate. the first is an issue of the region of north africa including nigeria of course then the second in africa. in north africa -- [inaudible] financing in the region of international -- the terrorism
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financing and the connection between terrorism and national organized crime. prevention of radicalization became the top priority in an increasing number of countries for discovering that it could also be homegrown terrorists. islamic phobia is also underway for the benefit of growth on both sides. finally, for the intervention in violation of provinces need in the best terrorist group. in nigeria, we are fighting what is left in the 90s. these are the economy, nor should the functioning of the institution of the population. the number of terrorist --
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[inaudible] is very high in the media by the ministry of national defense. in nigeria through the combination of political, economic and educational, both implementation including state institutions, the private sector citizens of any kind of foreign intervention. i thought it would be useful to go through the main aspect of dealing with terrorism that the
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time that the number of countries that feel the need to prepare themselves is unfortunately growing completely in countries like sierra leone, liberia -- [inaudible] the military -- first come in the fight against terrorism in 1992 in full compliance with the law of the countries and the moratorium was put in place in
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february 1993 at the time the system was good to pronounce against the responsible increasing number of killings. the first concn of the authorities was to protect even if they provide the cost of tuition and the law. the moratorium -- [inaudible] very, very quickly it was understood that would only use military forces. but their isolation of the terrorist groups within society. in the reinforcement and they
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achieve this objective. remain long-term were lost and implemented. the national reconciliation, the promotion -- [inaudible] i will briefly go through each of them. third, the continuation policy went through three phases. 1995 the policy of clemency. 1999, a policy of referendum in 2005 and strongly approved in a
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referendum. and the loss of life. that was based on the principle which firstar aspects by everyone of the constitution, national laws. second, the vic is that national strategy without discrimination. in protecting and planned by its enemies. fourth, on the condition and the republican -- [inaudible] to return to their family. more exclusive from the benefit of this policy, use explosives
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in public places. the terrorists surrendered themselves inside the country were legally accountable. they were either reduced or surprised in the conclusions of individually inquiring. compensations of all victims of terrorist and all of them were considered is that some of the national strategy. this policy allowed thousands of terrorists to violence and return to their family. in very short time to peace, security and stability to the country and in 2017 broke the law and report at the gallup institute, algeria and the seven countries that the world.
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second, democracy -- [inaudible] the algerian people and social cohesion with a strong moral value provided him with their resellers serves against the threats of violent extremism and terrorism. this was through the promotion of democracy, rule of law, good governance independence, fight against promotion of women's status and political inequality and social justice. nigeria is -- [inaudible] this document, i brought it with me. this gives an overall picture in
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promoting democracy and to enforce this choice of the algerian people. third, the policy of the radicalization is also the approach of all sectors with the aim of producing the potential sources of radicalization within the society that could be used by terrorism. it opposes the logic of inclusion to exclusive and exclusion. to that effect, the economic policy implemented by 2001 by
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two main concerns. in one hand, the third distribution on all society as a whole country and on the other hand, diversification including newly graduated from the universities. the education system went through deep reform in order to give [inaudible] identities, moderate and often the rest of the world and citizens strong criticism. [inaudible] modern islam was the subject of the only sort of explanation for
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religious in the country. mosques are the center for amazon, but solidarity, friendship and dialogue between all mankind and not muslims only. this was reinforced by a great number of long-lasting measures of the improvement of the moms. the creation for extremism and the creation and another one for fatwa. this document gives a full picture of the policies implemented for the radicalization and promoted. among the many criteria is to measure among many criteria is to measure, this policy varies,
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the number 170 according to washington and that could, the loss of value by the algerian terrorists, which are found only on the bottom of the foreign terrorist group. and third, and in the election by the islamist parties. a thank you for your attention and answer your questions. thank you. >> thank you. >> i would like to start by thanking the csi has for this invitation. and to my two colleagues.
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i would be very brief with the introduction and to expect the question for the people i know. the main question is the security threat in the region and a key element of the strategies with one disclaimer unlike my two colleagues i am not security. i am rather at the end the output of the security schedule, the people with them. as most of you know, over 174 terrorists have been dismantled in morocco, including 50
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including two sis. some moroccan leaders, moroccan nationals occupy the leading position in the islamic state. in charge of coordinating terrorist action. this is the threat. they do represent a threat with the new unconventional modus operandi is. as i said, between 2013 and 2015, it is said that over 600
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moroccan terrorist sites have been in the islamic state including some who have been that the radicalization. over 200 of these were former prisoners either in guantánamo or morocco. i move onto the next moroccan strategy of the government to deal with terrorism because my former friend is not only security. it is religious.
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and they have faced this threat. i can go on. ever since 2002 morocco started the first terrorist threat with the ideology by operating and all of the mosques we have to close them down and create the radio channel they will promote
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peaceful islam. and they've been explained by qualified christians. [inaudible]
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they return to their home countries and manage and also the rehabilitation strategy. the parties but these offenders but rather engage from religious extremism by and i think they actually met me about a project for which i was working man approaching these terristsbecauy think that the threat is and and you can see from different operations in europe because
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this was an wonton amo was in morocco's prison and then laughed at the burbank shaman in syria. so, that was dealing with people in a multifaceted way. that is a group of policies [inaudible] it is to be confined within itself. psychologically. second, with the community and to do something to communicate either from inside the prison. and third, the reconciliation that these people are breeding religion differently.
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they are led by the wrong ideas about jihads, about so many concepts in islam. so we bring the people they just say the koran said and that is not enough. so the private study of this and the jihadis who were arrested before 1911 -- 2011 and the islamic state people are faders and 30 of them are working outside.
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the drawback that they were facing as i call a state to state, there is a lot of cooperation. this is a threat that is a transnational threat. you cannot fight it as nigeria or tunisia. morocco needs nigeria. nigeria meets morocco and so on and so forth. not cooperating on security threats are going on. in terms of the prison, yes. we are trying to do something in the two colleagues from tunisia
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and nigeria in jordan and tunisia last week, we are working on something together in terms of security, no. we have to solve those problems and i don't and we will be able. we have done excellent work in a great experience. morocco has done excellent work in fighting terrorism, especially preemptive information, the preemptive terrorism as you know. they have multiplied by times , increasing from 15 operations in four countries to 1105. during this period, only one in
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2011. so, that is because of the preemptive participation. the population terrorism, but it is multifaceted, multi-rooted phenomenon and we have to fight it together, hand-in-hand. thank you. >> thank you very much to all of you. it struck me that each of you spoke in different ways about a similar issue, which is a driver's radicalization and how this is not just about developing up your security or law enforcement or military approach to solving the problem, but it has to also take into account religious education, social economic issues. i would like to start with you. tunisia has done an exemplary job of improving its counterterrorism, military capabilities, law-enforcement capabilities over the last two years since the period of 2013 to early 2015 that you
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mentioned. there has been quite a lot of progress on the security front. when it comes to the social, economic, questions of injustice and marginalization that you mentioned, how do you think tunisia is doing and making progress on those issues that actually dried radicalization? >> thank you for this hard question. [laughter] as you said, the principle, one of the principles is to not limit our approach on military and security, but multiple approach ideology and so on and
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tunisia is the situation, especially the economy is the challenge for us and finding investment in three days problematic, but we are doing better each year better than the year before. i give you for example the economic this year better than last year and better than the year before investment. we are trying to do in 2011, 2012, 23rd team is everything, so we have this problem, but we had people that they don't like to wear, but right now things
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are getting better and as i told you, it is again back, but we have many challenges. before, for example, the regional context is difficult. the land of opportunity, either you have a young man, he wanted to be here to get some money and to combat to have his own. there right now, we go to libya because of the security situation that europe is good then you know that for friends of society, the huge friends of society going to hear it, the only way to go to new york is illegal immigration.
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so, the situatioeven in europe is difficult. but we are trying to do something. and i believe that each year our approach and not only the security approach is getting results. thank you peered >> thank you. ambassador riache county talked about the link with organized crime and that the theme people on counterterrorism has been talking about for a while now and how organized crime and radical groups feed off each other. the existing network, this seems monthly not work him in financing mode in some cases. you have been dealing with this for sometime, since the 1990s. in your opinion is it possible to break the link between organized crime and radical groups and what will it take to break that link? >> it is subtle.
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i would wish to break the link, that the problem is the link is very strong. if you look at this a, the road -- the main traffic [inaudible] by the style, small arms and now with what is happening, and the migrations now is one of the main sources for the terrorist groups has been a big business for a long time and we tried to
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criminalize by the u.n., to get the u.n. -- for ransom and we haven't been successful up until now. now if you look at local sources and when you talk to the people in particular, they tell you boko haram is controlling the market of fish. the capitalists, they create their own market in cameroon and
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nigeria and so on and the list is long. they are now because of the pressure in nigeria, they are moving to the south. the problem is a serious one and i will not forget that they learn from daish how to manage, and boko haram implemented what they have done for daish in syria and iraq.
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so, the international attention attention -- [inaudible] and the problem is the time of resources between terrorist group and criminal groups and the roads for the terrorist groups, they are secure by the terrorist group and so on. so, there is a great need for the international community to cut from its origin. thank you.
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>> ambassador tamek thomas of work you've done in the prison in terms of amnesty, reconciliation, you have talked to a lot jihadi prisoners that have come thrgh your system. what has surprised you about what you learned from these people, for the new generation of jihadi? >> as i said, i came across two groups in my last career. when i came to this system, iras ask myself questions. this vicious circle. interested people, we too done to finish capital punishment, wait for them to finish and then
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laid them out and do what they like. so i started thinking what i call the spring university, which is actually addressing all of those inmates who have different schools. it just so happens among those terrorists, when i listened and brought professors in morocco to lecture the different topics, the intervention of those terrorists and the jihadist for the islamic state people, so first university came up with this idea of why not go directly, especially those who
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show some kind of remarks. i came across those in terms of dealing with the carbonic tax. i don't know anything about that, but the islamic people, they are very superficial. they are fighters, really. as i said, refugees, no more. that is why my second operation to separate because intellectually to different populations, so we have to be with them because it is actually lower than the others. the islamic state foreign fighters are not very much deeply known through text and
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they just know things and they are very superficial and does give off kind of people who are very low educational grade. so i work on it and certainly there are brilliant people quote, unquote inside the islamic state, but that is the first thing i noticed. ..
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but more than 1000 people who are in prison now, the hardliners are foreign fighters. all of us, everything, all the arab world, all the european world, they have to be, they are very tough. and appaches different of course, fightg, the point is when i came i found prisoners, be the terrorist or others, and ask the secretary whether there is kind of -- recruitment in prisoners, petty criminals, they say no. but when it set up a system which did not exist, what i call -- when i get information actually focusing on islamist
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and drug use i got information and i found out when i came in 2014, up to 2016, 220 new recruits from inside prison who are actually in with petty penalties, criminals and killers. killers. i have to decide on this, separate the islamist detainees on the rest of the population. now, they were disseminated in 47 facilities. now they are grouped in 16 so they can be controlled. even the prison has been educated. let me tell you, i was in prison myself but did not belong to this trend of ideology. extreme left. what we lack was our personal,
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prison personnel. marxist, you know, and we got -- [inaudible] we didn't pay them but the gist kind of sympathized with us. now they can pay everything. these drug dealers and islamist jihadist prisoners, they can buy any when -- they can buy anything swear to be very careful. i keep changing every month otherwise they should be able to advance themselves because i find one or two, they say in arabic -- let me stay or something like that. very toughh these people. >> thank you very much. we have about ten minutes for
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some questions. since it's a short time please keep your question short. please identify yourself and your institution and try to refrain from making any comments or a monologue. we will start with ambassador jones. please. >> but thank you so much. very impressive and interesting presentations. deborah jo to serve previously ambassador with league i guess i share something with you but my question is, how important do you think addressing terrorism or for this kind of transnational ideological terrorism reform in the kingdom of saudi arabia is right now? to the extent that a lot of these young generally impoverishment who signed up from iraq, , tunisia and elsewhe in europe viewed themselves as part of -- is not being taken
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care of by a corrupt, interview, state whose national wealth was going to saudi nationals but who purportedly to be an islamic state at some level. in that context even the kind of recent shakedown or the approach to the wealthy and the king to may have an impact on that as well in terms of perception is wildly popular even within the kingdom what has just happened. so how do you see, use any impact with transmission in the kingdom on the movement of transnational terrorism? thank you. >> who would like to start. >> i will ask the same question. i have no answer to that. i am following closely but buti can't give you an answer. the impact --
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[inaudible] thank you. >> anybody else like to take that question? >> yeah, maybe short answer. i don't believe that what's going on in saudi arabia would impact the groups or the dormant cells inside tunisia. but maybe outside yes, it could be because the base of the ideology is what he did some -- wahhabism. any part, but inside the tunisia come inside egypt, i believe there are trying to survive with security forces in tunisia. i don't believe that it's one, what is going on in saudi
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arabia. thank you. >> thank you. professor williams erman in the back. >> thanks. ambassador, why do you refuse security cooperation? you try to organize secure communities south been easy but you turn your back to morocco which is a very good security record. wouldn't cooperation be a better strategy? >> that's what my neighbor said. i didn't say that. what i say is we cooperate with everybody. i give you an example of cooperation, strong proof of cooperation. one year, or less, there was more than 500 young moroccans with tickets, one-way tickets. they were stopped in nigeria.
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they were questions, and then we had prepared for our neighbors to the moroccan authorities the siation and we said we have doubts that these people are joining the terrorist groups. because the tickets were prepaid tickets, paid in libya, and one way. i think the international road for cooperation, you have to have your round-trip ticket. and it appeared that these people were joining terrorist groups. so when the cooperation is needed, we have to have. because our main targets, and i can go for one hour or more
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talking about what they do as far as bilateral relation and international cooperation is the concern. we suffered from terrorism and everybody ways not supporting indirectly terrorism. 9/11 arrived and then the whole world woke up to the threats of terrorism. but before there was something that was internal affairs. but everybody knew that it was -- [inaudible] but since it was not hurting others, everybody kept going. and why we are promoting this cooperation for our own security, because we know the threat is global. and it has to be a global one. we are not founding member.
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we cochair with canada the working group on western africa. and we host the african center for studies on terrorism. we host the african organization for the african continent. and the list is long. and our aim is that our hope is that no other people, no other country goes through what we have been through in the '90s. i hope i answered your question. >> last question, professor, please. >> dave ottaway for the woodrow wilson center. i want to add on to what
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ambassador jones was talking about, the saudi influence. i just came back from tunisia and morocco and wahhabism has long been blamed for the ideological inspiration. but ambassador talek noted these jihadists as little ideological or theological oration or knowledge. so is wahhabism the problem really? or as the source of inspiration, or is it economic considerations that they need to make money? what do you think the source for jihadist him is theologically? is it wahhabism? >> the reasons are so many, many fold wahhabism, back in the
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'70s and even before that, at the same time egypt, this islamist movement was started in my grab, the teachers got from egypt, iraq and syria and they're all muslim brotherhood without anybody knowing been. they were teaching high schools back in the countryside. and then came wahhabism, i think that's where it gets material money and this is how it goes. there's a bit of a problem with it. there's a socioeconomic problem because these people, initially they were just poor people. they were approached by somebody who taught them. i was governor and there were people who came to the countryside teaching, they called it -- preaching people. they have to get their ids.
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there were butchers, what have you, no, not even, , a teacher. i said how come that these people teach the precepts of islam? they said will, they have been about because there's this -- casablanca which allows these people in this outfit is spotted and nobody paid attention to it. i said no, forgive me. it was an initiative. they were allowed to do it with the minister. they were allowed it. so i said no because -- actually the first cells that we saw in morocco, 60, almost 70, between 70% 70% of them belong to these movements, to these so-called moderate movements of islam. these people just go in and pray and so on and so forth.
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some of them went to afghanistan afterwards. yes, there is a theological background. there is socioeconomic background, and there is also what's happening, the whole point of this, what's happened, there is a kind of hard knocks on the muslim word because the palestinians look at what happened in iraq. so these, people react to this. people are not all intellectuals. they can manage to analyze strategy and so forth. our friends are killed so we move on to fight, to defend it. so there are so many, many fold aspects of this problem. >> ambassador, do you want to give one minute? >> i would just add something that is not only an ideology,
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it's the context of these people are marginalized. they have a problem inside problem and outset pub. they feel like societies is not their society. these people are against the societies working against him. the society doesn't represent them. and they try to find something to fuel this toward the young people. it could be religion. it could be injustice. as i said some sensitivity of national causes, and especially those affecting muslim worlds. all of these are factors. we cannot have, i was in -- we
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have our teacher telling all the time please give me the profile of terroristic i told him there is no profile. everybody could be terrorist. if there is a group, that made this guy a terrorist. you cannot say ideology or poverty or something is together and when you see, for example, the last event, terrorist event in north sinai against the mosque where the 305 person were killed in the mosque, you can ask yourself is that islam? they try to find an answer. they said these guys are not in our way of practicing islam. but they are not muslims.
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so it is a problem. we saw after the uprising in tunisia many criminals becoming terrorists. so it's, and each, i turned back to the foreign fighters. we cannot say this transport thisystem for everybody. everybody is case. you can recognize one in six months, but the others, you cannot recognize him. thank you. >> i just want to go back to the issue of stf and to say that these people are the next threat of the future. first, they are people who are
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ideologically -- [inaudible] they have convictions. or most of them. second element, these people are military threat. they fought wars. they know how to kill. they know how to use explosives, and so on. they are ready for the wars. and third, they come from one end of the country or more. and they go, most of them, they are going to go back to the countries, or two new zones of conflict. we expect return of some of them. and these people and daesh proved it. they know how to use --hey have connections. they know how to use the social
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network. and they have connected. and everyone of them is a bomber. whatever, he's in the u.s. are in nigeria, and they are connected among themselves. i am raising this point just to say that today is the first two or the previous, two of the terrorists, and we have to pay more attention to this issue, work together closely with the industry. otherwise, we are living longer in the hands of terrorists to destroy even internet. because tomorrow if there is
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national regulation promoting controls, in some such shape, the internet will not be safe. and to not let these terrorists deroy, we have to have the internet. thank you. >> thank you very much. this has been an incredible discussion for lots of reason. reasons. i certainly learned a lot. i think it's the first time that i know of that we've had a panel in washington where tunisia and algeria and morocco and officials have said to get on the panel and expressed their positions in their views. i hope we can repeat this, and perhaps continue this discussion with the 3-d three get at somet in the future. each of you brought your own perspective, but it think there are also, themes that ran threat remarks and the presentation.
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and one of them is the need to cooperate, the reality that this is not just a moroccan fight or a tunisian fight or an algerian fight, but that all of you have to work together more closely, more effectively, and hopefully later on in the day we will talk about how the united states can work more effectively both bilaterally and also on a multilateral level. so i want to thank each of you for coming, admiral, ambassador, ambassador tamek, thank you so much for taking the time for traveling such a long distance for sharing your thoughts with us. i also want to thank the ambassadors of morocco, algeria and tunisia who played an important role in helping put wh this panel together. we are very grateful for their support. so thank you again. i hope you enjoy the rest of the discussion. we're going to take a two minute break as we refill the water and
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bring up our next panel of speakers. thank you very much. [applause] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> good morning, everyone, and thank you for joining us at today's panel. we are lucky to be joined by such esteemed experts on the region and in very eager to hear th


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