tv Book TV Visits Shawnee OK CSPAN March 3, 2018 12:00pm-1:31pm EST
this happened so consistently i realized that i was asking how to do digital publication turning data into things but not why and they were showing that the killer app of digital fabrication like digital computing is personal fabrication. it is products not for massmarketing but she didn't do this to start a business but she wanted a device for screaming. ... with help from our partners at vyve cable in the next hour and 15 minutes we will explore the cities literary life. we'll hear from arial writers including author and historian carol sue humphries who explores the importance and impact of the press during the american revolution. >> these papers would try to
print in certain ways that would get peoples attention. the best example of that is one of the newspapers in philadelphia in response to the stamp act, printed its front page look like a tombstone. that was not easy because, i mean, everything had to be sent by hand. the part that wasn't, the letters had to be carved and so to make it look black like a tombstone it's just really amazing somebody went to that much effort to do that. >> we begin our tour of the cities literary culture with author michael snyder on local native american author john joseph mathews. >> john joseph mathews was an author, a historian, a a tribal councilman for the osage, and he was with the called a mixed blood which you don't hear that term is much but there were full bloods and mixed bloods. so he was osage on his father
side. he grew up in indian territory. there was no such thing as oklahoma yet, so first the osages were settled in indian territory after they left their diminished reservation in kansas. so he grew up in the husker, the capital of that mission, and excitedly frame to be a boy. as he grew up, oil was found in the osage land, and he and his family benefited from their quarterly payment the receipt for the oil royalties. so every osage that was on the roles was entitled to that percentage of the overall royalties. the osages were actually pretty wealthy before that because they were receiving a good payment for the land that they sold in
kansas, which is usually you hear about native americans being ripped off and not being paid anything for the land. of course they were pressured to sign the treaty and they kept losing more and more of the land, but they had a good lawyer who got been a good deal and so they were receiving generous payments for the land in kansas, which was kind of unusual. in the early 20th century a newspaper called him them the richest people on earth per capita. i believe the first time that was mentioned it was even before oil was found. oil was found, it didn't get cooking until early in the 20th century, was found i think in the 1890s. but with the rights of the automobile at a car culture taking over, , there was a huge demand for oil and the tribe became pretty wealthy. john joseph mathews story is very interesting because he defies a lot of stereotypes that
some people might have about natives, and that he grew up in a home that was fairly well-to-do and i think even at one point assembly had a driver and observance. kind of, my first chapter i called silver spur instead of silverstone because you love to ride horses and use always having adventures as a boy writing all around osage county with his hunting dog. so relatively privileged upbringing, prominent father in the community and he spent a lot of time with traditional osages. as a mixed blood and a person living in town, he had a different upbringing than the traditional osages, that he would ride over to their communities and play with osage boys and listen to the elders and hear their stories. a lot of of the young men at the time, they were to get involved
and a list. him being an native american was interesting because native americans were not even really citizens at that time, not even to the snyder act which i think was 1920 or so. native americans were enlisting in world war i, and disproportionate number. >> some of it had to do with the warrior culture and initiation and proving yourself as a man. matthews enlisted. he taught aviation. he thought "nightline." he was teaching the guys that they sent over to france to fight the red baron and so forth. after his work with military and the government, mathews went back to school at the university of oklahoma and resumed his studies. he felt like it wanted to rush them through school and yet gather some credits through flight school and different things but he wanted to get a full education, so he did a year and a half after returning. yet, so he was dating a lot of
women and very popular guy. he kind of enjoy that sort of popularity of being able to be a return better. then he went on to oxford and he was studying science and literature. he wanted to do what he called cultural preservation. he saw that his tribes peoples culture was changing rapidly. you at this influx of money and so, therefore, you yet an inflf people trying to get that money, and the money would kind of changed the way of life and her outlook on things. he wanted to try to preserve things because he saw the cultural loss and he was worried that would go away entirely. kind of a famous story about mathews is when he was traveling in north africa. he went on a hunting trip, and this group of berber tribesmen rode up on the horses and they start to circle their camp. i think they had built a little camp and they were going to have
dinner. so mathews and his guide and the cook, and these over tribesmen who were not muslim but so what he called the wild tribe of indigenous people out there, and they circled their camp and they had this old winchester rifles and a shooting in the air and just creating this real scene. mathews thought at first, threatening, alarming at first but then you realize this is just like the sort of thing i saw as a kid at osage nation. he remember being out on the prairie and something similar happen when these osage warriors rode a printer shooting their guns, and he called it, it was really enjoy shooting. they weren't trying to scare him or kill anybody but it was just joy of life, joy of living. he had this feeling like what am i doing out here traveling around to all these other
cultures, that i have my own culture, i have my own tribes people. so he said i should go back and study them and write about them. it was kind of an epiphany had we out in algeria, and the message goes that then he went straight back home but there wasn't -- there were a number of years that passed between his homecoming. i think that gave him an impetus to return and write about his people. the state of native americans in the united states was not great at that time. the early 20th century was kind of a low point in some ways in the third been so much forced assimilation and a culture ration. osage allotment occurred by 1906. they held they held a little bit longer and they were smart because able to hold on to their land base it even after the land was allotted and distributed to individual osages, they kept,,
there wasn't any excess land that could then be opened up for white settlement. all about oklahoma there were these land runs and it was a big land run at a bunch of other smaller land runs but the osage readable to keep the land base which was really good. but the situation was bad thing for american indians and the generals in the 1910s and 1925th the osages were an exception because of the oil that was found on the land and gave them great wealth but then on the other hand, that led to widespread exploitation, guardians would take advantage of natives that they were rolled incompetent if there were considered to be illiterate or not educated. in some cases there were natives who were educated and very intelligent but they were still called incompetent. these guardians to take advantage of them financially, and this led to even conspiracies of murder, like david writes about that in killers of the flour mill.
even with all the benefits, they were victimized, murdered, exploited in different ways. of the tribes without the benefit of wealth were rapidly losing their culture. they were losing speakers of their language. because of that whole process of indian education where the force of assimilation that produced, they're trying to produce basically imitation white men. think back to carlisle industrial indian school and colonel brett, captain pratt, who famously said kilby indian, save save the man. that's a paraphrase of what he said to get rid of all the tradition and all the wildness, and turned them into good american citizens who can be injected into the economy. just kind of, a might look indie but their white on the inside
was the goal. things were really bad for native americans at this point, and john joseph mathews just by virtue of being a native american writer, he was, this is a new idea for a lot of people, this new paradigm of indian intellectual or an indian author. the osage and the white man's road, came out in 1932, it was a book-of-the-month alternate selection. that was a big deal. a lot of people read it at the time and so this breakthrough book, one of the first books by native american writer that soul that many copies to the really wasn't a concept of an american indian author at that time in 1932. people were not thinking of like needed intellectuals or native writers. he really helped to change the mainstream perception i think of native americans to a degree, and this book in telling of osages i think by extension it teaches lower plains indians tribes like the omaha was in
others, he was kind of an intermediary i think between this middle class reading culture and native american culture. being of both european and osage ancestry he kind of played that role as public intellectual and an intermediary between the cultures. his book was so influential to osage people, especially his book called the osages which was a tribal history. 600 plus pages. they called it the big green book. so you don't osages would read it and they just called it the green book. there was a story that was told by a university of tulsa anthropologist who went to the university of oklahoma and he said he was out walking to class and he you ran into a friend of his, a fellow student who is osage. the osage guys hair was all messed up and is closer all wrinkled. bailey thought he's been up all night partying or something.
he asked his friend what was going on, and is osage friends that i i've been up all night reading the osages by john joseph mathews, and he skipped classes to read. he almost read it straight through, which is hard because it is a tall, a real door stopper. but he told bailey now i know who i am, after reading this book. so i think especially in the '60s, 70s and on the remaining osages who were trying to reconnect to the culture and learn about their traditions because they had been in some ways very assimilated. it was hugely influential to young osages. john joseph mathews life is so inspiring in part because he broke the mold of how people thought about native americans. to me he's a beautiful writer. his prose style is elusive. is been called a prose poet which i i agree with.
if you read his novel sundown, when he writes about being a student at university of oklahoma and he writes about these dances and balls, if you feel like you in the room and you can smell the perfume and you can use the jazz music and you can feel his anxiety. it's incredibly an evocative writer and is a fighter to contemporary hemingway, fitzgerald, but people don't know about them and is really a lost generation writer like hemingway, , fitzgerald and others, and he was in the world war i timeframe and traveled all around europe afterward and northern africa. he kind of wandered around like these expatriates that are famous and written about, but here's an amazing writer, a prose poet and just such a fascinating life history of being someone who is kind of drawn from both the euro-american world and the native american world. >> our look at the literary
culture of shawnee, oklahoma, continues as we speak with author keith gaddie about his book "the rise and fall of the voting rights act." >> there is no constitutional issue here. the command of the constitution is plain. there is no moral issue. it is wrong, deadly wrong, to deny any of your fellow americans the right to vote in this country. [applause] >> we do have to take a little bit of a journey back to the past. we have to visit the hand of the past, and part of what we have to understand is why it was necessary to push back against
these jim crow voting laws. one of the things we know is that the purpose of elections is termed preferences of the election by electing people. in a democracy one thing we expect is we will have representation for everybody including minority opinion which we just have an opinion for a way to get expressed or if you have the vote it's really, really hard to have your opinion expressed and have taken seriously by politicians because vote of the grant to the deal in, votes keep them in power and to respond to constituencies who can give them vote or get them resources to help them get votes. you either respond to voters or to the money that helps you get voters. so if you go back and you look at the south and to look at the south right after world war ii, we have just seen the supreme court strike down a thing called the white primary debt and taxes. it's the third time that the
white primary has been stricken down in texas in a 20 year timeframe. every time the federal courts would strike it down texas would go back and tinker with their law and order to make sure the democratic party primary was in light of the club. every other southern state did this to democrat party primaries were whites only clubs. republicans really didn't exist as an electoral option. but that was to put up a barrier to black voter participation. those barriers have been going up ever since 1877. ever since ever since the end of reconstruction. there were whole a whole bunchf tools we had available that were used to complete disenfranchise a black voters. a white primary was until the democratic primary is closer anybody who isn't white. because it's a white on the club, a private association. you can vote in the general election but it won't matter because only candidate on the ballot is who was nominally out of the white primary. we had literacy test, literacy and understanding test.
implement by local voting registrars uber white the one to keep blacks from voting. they had tremendous discretion on how they implemented those voting tests. and it gives the registrar the ability to look at somebody and say you did well enough, or no, you didn't. one consequence of this is if you went someplace like dallas county, alabama, selma, if you went down to selma you discover the county was 62% black but only about 1% of the registered voters were african-american. so this was used to great effect to disenfranchise black voters especially in majority black counties. as robert put it after the civil war, these laws saw to it that the white man would rule and that blacks would be safely irrelevant. this was the mindset of the south, especially the deep south. south. keep that black voter relevant, see that whites will rule.
these laws and other laws related to them, mainly the literacy test and the white primary, to a lesser extent the poll tax, were designed to keep the electric small and white. what happened is combined with intimidation and violence -- electorate -- physical violence, blacks were kept away from the polls. now, there's a real scare that gets put into the white public in 1946. here's what happens is the estate of george has been white primary struck down in federal court, and have a special election for congress at a congressional district in atlanta, and the black electorate really turns out for a special primary, okay? because of the white primaries were turned aside from black voters in ward 3a 3a of atlanta show up to vote and are able to put a liberal female lawyer in congress from atlanta.
she was not the choice of the conservative democratic party machine, okay, but she won. the power of the black vote had been demonstrated. this leads to a hard push back in georgia politics and other parts of the south to ensure if you couldn't keep a white primary, you had other means to minimize the impact of the black vote. throughout the 1950s and 1960s 1960s this results in active push back and often violence against people who sought to register blacks to vote. if you look at the freedom riders in the early 1960s who are going through the south in an effort come these are progressive blacks and whites writing to the south on buses to participate in efforts to mobilize and register black voters in mississippi. their buses were attacked and burned and they -- in alabama, for example. home of u.s. military depot attacked and burned, a bus full of people trying to rescue people to vote. the violins was getting out of hand and a pilot comes to a head in 1965 and selma, alabama,
where we have a peaceful marchers being led in part by john lewis later on is a black member of congress from atlanta being attacked by state authority, state police and national guard at the edmund pettus bridge in selma, alabama,, and being denied the opportunity to register to vote. president of the united states, a texan by the name of lyndon johnson, goes to his attorney general and says give us the toughest voting rights act you can write. by august that legislation was signed into law. it gives to the national government extraordinary authority an emergency situation the guaranteed voting rights. in 1965 the act is passed and there were really, there are four provisions of the law that are worth knowing about. what is what's called section two of the voting rights act,
and this gives operational form to the 14th and 15th amendment of the constitution it takes the goals of those and limits to ensure nondiscrimination and equal protection under the law especially with voting rights and gives it shaped in the form of legislation. in particular what it does is it allows an individual or the u.s. attorney to bring a lawsuit against a jurisdiction for discriminate against voters on the nature of race. so if i am a voter in ferguson, missouri, and i believe the electoral system, it's a sign of discomfort fashion, in a discriminatory manner, it dilutes equal opportunity to participate under the law, i can go to court, in federal court and sue ferguson of the conduct of their election. at the hypothetical. i'm talking about hypothetical. and then the burden of proof is on me as the plaintiff as with any civil action.
i've to demonstrate my preponderance of evidence and using the best available science that there there's some discriy system here, myself and people like me are discriminate against on the basis of our race and had equal opportunity to participate in politics. section two is a vehicle for that. that provision of law is permanent. when it was enacted in law because the burdens placed on the plaintiff because it applies to the entire country, because it is part of the constitutional operational for it is a permanent part of the u.s. code. caucus would act to explicitly repealed it or it would have to be explicitly overturned by the courts to go away. challenges were brought against that part of the act. they failed. now then, then there's what's called section four of the act, and section five of the act. section four is what's called coverage trigger. part of the act was designed to
address discrimination in parts of the country what it was an honest to god god crisis. were we had a democratic crisis at work. violence, intimidation, the state is actively denying people the constitutional rights. you were dealing with part of the country that had bad intent, okay? they were actively knowingly engage in acts to deny democracy. and to deny people their individual rights. you had to preempt that activity. what section four of the act was, it identified parts of the country where we deem there to be a democratic crisis, okay? it was based upon two criteria. the first criteria was did you have a test or device in place to qualify for people to vote? so we are using a literacy test, for example. the criteria was, was either voter registration or voter turnout in the 1964 election less than half of the eligible electorate works you had to have the size of the population,
people who are eligible to vote, so these are basically citizens of age 21 or above. the senses have those days they are. if less than half of them turned out or less than half of them were registered, and you had a test for device, your election laws are frozen in place. your election laws are frozen in place and they can't be changed unless the changes either prove by a three-judge federal panel and washington, d.c., the d.c. circuit court, , or approved by the attorney general of the united states. what happened is congress was given the national government the attorney general the authority to suspend the right of states and localities to conduct elections. this is extraordinary. this was the single greatest exercise of federal power over estate since reconstruction. the american south -- after the civil war, a lot of people don't know that.
that's part of why they desire to go back black or participation in the south from 1877 forward. so when he have, you're going just to spend people of the states to change the law, , rig? what they do is -- suspend the ability of people. >> and all of virginia, south carolina, georgia, alabama,, mississippi and louisiana and in parts of north carolina, election laws are frozen in place. you can't move of voting precinct without the attorney general approving. you can't change congressional district or state legislative district boundaries without the attorney general improving it. you can't change a voter registration practice, your ballot design, anything unless the attorney general approves it. this authority exists under what's called section five of the voting rights act, the preclearance provision. what a state or jurisdiction has to do if they change their law and there covered by this
section for trigger come yet to come to the federal court come to the attorney general and you have to demonstrate that you are changing the law doesn't hurt the status quo from minority voters. if you've got a 40% registration rate for black voters in your county and 40% participation rate, and you're going to change the way you run your registration, you're going to change a registration form, you're going to change your office hours for your registrar, you're going to change location of pulling places, you have to affirmatively demonstrate to the satisfaction of the national government this will not make black voters were small. it's called the non-retrogression standard. so section four dictates where there's an emergency. section five gives to congress the authority, gives to the attorney general on behalf of congress the authority to review changes in election law. that's a lot i know, it's a lot, great detail thing. what does it mean practically? first of all it's the emergency
legislation. initially this provision of law is only a place for five years. then congress comes along after five years, holds hearings, extends the law for another five years, then they hold hearings begin and extended for another seven years because you have a lot of experience with southern states still acting in bad faith. so every few years congress is have to revisit this law. they are constantly in debate on it. they're getting tired. in 1982 the law comes up for renewal again and to do something to her -- to break ct the law to make it easier to sue. the other thing is they extend the time of section five, that emergency provision. i talked about it, this part of the law suspended laws for five years and then five years and in seven years. they decided we need about a quarter century of this. they reviewed the law from 82 until 2007, and the reason they do it is just get the damn issue
off the table. they're tired of debating it. they are going to lock it in and let it run. and to do something unusual, which is a change the evidentiary standard to have your election law suspended in place. if we look back, the coverage under section four of the act said you're going to have two had a test for device in place and a less than 50% registration or turn it in 1964. in 1970 when the redo the law of the law the updated agency will use 1960 electoral date. is there improvement? in 75 75 when they renew the le they went back and said will use an electoral data for 1972. against the most recent election. we get to 1982, they don't update the electoral data from 1980. instead a lot in the data from 72 anti-okay, test or device
entered a a participation based upon the election of 1972, that's how we would determine if you have low turnout in 72, have history of test or device election laws are basically frozen in place. please come see us at the attorney general office elected changeable and bring evidence that you are not discriminating. so they lot in using old evidence that will age out, increasingly from year-to-year. which means the experience of the present is not going to necessarily reflect what the past said. so we get the 2005, 2006 and the republicans in congress realize they want to get this long renewed. one of the reasons they want to get it renewed is its application redistricting has been beneficial republicans especially in the south, that by getting as many black voters
into as many districts as possible, that represent opportunities to elect, they got booted the building of democrats to compete elsewhere especially in the south but also other parts of the country. they had been using the voter vg rights act as a wonderful political tool in part based upon this preclearance provision or the attorney generals office to force the shaping of congressional districts that were good for african-american and hispanic voters but also really, really good for black republicans. it's a compassing, it's a more noble purpose of ensuring that e corporatization for blacks and latinos but in the process it's also enabling government and former conservative and those voters. that makes for a very interesting situation. what congress wants to do is they want to lock in the coverage form for 25 more years. they push forward a version of the law that keeps it exactly the same, electoral data 1972, test or device.
at the time that actually seems like it might work. mississippi had the highest rate of voter participation among blacks than any states in the united states. followed by alabama. you or i could be a black person represent a black lawmaker in mississippi and if you lived in new york city. this law is working in and this thing is working, it's doing good. the thought among those of us who thought it was time for change was lessons been learned, a quarter has been turned, things are better. at the same time litigation is being prepared to be brought against the provision, should congress not updated. here's what happens, is congress passes this long without change. have testimony that says there's a vulnerability here, and here's the bullet. or had been a case that it takes is dealing with religious
relics. what it argued was old evidence of behavior, say four years old, was not sufficient pressure congress to create a statute. that evidence had to be timely and relevant to the problem. this was seized upon by litigants who wanted to challenge covered for the voting rights act saying you are asking congress to make use of 35 35 r old data, 40-year-old data, to decide who is and isn't discriminating and who should and shouldn't have the constitutional emv to contact their local elections without interference. that doesn't sound like it's kosher others. lost it gets brought down in texas by a little utility district in austin. north austin municipal utility district number one, what had
happened is this usually after little utility district which conducted elections in one precinct wanted to be free from oversight of the justice department. they had asked to be what was called bail out from coverage. there'd been a set of counties in virginia that it done this prolific to present evidence in federal court and to the terms generals office to say we don't need to be covered by the acting more. they got bailed out. they could supervisor on elections. texas, this little texas utility district data and travis county tries to do the same. they are denied by the attorney generals office. they bring a lawsuit, they go to federal court, appealed to the supreme court and the supreme court says you're right, you should've been allowed to bailout. you met the standard. the attorney general's office is not acting in good faith toward you. you need to be allowed to bailout. but inviting the opinion, the
chief justice also articulated his belief that congress had created a flaw in the law in not updating the coverage formula, and invited congress to fix the law. here's what happens. shelby county, alabama, suburban county outside of birmingham seeks to get out from under coverage of the voting rights act section five. that ask to be set free. they are denied by the federal courts. they are denied by the attorney general. they appeal to the u.s. supreme court. 5-4 decision, supreme court says your right, coverage formula is too old, 40 years old. based on 41-year-old data. congress was cautioned his availability the circumstances of shelby county, 1964, congress
needs to fix this coverage provision since they failed to do so, , we are striking it dow. they didn't strike down congress authority to have an emergency coverage formula to address this kind of problem. they struck down congress' authority to use bad and old evidence. so what happens is this wonderful powerful tool designed for the world, you can change loss of cognitive construct and down, is taken away. and within hours those of us who assumed things may or maybe geg better seven, ages ago, either something changed again or the confederates are coming out of the attic, okay? because now all of a sudden every voter id law in the south is being pushed forward with implementation. there are states looking at doing things with redistricting to try to ensure they are maximizing republican advantage
because now the white vote in itself is predominately republican. all these steps are being taken to act on voter participation to make it more difficult. so if you look at say the texas voter id law, this is the law that probably violates the 24th amendment of the constitution, and makes it needlessly difficult to register to vote based upon a a varietyf different forms of information he knew that the devil. it costs about 70 bucks to get all that together if you don't have it. that's the best estimate from experts testimony from litigation down the alabama shuts down a whole bunch of motor tag agency offices mainly in predominately black counties because that helps impede the motor vehicle to register people to vote. section five, had section five been enforced in alabama the attorney general's office would
stop it. you see small efforts to push back common man out of alabama and texas. but also elsewhere. so now we are looking up and asking the question i we backsliding? we need a new coverage formula and we need a new voting rights law. what our belief at the office of the voting rights act is these problems exist in the south but not exclusively in the south. they also exist in indian country. they exist in communities with large migrant, large hispanic population. they probably still exist in alaska. what we need to do is take a very careful look at what the best available science says about where the problem is and give congress a predictable trigger that they can element into law. what it needs to be if it needs to be a law that is dynamic and deals with modern voting problems, deals with having, not
getting rid of voter id but it's an if you voter photo id, that it's free and it doesn't discriminate. assuring that somebody wants to register to vote can do so without having to jump through a bunch of hoops that a been made difficult for them. there's a real division in this country over how you approach voting. oregon and california are now using what they call out that registration. you turn 18, congratulations, you are registered to vote. that's it. you don't want to be registered you have to let the state no, i don't want to be motor. meanwhile, down in texas voting is treated like a privilege in that you have to qualify yourself, i probably go to register and demonstrate you are who you say you are. and that is an interesting challenge because voting in
state constitutions is deemed to be a fundamental right. fundamental rights cannot be impeded. they cannot be impaired by attacks. part of the human sovereignty. in america the one criterion that can debatably put our registration is, need to be a citizen. states can make that choice. they can determine if you have reasonable residency. but they can't say you can't vote because you are poor or a woman, a black or hispanic. as long as you are over 18 and a citizen, you are supposed to be part of the club. so long as you are a citizen of the state in which you seek to vote. that's a real challenge we have right now is trying to figure out how to get together a legislative majority together with an executive who can put
together a good faith voting rights law that will be a vehicle for political chicanery by either party here? >> at oklahoma baptist university, home of the bison that it's here that will explore the gaskin archives which hold evangelical missionary artifacts in the priest state stated err. >> okuma baptist university, we've always been a liberal arts university. that was the vision from the founders from the very beginning. we have a fourfold mission. we want to transform lives by pursuing academic excellence first and foremost. to integrate faith with all areas of knowledge can to engage a diverse world and live worthy of the high calling of god and christ. today we're looking at what we call them moral press which was a letterpress brought to indian territory in the late 19th century. so the story behind the press is a fascinating one, attaching
one, it's one that gives reason for why it is been such a prominent location all of our students pass by coming in and out of the library. begin with a request, mercer university, the president asked a student named joseph s. murrow to consider coming to the territory. he was sent as a missionary by the association of baptist churches in georgia in 1857. the very next moment he was married and next month after he arrived in indian territory, a 45 day journey on stagecoach and riverboats, arrived ready to undertake his work. soon thereafter though his whole life was transformed when he saw and experienced the hospitality of the native americans. he was so touched by how they cared for him, by their
generosity, that the next seven years of his life was given to advocating for their well-being and benefit. he advocated for them in front of congress. he advocated for the print. with his life and every resource that he had. in 1887 congress passed the dawes act in a few years after that in 1898, congress amended the dawes act with the curtis act which dissolve all tribal governance and allotted lands to individuals. the detriment to the native american with that in part was that their orphaned children were being trafficked by those who would gather them by the score and petition courts for guardianship of the orphaned children, and then take their
inheritance from the tribe and the children would often just disappear. so joseph murrow that this was extremely unchristian. he thought it was not right and just as a matter of justice in advocating for those he knew and loved how he started an indian orphans home. he's used this press to spread word about the issue and to raise awareness for the issue and for the indian orphans home. the indian orphan was, it was a newspaper that tried to promote the injustice, promote awareness of the injustice being done to the native american orphan. the contents included news about fundraising, included news about even submissions what is happening in the area of the time that was about, all of the south east of us here in
shawnee. >> this press is here to remind our students that printed words are powerful and that we exist in a tradition that we've inherited from those who have gone before us to advocate for the fatherless as james chapter one says, and to be a voice for the faith. so this is a typical example of a late 19th century letterpress. it is operated in two ways, either with the turn of the wheel or with the foot pedal which is in the front. the way it would typically work, this is the ink plate and ink would be applied to real thick ink, almost like at paint and it would be smeared onto the ink plate. every time the wheel is fun and -- spun, this plate is turned one eighth of a turn. there would be our borough that
comes up and roles across the ink plate to gather the ink and ask the roller comes back down, these two plate separate. this top plate but on what's called the chase. the chase held the movable type. you had the peace of the type that would be arranged and held in place with wooden blocks and pieces of metal that when you type, expand to old carpeting in place and that plate would be held here with this claim. so the roller would come down, go down along the face of the type is plate would come down, people would be placed on that plate and when the role was moved out it would come back up, press the paper to the type, come back down, rollers within we ink, back over the type and the paper would come back forward again. if you're using the footplate, your two hands are free come when hand to pull the paper off
after it has been impressed and the other one to put a newspaper -- a new paper. by backfilling it so that there's less space for that is pressed against the tide, the type would almost impossibly it's typically how it works. it's not the competence of the machine. this particular one had been untold adapted with a motor that ran it. it's not as functional as we would like for it to be but that's essentially how the press would work. we will go up to the gaskin archives and look at some of the documentary history of joseph merle as well as of the university and his own present in the shawnee community. burke so this is an excellent example of the indian orphan. this is from january of 1905. to give an example of types of
news that they were publishing in this to raise awareness about the plight of the orphans who were being somewhat manipulated, there's a section on how the southern district of course will now start holding the guardians responsible for their stewardship of the land that was allotted to those under their guardianship. this is probably the largest repository of the indian orphan publication that we know of. it contains some terrific images of the school and the students who were there. moving on down the line, this is a photo of key and one of his wife spirit we are not sure which wife. the year after he arrived in oklahoma his first wife passed away, and as did each of his subsequent wives. he ended with four wives and many of his children also died in the oklahoma indian
territory. he stopped temporarily in atoka indian territory and ended up staying for the rest of his life, and this is a photo of key in the church that he found in atoka. -- he and the church. >> he lived to be i believe 94 years old old, which is remarkable for that generation. the indian missionary which was also published on that printing press that we have downstairs preceded the indian orphan but ceased to print sometime in the late 19th century. this is a good example. this is the second issue of the indian missionary. the missionary was intended to relay news on the mission work in indian territory. it would've been read by area churches as well as by the
sending churches back in georgia, for example. so news on the state of the evangelistic efforts, what their needs are, if they need to raise any money, things like that. he also founded a university for the american indian, up in muskogee, that these catalogs, some of the early catalogs, i'm not sure when university was founded. these catalogs are from 1897-1898. the university is now known as -- university. so here is a letter that he wrote in march of 1895. the contents of the letter itself are not that significant, but it does indicate that he is
writing from the baptist academy in atoka, which became, which was the predecessor to the indian orphans home in atoka. it also moved up to muskogee but you can see that it was special attention given to the care of indian orphans. so as a christian liberal arts university, we see the role of the university archives as well as our denominational archives that we hold in the gaskin archives as one of stewardship. we need to steward these things both so they survive for posterity, but also because we feel like we're stewarding the record of history. some of the current researchers, the most current research on joseph murrow have mentioned no new primary source of come to light, that these repositories of information that were available to researchers have now gone missing. we think that we have some of that that has gone missing, and
we see that as a matter of stewardship on our parts to make sure that these come to light,, both to make the record of this kind of work and ministry of mercy known to the world, but it also shows researchers can have access to that record. >> with the help of our vyve cable parkers c-span is in shawnee, oklahoma, to explore the local literary scene. we will speak with author carol sue humphries to learn about the role of the press during the american revolution. >> newspapers during the 18th century primarily were intended to share information with readers, keep them up on what is going on elsewhere. it also would carry advertising from the local air to try to help sell goods and so forth, keep people informed.
the roles in many ways are very similar to today in the sense of keeping people knowledgeable about events, but also events far away as well as local events. not far away was more important because they would talk to each other on the street and find out what's going on locally, but the newspapers will let them know what was going on, if you lived in massachusetts, what is going on in pennsylvania or virginia, and so it was important as a source of information. in the years between the french and indian war and the american revolution and the actual fighting, the newspapers again played an important part in letting people know what the arguments were, what the issues were, and also didn't get involved in standing up against britain when they were mad about taxes or other issues. for example, the declaration of independence was published in
every newspaper that still survives on the error and so that's how most people found out about the declaration of independence. there were also essays calling a people to act. the one that i think of the biggest impact was that crisis by time as pain, the first was printed in newspaper and then others were collected in a pamphlet later, but that would really get peoples attention because he just really went after the british and said we've got to beat them. so that really come those kinds of things happened a lot. there were also times when these papers would try to print in a certain way that would get peoples attention. the best example of that is one of the newspapers in philadelphia in response to the stamp act printed its front page so it looked like a a tombston. and that was not easy because, i
mean, everything had to be set by hand. the part that wasn't, letters had to be carved, and so to make it look blackened like a tombstone is just amazing that somebody went to that much effort to do that. they get peoples attention, and so even if they did know what the stamp act was, they started asking questions because this said, my gosh, this is a big thing and really important if this is going to look this way. there were some people thought they needed to be impartial but they also thought that they needed to take the right stand. part of that is a result of 18th century error of the enlightenment, the indictment said that man was rational and reasonable and that if you look at the evidence, everybody would reach the same conclusion. so of course i'm right and you're wrong. so that was why the newspapers, here's the evidence, this is what we should be doing. that doesn't sound impartial, but they wouldn't necessary see
them as being opinionated. they were just showing that this is the way it should be. you don't have editorial during the revolution that are clearly identified as editorials. there were things they wrote that are editorials but they are not separated. part of that is also a result of just how it functioned because you don't have a publisher, editor and reporters. you would one person or maybe two who are printing everything and they may be writing most of it. isaiah thomas what a lot of things for his paper but in boston senate adams writing things for a number of newspapers. he's not a journalist that he wrote stuff. free press would've been defined a little bit differently back then because it would've been commuted raised more than everybody can have the same thing. there would be towns where the majority of the population were patriots so they would not allow a loyalist printer to print, and vice versa.
but it was important to be able to communicate the ideas that the community supported. and so, you know, that would be an important piece. that's one of the reasons, and they printed so much. there were people who had talked about free press but they didn't he find it kind of like we did. there were people who fled because, they fled boston because they knew when the british took over they would be getting thrown in jail, so they ran away. isaiah thomas was one of those and that was the way they knew how to try to get somewhere where they could publish what they felt was important i think to be honest, i think the american revolution kind of starts us down that road more so than we had before. because there was this sense of we should be able to print protest against britain, the british are saying no, you can't. so i think that helps start the process. now again, the patriots didn't
want the loyalist printing things, so there was a limit of complication, but it was a process that started down that road in a lot of ways. during the revolution, the newspapers were really important for getting the people engaged in the war. because think about it, the fighting went on all over the country, but there were people who are still supporting the were even though the fighting was miles and miles away. the newspapers played a very important part in doing that. they came out weekly or biweekly sometimes, and usually, i mean, particularly in times of trauma like a war people would want to know what was going on. people subscribe to them the people who couldn't afford to subscribe to them would go to the local tavern and somebody would sit there and read it, and
so people would know what was going on, even if they couldn't afford to subscribe to the paper. although the wealthy people and influential people are part of, probably the one to spark it, the majority of the troops were not of the wealthy class. the initial fighting was done by the local militia, which every adult man had to be a member of the militia. at lexington and concord that you turned out against the british with a local militia. so everybody was involved in that. once they committed the continental army it was a bit different because people volunteered for that, but the bulk of the soldiers are working class, what we would call working-class people, you know, not wealthy people. when the war ended, i think the role of the press, it still keeping people informed. there are issues about, okay, what kind of government are we going to have? had we put all that together? there were some real arguments over that because some people
didn't really see a centralized national government likely ended up with. so that took a while for people to talk to that. and i think the newspapers played a role in getting this debate going and getting people thinking about it. another peacefully get to the constitutional error, the federalist papers are now the most important writing about the debate over the constitution, and usually we see it, it's a book. ..
how did we manage to do that? pieces of that were the newspapers keeping people engaged and willing to keep fighting. >> while in shawnee oklahoma, we took a driving tour of the city with justin erickson. >> thank you for showing us around shawnee today. >> i'm happy to be here. thank you for joining me. >> where are we? we are heading into town. >> we are heading east on interstate 40. to the west as oklahoma city which is about 35-mile drive from shawnee. as we crossed this until you see the community which is fairly developed along the interstate.
shawnee just went through a rebranding campaign and the tagline is great things on the horizon. >> , the people live in shawnee. >> 31000 residents. a little over 70000 in the county. the regional population is 70 to 100,000 people. >> what are the economic drivers. who does this draw? >> were far enough from oklahoma city that we are own community that has been in existence for well over hundred years but were close enough to oklahoma city that we benefit from that proximity. will number of people who commute for work but our largest local economic drivers include for area tribes, oklahoma baptist university
with 2200 students and several hundred employees. >> right now we are driving through the town and the university is on the right. how does it play into the general feeling population of the city. >> in many ways we are an oklahoma town. it's been here for over 100 years it started on 60 acres of land and hundred thousand dollars at the community and city helped raise in the early 1900s. there's a strong bond with the community as a whole and the university. they help bring in the students and the culture and a different feel and maybe sets us apart a little bit. >> we are leaving that hustle
and bustle area were starting to get more into the independent areas in the downtown area. should we go downtown? i would love to show you don' downtown. >> how has the main street changed? >> it's changed quite a bit. twelve years ago before i was here, our big effort over the past few years has been making good on a street scape improvement plan. you can see the murals of the new landscaping, new sidewalks and landscaping. >> you worked to revitalize but you still have these things from the past like the ritz theater. >> that's an incredible example of a historic theater that we still have. we have a lot of businesses
people can purchase a property or lease a property for relatively low amounts. >> we have the old santa fe rail depot to make it to beautiful building where they are finishing the new museum and the city is rehabbing that parking lot which is under construction. >> train history is really important in shawnee. >> the rails were a critical link in recent why shawnee flourished when it was started. we've had dozens and dozens of stops on a daily basis. should we go see some of the local business here? and know the mill is a huge part of shawnee. >> yes, i would love to show you the mill. it has been in business forever. what is the impact on shawnee's economy. produce approximately 300
employees and they are expanding. there are a key employer but even more than that they are a key part of our history. the mill in the ownership and serving on boards and committee committees, there's volunteer efforts and how they impact their local churches and other organizations they are involved in. it's also a key branding initiative because that brand, shawnee mills is seen by multiple people in states that see and use their products. >> another big party or population and economy is the pottawatomie nation. >> absolutely. that along with three other tribes. >> should we go out to their land. >> let's do that. >> now were crossing the
canadian river and were going to the pottawatomie nation. >> what is the role they play in your community? >> they employ over 2200 people. there's also the cultural aspect which is also a major factor in the community. shawnee has a large percentage of population that has native american background which can be pottawatomie or other nations as well. what an integral part of the community. they are involved in major initiatives, they bring a lot of culture and activity and enterprise to community. >> we are passing through their land so we see their tribal headquarters, their cultural heritage center which is a museum. >> it originally suffered a
flood several years ago and that has been completely remodeled. it's a beautiful facility. i highly recommend visiting. >> they also own a lot of businesses in the area such as casinos and grocery store. >> they have two large casinos, golf course, the grocery store is a very large enterprise. they also have smaller markets in neighboring communities and so, their impact is not just on the city of shawnee, but really countywide. >> we are heading back toward downtown. we've seen a lot of your community today. what's next for the city of shawnee. >> shawnee is continuing to grow our focused on quality of life and economic development and improving neighborhoods that our residents live in.
i see that push by the city commission and the mayor continuing in that regard. i want people who aren't familiar with this part of the country to know there's a lot of opportunities here, there's opportunities for younger people that you might not get elsewhere because the cost of living in the nature of our citizenry so we just encourage people to get out and visit shawnee and other communities like shawnee around the country. >> thank you so much for showing us around your city. >> thank you so much for being here. >> twice a month they took book tv and history tv on the road. working with our cable partners we visited various
sites and interview local historians, authors and civic leaders. you can watch any of our past interviews and tours online by going to booktv.org and selecting c-span city store from the drop-down of top of the page. or visit cspan.org/cities to her. you can also follow the two are on twitter. you are watching tv on c-span2. book tv, television for serious readers. >> we are live sunday for in-depth fiction edition with jeff share up. he is the author of 15 military history novels. they will discuss stories of war from the american revolution to the korean war. also answer questions. on "after words" this weekend, that's what she said by joann whitman, the former usa today editor-in-chief discusses how to close the gender divide in the workplace. she is interviewed by
republican congressman leonard lance from new jersey. also this weekend, journalists jorge examines what it means to be a latino immigrant in america. michelle talks about her life as a cia agent working in the middle east. investigative journalist reports on white nationalism in america. the heritage foundation ryan anderson addresses the transgender movement in syracuse university professor danielle thompson discusses why moderates might be less likely to run for congress. that's all this weekend on c-span2 book tv. 48 hours of nonfiction authors and books. television for serious readers. for a complete schedule visit booktv.org and follow along on our social media account. we are on facebook, twitter an instagram booktv. >> the past couple of days i have been thinking about the "me too" movement and i've
been thinking about harassment in metropolitan spaces, basically street harassment, and a couple days ago, when i was back in manhattan, i was talking about street harassment and talking about the difficulty of keeping safe as a woman, particularly a black woman in how we often talk about these issues and there was a man in the audience who raised his hand, he did not have a question and he said you know, the reason why men follow women down the block or pursue them relentlessly is because they have no home training and he kept repeating himself. i nodded and tried to be gracious but in the back of my mind i was like how could i think about someone home training when i'm fearing for my life. so i'm going to read a section about street harassment and
this push and pull of a black woman with regard to my safety and someone else's. i hope you like it. >> and nypd sniper tower was set up on lenox avenue between 129 to one 30th street in harlem just a short walk away from where i live during the summer of 2016. i do not know for sure why was there. it looms in front of the pioneer supermarket which is not exactly a hub of legal acts activity beside the occasional shoplifters. central harlem in general is not that crime heavy. i've walked home that one or 2:00 o'clock in the morning unscathed. i've never been mugged or heard gunshots. i first thought because of the. [inaudible] maybe they were preparing for something to go down during independence day celebrations. but no, that couldn't be at. i moved in around this time
last summer and they had been no sniper tower. it's tall white presence communicated to all of us that we better not try anything or else. sometimes a police car parked beside the door and one was not i squinted to try to see if there was anyone in the tower and its windows were tinted black. i wanted to pass by on the street but what's it doing in the neighborhood. i assume anyone's guess would've been as good as mine. i always said god for bid if anything happened to me, i would go to the black men who sat on top of upturn creek outside the barbershop before i would ask the police for help. castille had recently been murdered and it had triggered another summer of black rage that burned hotter than the heat itself. in late july of 2016, we went to an outdoor gas concert in brooklyn. i took the two train home and got off at my usually 126 street stop. usually if i'm in a good mood
or have just finished a significant project, i will award myself with food or drink. apollo perrier, some gelato, strawberries, khadija. that evening i decided i could go for some mentos before i returned to my apartment at the end of the night with a shower and that netflix. there is a deli open and despite the drug addict lingering around the aisle hoping someone could spare change, i headed inside for this was the same drug addict who i had avoided two blocks earlier by now making eye contact. as i was entering the store, a man kept calling me sweetheart and attempting to promote the concert. everybody laughs at that part like that always happens. i kept my earbuds in until i approach the counter.
i needed to hear the cashier tell me how much i would have to pay for the mentos. no sooner did i pay for them in a man called out to me and i made eye contact before stopping. supposedly, they were having some concert and he was in charge to pass out flyers. i do not know why he was so aggressive but nonetheless i felt, i asked when the concert was in nodded my head fanning interest in an artist who i thought hadn't been relevant in over a decade. the man who introduced himself as charlie wanted me too take down his number and call him to get tickets at a discounted price. i told him i would memorize it but he was not satisfied with my suggestion. it was discussed in his raspy voice. now why you playing games, you harlem girls or something else but you think everett is trying to hit on you and i'm trying to do business. i'm trying to make money. i mean, i'm handsome and all but i trying to hit on you. you're out here playing games you harlem girls. i'm not from harlem i said
dryly. what i wanted to say in that moment was you don't know me. in retrospect saying i wasn't from harlem was a way to overcome his confidence but in that moment i was scared. his voice was increasing in volume, anger punctuated each word he uttered like the strike of an organ court. the rest of harlem disintegrated as of both he and i existed in a vacuum. i felt alone. what if he hits me, i thought. what if he grabs and pins me up against the outside wall of this deli so i took out my cell phone and pretended to enter his number in my contacts directory. luckily for me, he didn't lean over to see what i was doing. the woman who went into that deli was not the same woman who continued home. as soon as i walked to the end of the block and waited for the light to signal that i was okay for me too proceed, i knew something had changed.
i have been violated but i could not name the line that have been crossed. he did not follow me down the block. he did not make remarks about my body. he did not rate me and yet men now terrified me. the pioneer supermarket, the restaurants, the nail salons became two-dimensional as if they could fall down like poker cards. the police car was parked behind the sniper tower. the red and blue lights flickered. two male police officers, one white and the other black leaned up against the side of the car chatting with the ease of the old black man who crowd around the table covered with vh as cassettes. the black officer glanced at me and i looked back at him but said nothing yet i wanted him to comprehend that my eyes were compensating for my closed mouth. they were yelling for help. if either of those officers had run to my side and asked what was the matter am i would've gazed at my arms and legs, free of any bruises or marks, look behind me too see
if charlie had followed, which he had not and said nothing. they would've scoffed thinking i was crazy. if i had not the need to speak up and say there was a man harassing me at the deli on 127 lenox then what? this was harlem after all. such things were for all intense purposes, normal. i scurried home. once i made it to my room i dropped my purse on the floor and sat at my desk in silence. i stared mindlessly on my computer screen. i wanted to grip onto the side of my desk fearing that i would lose balance and crash onto the ground but at least i would have confirmed that i was still on this earth. i was on the verge of tears and i was angry with myself for it. he did not spit at me, he did not call me a bench or a hoe, he did not put his hands on me or rape me. i did not deserve to cry. i had to earn the right to let my tears fall and when i look at my scarred on scarred body i knew that it could've been
worse. if i didn't have any scars that my turmoil should've been something i could easily get over. it was all internal and should be kept private. i've always been the kind of person who mitigates negative experiences, particularly with men by telling myself they were never that bad. i texted my male friend with whom i've gone to the jazz concert, i secretly wanted him to fall in love with me, i told him what happened and he replied with a sad face emojis. i was dissatisfied with his response but what was he supposed to do. take the subway up to where i lived which would take two hours at that time a night so we could go searching for charlie and besides, it wasn't like we were dating so what could i have done. what could i have better done to defend myself. the summer has never been kind to black people. the charleston massacre happened in june. george zimmerman was acquitted of killing travon marken in july. and now that summer, the murder of fernando casteel.
i could not live with myself if i reported him to the police. he could've gotten a warning or they could tackle him and take him into custody and god knows what else. i would subject myself to a black man harassment rather than watch his face at the pavement with the police officers weight on his back. that's not just us. that is a betrayal. >> when i think about how harlem streets are place of conversation, i start to second-guess myself. maybe the only good that charlie was trying to sell were tickets to a dmx concert. maybe what he wanted was only money. maybe i misjudged his calling me sweetheart has patronizing when he really was just trying to be nice because he did not know my name. maybe i was being conceited. maybe i cried because i was still getting used to city environment, not because i thought he was going to hurt me. the more excuses i made for
him, the less trusting i became a my body and my own instincts. that sniper tower, it is still there. i do not acknowledge it now when i walk by. i keep my have low and nestled against year. i walk. [inaudible] i wonder what kind of secrets they are holding their bodies, what kind of experiences they have buried to protect someone else at their own expense, whom they can run to for help. thank you. >> you can watch this and other programs online booktv.org. >> here's a look at authors recently featured on booktv "after words". the weekly author interview program featuring best-selling nonfiction books and interviewers. tara westover discussed her expenses going up with survivalist parents and subsequently earning a phd at cambridge university. democratic senate staffer ira
shapiro shared his thoughts on partisanship in the senate. lack lives matter founders talked about her life and the birth of the movement. economists argues against college for everyone. this weekend, former usa today editor-in-chief joanne lipman will look at improving workplaces through gender equality. >> it was a little over three years ago, i was on a plane on my way to des moines and i was sitting next to a businessman and we were having the nicest conversation. he was telling me about his new house and his children and their sports teams and then he said to me, why are you going to des moines. i said i'm going to speak at a women's leadership conference and suddenly this lovely man got that deer in headlights look and he's like sorry i'm a man and proceeded to tell me he had just been through diversity training and the diversity training he felt was
a couple days worth of getting beaten over the head and put in the corner, called to the principal's office and he said the message he took away from this training was it's all your fault. those words really stuck with me. that is exactly the opposite message that we should be giving to men. we should be talking about how do we bring men in, not how do we alienate them. so the next day i was speaking to a ballroom full of women about all the issues that we do face that are serious issues that are systemic and i'm seeing a room full of female heads nodding in recognition and i just stopped in the middle of the sentence and i said you know what, we know this, we actually have men in this room who need to hear this as well. >> "after words" airs every weekend. all previous "after words" programs are available to watch online at our website booktv.org.
>> when donald trump ran for president and when he gave his inaugural address, the theme was america is essentially a day or two away from the apocalypse. what i found, looking at the experience of his first year, historically was as follows. donald trump was fortunate to take office when he did. unlike abraham lincoln he didn't have to deal with the secession of seven states during the period between his election and his inauguration, unlike richard nixon, he did not inherit a war in which more than half a million american soldiers were bogged down, and like franklin roosevelt and barack obama, he didn't take the oath of office in the midst of a massive financial crisis. although the world had its share of problems when the trump presidency began, they were ongoing, not new or urgent. the domestic economy had been growing slowly but steadily for all but one quarter of the
previous six years. the annual rate of inflation was below 2%, the unemployment rate had dipped below 5%, the percentage of americans who regard themselves as middle or upper class had reached 62%, a greater share them before the 2008 financial crisis. the stock market was already booming and unlike all his recent predecessors, donald trump took office with a republican congress so you look at it that way, donald trump was dealt a very good hand and honestly, i'm somebody who appreciates the significance of the tax cut bill that was enacted last month into law. when you step back and you think what have presidents been able to do in the past when they have a congress
controlled by their own party, one major piece of legislation , and for republicans, especially tax-cut is sort of like a 6-inch pot. i think history gives us a way of measuring not the rightness or wrongness but the scale of accomplishments. that's one thing that history gives us some perspective on. another is this. when you think about the last 70 years and the way in which we have chosen our presidents and the talent pool, what you see is a trend in which donald trumps election was the latest manifestation. during a quarter century after world war ii, the president
elected not only had experience in government but experience at high levels in washington. senators, vice president, general truman, eisenhower, kennedy, johnson, nixon, every one of them had built their career not just in government but in washington. no surprise there, think about what happened before this began. the federal government was widely credited with licking the depression and americans have a lot of confidence in the federal government and then along comes the vietnam war and the watergate crisis. starting with jimmy carter's election in 1976, we still want people with experience in government, but not in washington. that was part of carter's appeal as it was governor ronald reagan and bill clinton and george w. bush. we were experienced people that were not part of that mass in washington. if you think the next iteration of this trend is somebody who comes along and says i have no expense in washington and i have no expense in government, and that's a reasonable for me.
that is sort of where we are now as people are looking ahead to 2020 and talking about mark zuckerberg or oprah winfrey, we may have more look forward to in that way but again it's a way of understanding that trump didn't just drop out of the sky, there has been a long-term, almost three quarters of a century trend of which he is kind of the most recent manifestation. >> you can watch this and other programs online @booktv.org. >> you are watching booktv on c-span. here's our primetime lineup. first up michelle rigby asad talks about her life as a cia agent working in the middle east. at 745 investigative journalist reports on white nationalism in america. then at 845, heritage foundation ryan anderson explores the transgender movement and public policy on
gender identity. on book tv "after words" program at ten, former usa today editor-in-chief joanne lipman discusses how to close the gender divide in the workplace. she is interviewed by republican congressman leonard lance from new jersey. as we wrap up our primetime programming at 11:00 p.m. with jorge, he examines what it means to be a latino immigrant in america today. that happens tonight on c-span2 book tv. 48 hours of nonfiction authors and books every weekend. television for serious readers. >> hello. welcome. i am bradley graham, the co-owner of politics and prose along with my wife and on behalf of the entire staff, thank you very much for coming.