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tv   C-SPAN Cities Tour Visits Palo Alto CA  CSPAN  May 5, 2019 9:02am-10:31am EDT

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the right so, get the factories moving and do what it is capable of. because by then you may well be dead. and this, and the vaccine faxie well, provokes the immune system into generating or building a blueprint for that factory before you ever face the deadly pathogen. it's not just your child's life at risk. it's other children in those classes who could be at risk if people stopped taking vaccines. anything else? call it a night. hey, i just want to thank you guys. we had the great privilege of having booktv here, so thank you for being a great audience. thank thank you, c-span, for co. [applause] we're going to do, if you're interested i'm going to sit here and sign some books, otherwise, or regardless. have a great night. thank you very much.
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>> welcome to palo alto, california. with help from her comcast cable partners we will explore this community is literary life located in the san francisco bay area, the city of 66,000 is in the heart of silicon valley and is home to stanford university. we begin our feature on palo alto with the trip to the hp garage where william hewlett and david packard started their technology company. >> this area is called professor ville because stanford professors who came in the early 1900s, late 1890s, who did not want to buy on stanford campus with a get on the house and that the land bought in the newly formed town of palo alto. this house, this garage is worth hewlett and packard did their experiments in 1938, call the birthplace of silicon valley. palo alto is the best form of
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silicon valley, is his the major. this is national register of historic places black and this is a california state historic landmark. this garage is the birthplace of the world first high technological region silicon valley, the idea for such the region originally with dr. frederick -- a stanford university professor encourages students to start at the own electronics companies in the area instead of joining established firms in the east. the first to make students were bill hewlett and david packard who in 1938 begin developing the first product, and audio oscillator in this garage. >> we continue our look at palo alto, california, serving as headquarters to number of high-technology companies we next to the story of seven influential pioneers of silicon valley. >> people think about silicon valley and i think they think
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silicon valley sort start with invention of the iphone may be or maybe the birth of facebook, something like this. what they don't understand although interestingly the people in silicon valley understand is that every generation of technology has been built on the generation that came before it. troublemakers is about this and incredible time in history not just of silicon valley but the united states and the world. it's this time when we had several major industries launched all in the same the window. from 1968-1976 you had the invention of the personal computer, the invention of the microchip, the invention of the video games, the biotech came on the scene. yet modern venture capital showing a picu at the birth of apple, intel, atari, genentech, the major venture capital firms.
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you're the first internet transmission. all of this is happening in the space of about 30 miles and eight years. this book is about how that happened and the people who make it happen. what was exciting about this time in silicon valley was so many things were happening at once. i had to figure out how do i tell all these stories between two covers, and they decided to wait to do that was to write about seven individuals. the first one that i mentioned is bob taylor. taylor is the guy who convinced the department of defense to start the arpanet. today we would call the internet. and for most people that would be enough but not for bob taylor. bob taylor at two was to start the lab at xerox parc that is
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the place that steve jobs came in 1979, and for the first time saw a mouse, so the graphical user interface, saw a screen, saw laser printers, saw computers talking to each other. all of this was developed at xerox parc, and the personal that lab was bob taylor. that's where the ethernet was invented. that's his impact. i view one here's apple, they think steve jobs and steve wozniak. what they don't know is that there was another guy who owned a third of apple at the beginning of this is a guy named mike markkula. mike markkula have been intel before it had its ipo and watched that company grow from basically a room or two and a warehouse into this incredibly successful company. and mike recruited -- let me tell you came to apple because of mike markkula.
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the president, the chairman of the board, their vp of marketing, their vp of sales, their vp of human resources, their head of legal, and there two most important investors all were involved with apple because of mike markkula. and his two is that city because he is this very quiet man, and wonderful guy, who is perfectly happy to be back in the shadows because he felt like jobs and wozniak, and particularly jobs, were much better front men for this company. and yet he was quietly in the back building this company. so that's mike markkula, an amazing guy. a third person i write about is the fabulous sandy cryptic. sandra cryptic is the first woman to take a tech company public, and she at the time i'm
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writing about her is starting this little software company which is called ask, and she is this double outsider silicon valley at the time is all about hardware. it's all about computers. it's all about disk drives. it's all about sophisticated telephone systems. it is not about software. so sandy is trying to do a a software company at the time that it's hard were everywhere in silicon valley. and the second think about sandy as an outsider is that she's a woman. she didn't start her company in the garage. she started her company at her kitchen table. and she wasn't like jobs and wozniak where there were experience people like mike markkula would come and say i can help you. she completely bootstrapped this company. she would read the hewlett-packard annual report and try to figure out how the allocated their money for safe research versus manufacturing,
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and emulate that for her company. and consequently, because she was in software, because she was a woman, people literally when she said she sold software not that she sold lingerie. the story of us someone who starts out that much of an outsider and in some with an incredibly successful ipo in the early '80s is just such a fascinating story. when people hear atari, they think of course they think pong. but if they think people they think a guy named nolan bushnell. who was a great guy. i think is six for, huge head of hair, prone to wearing polkadot shirts and talking about, he's irresistible to women and they held meetings in hot tubs, at all of this is true. this is all true about atari.
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it turns out there was relationship at atari between the showman, who was nolan bushnell, and the engineer was a guy named out out court it was very similar to the relationship between jobs and wozniak. so i wrote about how alcorn, and studying the relationship was just sitting because nolan was one disguise who had windmilling trains a day and really no ability to build it at all. and al with someone who can build anything, but constrained himself all the time. you would tell them what to do and he would do it. what's fascinating about his story is first of all it's the story of how little silicon valley company takes off, it ends up getting acquired by warner bros., and what happens when this east coast company gets its hands on the silicon valley company, especially when
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you read uptight and state east coast company gets its hands on a company that literally held board meetings and hot tubs, and getting his perspective on all that is great. it's also really the story of his own development, guy who had to be told what to build to realizing, , wait a second, i cn do this, and starting his own inventions and his own companies, and so that's al alcorn. another person i write about is a woman named fawn alvarez. now, on is a fascinating person because she started out right out of high school working on the manufacturing line at a company called rome. now, rome is the origin of
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everything now when you think about silicon valley culture and you think of these beautiful campuses and their subsidized food and incredible of jim's and that all started at romcom like literally people came from all over the world to see this campus and fawn as an incredible storyteller, and the story she tells us about how she went from working on the manufacturing line to being this supervisor on the line, to deciding she had to get a job behind the desk, is what she put it. remember, she didn't have any college degree at all. she ends up rising through the ranks until, by the end of her career at rome, which gets acquired by ibm, she's the chief of staff to the president of ibm rome. it tells us about a time that is no equivalent to it now in silicon valley, which is silicon
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valley used to build things, and that means that there were factories here, and that means there were people who used to work in the factories. these people are very good jobs, and like fawn, they could buy houses. houses in silicon valley with a high school degree. they were able to work i-95 type shift and come home to the families and have just really make great lies. that is all gone now. that is no equivalent to that sort of middle-class in silicon valley. there are no assembly-line jobs in silicon valley anymore. too much of the people i write about. i think of as a pair though they would wouldn't have thought of themselves that way. the first one is a guy named niels. niels started at stanford office
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called the office of technology licensing. and in this space between when you started the office in 1972 and now, the exact same thing that had in the past and stanford $3000, namely the licensing of inventions out of stanford, teddy that office is brought in $2 billion to stanford. the office of technology licensing that niels started is a reason that stanford owned a piece of google. it's the reason that stanford owned a piece of vmware, and it's the reason that stanford owned, along with university of california san francisco, the recombinant dna patent that is at the heart of the modern biotech industry. so this is what niels did, and his path liquid intercepted with that of another troublemaker i write about, who is a guy named
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bob swanson. and bob swanson is a cofounder of genentech. bob swanson is one of these people who is an absolute golden boy who got hired at kleiner perkins which is a brand-new venture capital firm at the time, and gets fired as soon as they hit a rocky time, and doesn't know what to do with himself. this is someone who is succeeded and every single thing he's ever done in his entire life. he literally goes on welfare and he reads "scientific american." he hears about the recombinant dna process at a conference that it been held, literally opens up a phone book and starts calling the different scientists who had attended this conference to see if they thought there was any chance a company might be able
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to come out of this invention. that this could be commercialized in a short enough time. and one of the first people he reached was herb boyer who agreed to talk to him, and ended up starting a company that is genentech, one of the most successful biotech companies in history, was started by this guy on welfare driving around trying to get biologists to talk to him about this rate through process. the main "troublemakers" came from the famous apple ad when steve jobs returned to apple in 1997 that starts here's hears e crazy one, the troublemakers, the square pegs in round holes,, that sort of thing. i just loved what it noted which was someone who was a bit
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mischievous, someone who had sort of a a goal in mind that might not necessarily be the same goal as everybody else. it's interesting because if i could put parentheses on the title, and the title is already long enough, i would've called something like troublemakers for a reason. i think that now when we look at the problems that silicon valley is facing in a lot of ways, in some ways they can be boiled down to troublemaking for the sake of troublemaking, this sort of disruption because there's an industry that could be disrupted. that was not what was going on at this time. when we think about the accusations that silicon valley is facing today around being arrogant, thinking that it's above the law, kind of going into places where it doesn't belong and messing everything
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up. i read an analogy once said that silicon valley was like the kool-aid man raking through the walls around him and sort of wreaking havoc into the existing space. when we think about that sort of sense of silicon valley today, and some ways it's the troublemakers ideals gone wrong. i think the part of what we've seen is this necessary sort of audacity that chapter presents to think that you can build something entirely new, and in some cases you can build something new, , you can build a new company and you can build a whole new industry. but that kind of necessary audacity can shade shape into n arrogance that is really problematic. i think that a lot of the suspicions that people have
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about silicon valley right now comes from feeling like there's an arrogance here, a sense of knowing better than anybody else that is not okay, and that's i think what we're seeing a lot of pushback about. "troublemakers" is about people right on the cusp of that but it never crossed that line. >> c-span's cities tour is exporting the american story with a visit to palo alto next we travel to the hoover institution on the campus of stanford university as the author of the vietnam war related book "we shot the war" takes us to a museum exhibit of the same name. >> the "overseas weekly" was a military tabloid under reputation for its rabble rousing content. at the helm of its publication
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was stanford educated women by the name of -- she was the owner and founder of the "overseas weekly" media corporation here at the heart of the "overseas weekly" pacific edition was the most trusted colleague. she's the only e-mail bureau chief in vietnam saigon during the time of the war, and this was a paper that had specific purpose of allowing troops to share their own stories in the own words without fear from repercussions of the military brass. when we were cataloging overseas weekly photo negative collection, the name art immunity thought that because of his, because he is known ap photographer. what was unknown about his career in vietnam was that, she gave him his journalistic start
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in vietnam by granting him a press credential. in 1968 during the battle of way, his photographs document this particular time. this particular photo is of the charlie company moving through the valley. it's a very come from afar looks like a very tranquil photo. you get to see the beauty and the scenery of vietnam and you sort of sense the humidity and the ambience and it allows us to experience the environment in which the american troops were actually in. it sets the landscape in which the troops were fighting their battles. these photographs are exemplary of the type of somatic areas in the "overseas weekly."
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they did not shy away from themes as racial prejudice in the arm and try to get voice of the soldiers and captures the images that depicted the tension between the white soldiers and african-american and black soldiers. and also the prejudice amongst other racial groups and also with educated soldiers who were in college versus those who were drafted out of high school. these photographs are taken at firebase tennessee and you can see very to opposing messages, a message from a black man and a message from a white man. the covers were graced with scantily clad women of the content within the pages also depicted the humanity of, the humidity that emerge from the war. this particular story, charlie's
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attacks sparks tragedy, demonstrates that sort of humanity and story that captures the hardships in which the vietnamese civilians suffered during the war. even though the goal of the paper was to follow the u.s. troops, also documented the civilian life. here we can see photographs taken by saul lockhart. this particular contact sheet demonstrates a sequence of events, and of those south vietnam in which a bomb was exploded upon on his city. we can see the villagers morning and scrapping through the debris trying to find evidence of loved ones are evidence of her personal belongings in this village. and brian who also served as a
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photo editor would mark each of the franks in which she felt would be suitable for publication. so the markings represent the editorial content and creativity behind the selection process. we also see how the photographs within displayed in the publication itself. and here you can also see the deep emotion, the sorrow and the anguish that the vietnamese suffered during this particular attack on their village. here we have the villagers grieving, weeping, and standing over the bodies of the relatives and loved ones who were killed during the attack. this particular grouping was taken by and by who was editor in chief of the "overseas weekly" civic edition and the fact of site bureau chief.
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she will follow troops not only in about this but also fall them into the humanitarian missions. in these particular photographs were taken in some way in south vietnam. it's in celebration of christmas, the troops bought christmas cheer into the villages. they dressed up as santa. they distributed gifts and the interactive very closely with the villagers hoping to bring the hearts and minds of the people, the vietnamese people. so this particular photograph was taken by john harris. the "overseas weekly" pacific edition not only false choice at the time but also followed the troops into cambodia. this photograph was taken in cambodia right around the time in which the united states military had not quite broadcast their military intentions in
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cambodia at the time. this particular photograph is especially powerful because it demonstrates the hardships, the physical toils that it took on these very young soldiers as they went into the battlefields. it's very graphic, and you see the bullets thrown on a long, you can see he is resting. we don't know how long he's able to rest, but at least he's able to take a moment just to rest. we see his helmet which is upturned and a gun that is lying there ready for whenever he needs to get up. when people visit the exhibition, there are three particular messages that i hope they would walk away with. the first is sort of reflecting on the personal sacrifices and
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the challenges and the rules in which journalists, soldiers, and civilians played in the war. the toil and the trauma and sort of reflecting back upon how war was depicted at the time and how we can build upon understanding of wars to prevent war in the future, which is the core of herbert hoover's message. secondly, i would hope that they would have a glimpse of the collections at the hoover institution library and archives themselves. we are an institution whose mission is to preserve and document and provide access to documents, photographs and archival materials on war, revolution and peace. this exhibition represents just a small representation of the types of materials that we have for scholarly use. we have a vast collection on the
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vietnam war itself, and we would hope it would encourage anyone who's interested in this topic to come into our reading rooms and do more research. and thirdly, i would hope that visitors walk away with thinking of their own stories. often times images we see of the vietnam war are of unidentified vietnamese people. the santa fe region is a particular area in which the vietnamese americans had resettled and found new lives here is one of the largest communities of vietnamese americans, and a lot of the second generation, third-generation haqqanis americans are trying to find out more about what happens in that time. for the generation that came in 1975 and early 1980s, this was a time that was very much not
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spoken in the family. we do not speak about the war. the war was not a topic that was a part of daily conversations. in fact, it was sort of an unspoken recognition that it was a hurtful time, we moved on and we do not speak about it. but it also raised a lot of questions for younger generation who was sought to understand the experience of their parents, other uncles or aunts and siblings and their loved ones. so this particular exhibition offers an opportunity for them to see the experience of the vietnamese civilians themselves. the "overseas weekly" did a fantastic job at depicting the relationships between the american troops and the south vietnamese troops. we see them, these interactions and the names that come forth to the captions of the "overseas weekly" collection allows a new
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generation of researchers to look back upon the collections and find their own selves in the photographs. >> as part of our 2019 cities tour, we are exploring the palo alto literary community. coming up the story of 300 americans sent to aid the russian famine of 1921. the following program has images some viewers may find disturbing. viewer discretion is advised. >> book is "the big show in bololand." the first thing i realized is there was no book about the 1921-22 famine in english. no one had really done a serious book on that famine. so that i would have to do double duty, the famine and the release. the thing that happens to me and
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a lot of people, i get into the archives, i open up and archival box, and doing that opened up an entire world to me. i realized that when hoover's men were keeping records of their humanitarian activities, it wasn't simply the amount of food going in, the amount of people fed, lives saved, where the kitchens were set up. those americans documented everything. this collection also shines a light on this new thing called soviet russia. it's politics, turning russian society upside down. the changes that are taking place, the suffering, the new winners, the old losers, the people at flood, the people who had starred because they were on the wrong side of history. the russian american cultural contrast, which the americans have not expected which was was
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extreme, two different mentalities but also as i say the sort of americans, and he's a young american men, former doughboys, who it fought in the great war, and they work out for a great adventure. they wanted to continue the adventure the had begun in the world war, but a lot of them were not prepared for the sins of horrific suffering that they encountered. there were a few people left to be sent out in breakdowns, nervous breakdowns, and the others who deal with the catastrophe, step up, they've got the right mentality about it. they've got the stamina to deal with it and they become part of, among the heroes of the story. these americans were spread out across the heartland, and they were stationed in remote
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villages, provincial towns, provincial capitals. so they are reporting as to what was going on contains some of the most detailed reporting about soviet life in the time, we see the aftermath of the revolution, still going on, it's the most export your documentation available anywhere. you really can't understand the obstacles facing the americans unless you see the famine up close. these are the kinds of images, and when i get book talks i'm always very careful about which ones to use. these americans are posing and smiling, but behind them is a mass grave piles of bodies. these are three corpses of children, and these are, this is a horrific scene. the famine is standard in the volga region. what triggered the famine was the trip. in fact, two years of drought.
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this in the link of the people who study famine today is called bang bang family. two failed harvests in a row row will produce a famine, the matter what you do to try to counter it. but in the background templates not forget we have a world war that caused tremendous economic dislocation in russia and then in soviet russia, right? so that's 1914 and 17. then we have two revolutions in 1917. so there's a tendency, russia is becoming a failed state in a sense already in 1917-1918. and then in 1918 and inevitable civil war, the bolsheviks, the so-called reds are trying to hold onto power, and on the periphery the white armies are trying to dislodge them from power. the white as we know will inevitably or eventually be unsuccessful. but for a time the whites
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controlled the grain growing region of russia, and the reds led by lenin and trotsky control only a very small piece of territory. people in the cities of soviet russia starved in 1918, in particular 1919, 1920. to add to all of these problems, the word revolution civil war, the bolsheviks have an idea when they come in to wipe out the free market. in other words, to prevent peasants from trading their surplus grain. so the bolsheviks began requisitioning grain with the idea that of course they are a communist government, trade should be outlawed under a communist regime. so this as well forces peasants to stop planting grain because they know it's going to be confiscated, and the peasants,
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russia has known famines over the centuries, and about every seven years as our pockets of famines in russia. but the peasants are prepared. they have something they put away for a rainy day. they had a surplus. 1921 they had nothing. so by the summer of 1921, probably upwards of 20, 25, 30, by some estimates 30 million people are threatened with starvation in soviet russia. and very briefly this is a soviet government. it does not want to ask the outside world for help, but the writer maxim gorky issues a call for help. the only country that was capable of doing it. and the only person who is capable of organizing it and undertaking the relief was nice dates and herbert hoover. by 1921, the cities are doing okay.
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so the americans think we're going to open up kitchens, a number of kitchens, say 50 kitchens, several dozen in moscow and that's the kind of operation were going to have pretty similar to what we had across europe. then a scouting party of american relief workers gets to the volga region, and beyond, and sees witnesses scenes of war such as this. you can see it is the equivalent of waving their hands to moscow. this is inside a children's home and these children are still going. these are among the toughest to look at because this is -- you might think of as as a whole person. it's actually a girl who seems to be at the end of her life, and is actually looking at the camera person here. this is pretty bad. these children here are mercifully beyond suffering at
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this point. so at that point when the americans get to the volga and realize the extent of the problem, they know that two things have to happen. the name feeding will have to go on in the heartland, it's the grain producers this time who are the chief victims of the famine. so that's one. and, two, very important, the americans will have to feed adults as well as children. the original plan was to feed 3 million children. they establish a medical program because they realize food alone will not do it. there's typhus, colorado, all kinds of disease going around -- colorado. what can you do is an inoculation program and the need to bring the medication -- russia has nothing. i like showing a photo of the young dynamic hoover. it's hard for americans to imagine that this hoover had a
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certain charisma and was adored by the people who worked under him. he was called the chief. the nickname, most of them of e wouldn't call him that to his face, but a lot of letters to hoover by his associates, dear chief. he was much loved, a great multivitamin under him to hoover, do it for hoover was the slogan of the american relief workers, for example, in russia. he's already at this time in 1921 considered presidential material. he had both parties wanted to draft him to run for president in 1920. so the the kind of photographs that herbert hoover wanted americans to see is, and it's one of my favorite photographs and all the records, is this photograph here of a provincial
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kitchen. these happen to be all girls. this is out again in one of the volga towns, and some great faces in this photo. this was the kind of photograph herbert hoover wanted to publicize across the united states. by late spring of '19 22, the seed has arrived, the food is beginning to arrive. the american corn is arriving in large quantities. the skeletal figures, the piles of corpses, those are the horrible early days, and those are gone. i was kind of surprised to find as the american relief workers were surprised to find that in the towns, the cities and towns along the volga river, there were camels that were doing duty as beasts of burden. and it was the site of camel
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caravans taking off from various cities and heading into the provinces, heading into the interior that became, for the americans and for me as well, kind of symbol of the relief mission, kind of improvised. there's a heroic dimension to this, and it's also, , it looks very exotic, right? and that's with what the ameris felt about it. i think the book provides a window into soviet society at the time that really gets across the point that the bolsheviks were true believers in their communist ideology. they are reading these accounts of these americans tells you that they were dealing with and i'm using the word and a neutral fashion, fanatics. -- fanatics.
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these were fanatical marxist leninists. they believed in the coming utopia. they believed, in other words, capitalism was doing. they felt they could -- herbert hoover really did help that by bringing food into soviet russia, somehow he could overturn or help overturn the soviet government. pretty clear. by the end of the mission it's pretty clear that hoover was disappointed that that was not going to happen. now, , for me one of the surpris is that the chief americans on the ground, hoover didn't go to soviet russia during this nation. he was in washington at the time, but the chief americans who were administering the relief actually wanted the united states to grant soviet
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russia official diplomatic relations. so u.s.-soviet relations. hoover was against this. official u.s.-soviet relations would not be introduced until hoover left the white house and franklin delano roosevelt would introduce that. the americans who were seen this had seen bolshevism up close. they hated it. they were not friends of linen. but their idea was that if you want to undermine the bolshevik government, kill it with kindness, engagement is what we would call this in a later date. so here's the third unpleasant surprise. those russians, particularly the ones who work with the americans in offices were suspect. they were vulnerable. the american protectors were leaving and they were seen as
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having side with the americans against the soviets in the great terror of the 1930s and the great trials, the purge trials that we documented. several victims of the terror who had worked for abba as they call the ara in russia, ara. this was used against them at their trial. they must be spies of some kind. they must have engage in some kind of espionage. on the soviet side, initially by the actually celebrated the american relief and tried to be nice about it, tried to be civil about it as long as the americans were there, within a few years you can see the soviet history books rewriting the history. and it really gets completed under stalin in the 1930s, so that the american relief effort was not humanitarianism. it was espionage under the cloak
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of humanitarianism. these were spies. the types of records i have told you that i studied in the hoover archives, it's in part that record-keeping that lends credibility to the charge that this was some kind of espionage, or a kind of testing the grant for american business down the road. but mostly by the 1940s, 50s, the episode is forgotten. i was stating soviet history in the 1970s for the first time, and i'm reading through these years and a reading soviet history books. you would never see the ara. you would never see the hoover relief mission. it's not there. so that's one. that's one fact on the soviet side. on the american side because of herbert hoover's disgrace, he is failing reputation after the great depression and after he leaves office that his work as
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the great humanitarian becomes obscured by the great depression. americans don't want to hear about him anymore, even if they kind of knew about it. so that by the 1950s, 60s and certainly when i came on board studying history in the 1970s, people could never remember this. and again if you brought up herbert hoover, it was an awkward topic because he was the great depression guy. so because of that, this story was in the archives waiting to be brought out and brought to life in a book, in the film, and that was my mission. >> the c-span cities tour is traveling the country as we explore the american story. continuing our visit to palo alto will go inside the hoover institution as author john farrell talks about researching his upcoming biography on senator edward kennedy. >> we are at the hoover
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institution in stanford university. this is one of the great scholarly resources in the united states. it's named after american president herbert hoover, and the institution itself sort of a conservative think tank. but over the years many, many republican and conservative figures and other people have donated their papers here, and so the archives are particularly rich for scholars and biographers. >> so why are we here today? >> we are here because i'm writing a a biography of senatr edward kennedy of massachusetts, the youngest of the three kennedy brothers who participated in american politics in in the 20th centur. president john kennedy, senator robert kennedy, and the youngest of the boys in the family was senator edward kennedy, also known as ted or teddy.
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and there is a collection here left to the hoover institution by their father, biographer. their fathers name was joseph p kennedy and he was at one time one of the richest man in the united states. and a journalist and biographer and sometime republican speechwriter named richard whelan wrote a biography of joe kennedy called the founding father. richard papers were left to the hoover institution. i came across them when i was working on a book on richard nixon here. he also wrote to macbooks about richard nixon, so i'm sort of familiar with what's here but i don't know what's actually in the joseph kennedy boxes. so there's a chance that we will be finding excellent gold or
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just a bunch of media clips that will not help me very much at all. >> can you tell me all the bit about richard waited and what kind of items you hope to find in these boxes? >> richard whelan was in new york journalist, a magazine journalist. he's been sometime public working for "fortune" magazine. it was also a liberal republican, and he got caught up in the nixon campaign. richard nixon's presidential campaign in 1968 as a speechwriter. it did not go well. he clashed with some of the other aids and left the campaign and ended up writing to macbooks about republican politics in the late 1960s. that's what brought me here last time, because he had that business background he also was very interesting because he worked for richard nixon, famously lost to jack kennedy in 1960. he also had an interest in the
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kennedys, spatial and joseph kennedy. so what i'm hoping to find here are excerpts from his research, original documents that can't be found elsewhere but i'm especially looking hopefully to find transcripts of interviews that he did for his book, because those people are obviously long dead. they were contemporaries of joe kennedy who died in 1969. >> can you walk us through that process? >> sure. so i i can turn institution lie the hoover institution, ask for the boxes they want to see. they come out on a little card. take one at a time because these are fragile records. right in addition to being fragile you also don't want to miss file. you don't want to buy mistake put something that another skull is expected to fight in this box and another box what it will be
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lost. so shall we do some digging? >> yes. >> so ssa, joseph kennedy was john f. kennedy, ted kennedy and robert kennedy's that. a controversial figure because he made lots of money on wall street right before the crash of 1929. he was one of the pioneering tycoons out in hollywood. he was rumored to have been a bootlegger during prohibition, and he was always a lone wolf. the flipside of of that was that franklin roosevelt needed somebody, after the stock market crash, to head up the new regulatory commission called the securities and exchange commission. and so he had the brilliant idea of taking a fox, putting a fox among the foxes, , so he selectd joseph kennedy, and much of our securities regulation debate is based on the work that kennedy
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did that at the securities and exchange commission back then. and you also ambassador to great britain, first, if i'm not incorrect, the first catholic and definitely the first irish catholic ambassador to great britain. there's a famous scene in his wife's memoir where, having arrived there from these two two irish catholic family in boston and then invited to windsor castle and got up to see this amazing bedroom while their waiting, change into close go down to meet the king and queen, and he turns to his wife and he smiles and says, it's a long way from these -- from east boston, isn't it rosy? which captures the spirit of them. he was sort of a bit of a pirate, very proud and the driven man. and also someone who was
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renowned for his extra marital affairs. in hollywood in particular he had a long-lasting notorious affair with gloria swanson was a famous film actress at the time. that's basically what we're looking for is things special about his children. teddy was the youngest but you can find patterns in how he raised the other children. also he was a very controversial figure because he had nine kids and he was terrified that they would be lost in a stupid war. so he identified world war ii as that kind of catastrophe. he said once, he said i have nine hostages to fortune, when his children, and he didn't want any of them lost because america got involved in the european war. so after the war breaks out and
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before the war breaks out, but especially after the war breaks out in europe in 1939, joseph kennedy is a voice against american involvement, and this puts him at odds with franklin roosevelt, the man who appointed him as as a passer. and also has left him down through the ages as, with the reputation, that the reputation as an appeaser, as a follower of appeasement. with adolph hitler and mussolini, and particularly given what happened with the holocaust and the concentration camps and what happened to the jews in europe, this is one of the major black marks against him. it was said that part of the reason that is two eldest sons went to war and volunteered for
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dangerous duty, one of them in navy aviation who was lost and the other john f. kennedy with pt boats in the south pacific who underwent an ordeal after his boat was rammed by a japanese destroyer, that one of the things they're trying to do was remove the stain of appeasement from the kennedy name. so here's the first file and fdr, jews, 1938. so richard whelan back when he's writing this book in the 1960s obviously looking at just exactly what was kennedys position on appeasement, and especially the fate of the european jews under hitler. >> and here's a folder filed under 24, joseph kennedy as ambassador to great britain, the american ambassador to great britain at the time of the rise of adolf hitler. and at a time when joseph kennedy desperate to keep the united states out of war was
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recommending to the american and british governments that both of them try to strike a deal with hitler rather than facing down. they were two famous english prime minister at the time that joe kennedy was there. the first was neville chamberlain was an appeaser and actuate and tried to cut a deal with hitler. he was very close friends with joseph kennedy and he was succeeded by winston churchill who was no appeaser at all and did not get along well with joe kennedy, and ended up taking britain into war and being a rock of strength for democracy and for civilization really, when you think about hitler stood for. this is a folder that is marked kennedys antiwar campaign.
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there are several intriguing things, jp candidate letters to barnes. don't know who barnes is. arthur kroc was the bureau chief in washington and a close friend of joseph kennedy. and then joan whelan, research i guess, his wife was his researcher. here we start off with a memo from arthur kroc to richard whelan, and arthur kroc was a friend of kennedy and also as a news man had to covering the it says at the top, confidential. it says in recalling incident about joseph p kennedy, and so arthur kroc as a good news man had interviewed senator niels
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maclean to a told him the story about joseph kennedy. both my brother and mr. robinson were extremely friendly towards franklin roosevelt's, had spent much, , who over the years have spent much time in new brunswick. when my brother and mr. robinson came home to st. john's they were understandably upset over conversations they had that with employees and nurses at the clinic. who reported that mr. kennedy was doing a lot of talking against president roosevelt and saying he must be stopped from getting the united states into war. hitler, kennedy reported he said, was mastered of europe, and the united states should simply try to make the best piece possible. mr. kennedy led extensive interest and investments in hollywood headset is going to see about having a stop to some of the propaganda pictures, then being made depicting hitler's cruelty to jews. so that's a private confidential
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memo from the united states senator to the "new york times" bureau chief in washington that gives credence to the view that joseph kennedy, if he wasn't anti-semitic, at least held that the plight of the jews was not worth going to war and taking hitler on in 1939 in 1940. ..
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what you are looking for our intriguing revealing anecdotes like this one that cast light in a new way. you can only find one or two a day, and you do research of 100 days a year for four years, it is still a nice nugget to slip into the book here and there to make it more. >> speaking of these nuggets, through all of your research do you have any pending nuggets? >> it is not a try for something that will cause headlines tomorrow. but i recently came across a story that shows ted kennedy said sense of humor. like i said, he had a playful
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sense of humor. when he was a young senator, he had been defeated in a race for democratic whip by senator robert byrd by west virginia. and senator robert byrd was everything senator kennedy was not. a protestant, from west virginia from a family that was very poor. and he always carried sort of a grievance about him against the rich boys in the senate. he was happy to beat ted kennedy for the position. he did about almost being servile to the other senators. coming to them and doing a little modest figures that made their life a little easier. so in the end, they became close friends because they both were liberal democrats at heart. but for a while there the relationship was sort of rocky. and there was another senator
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who was in the chamber and ted decided he would play a practical joke on the senator and he called him over and said you know, bob byrd 's dog just died. you could probably school point if you went over and said how sorry you were and he was very devoted to the dog. dogs name was, it was trixie. the senator said, thanks a lot, he went over and he talked to bob and five guys that he came storming back across the senate floor. steam coming out of his ears and ted kennedy was there holding his sides because trixie was not the name of the dog, it was the name of his daughter. in this other senator had gone over there and spent the entire time putting his arm around bob byrd to say how sad he was that
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trixie was gone she was such a beautiful animal. and it is one of those stories i will have to find the senator and question and nail down. but it is a good example of the kind of practical jokes that teddy like to play.and i came across that very much like this going through an archive. >> will that make the book? >> if i can confirm it, it has to be confirmed. the center is still alive. may not want to confirm it may say it never actually happened that way. it could be that bob byrd never had a daughter named trixie but i have to nail it down. it is a great story because it captures teddies personality. that sense of humor he had. >> was looking at your previous biography, looking forward to teddy kennedy what is your goal putting this biography together? >> the most practical goal is to make a living. which means it has to have a
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certain commercial appeal. has to be an enjoyable experience. i was then said my books would be a failure if you couldn't take them to the beach. it should be something written on vacation for pleasure of learning something and it shouldn't be bitter medicine that you take because you have to learn something. that's right off the bat. you also have the reputation as a scholar and historian. i came from journalism, those in the academic community like you're at stanford, are slightly more skeptical. if a bigger hurdle that you have to leap if you are not trained in academic historian. if you do not have a phd. that is something i try to keep in mind as well. and the old reporter in me, i look for something along the
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lines of the scope. in the nixon book i was able to find an important piece of the puzzle about nixon and vietnam and i would like to be able to say that there is something in all of these books that even someone that has read two or three books about the kennedys will come to you and say i did not know that before. that's interesting. that tells me something about our history and where we came from. >> as an author, would you want your readership to know about the book making process? >> we are in a time now where little snippets and witticisms -- they get thrown around. and i understand the attraction. but there is no substitute for truth and for scientific truth.
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and for reasoned argument rather than you know, knee-jerk glandular debate. so one thing that i am always here to see is that the market for good biography, the market for good history is still there. americans still devour these big thick books about the history. what it means, how did people in these past days get through crises like the ones that we face today. there is such a thing as objective truth. historians and scientists struggle for it all the time. we could not have gone to the moon if there wasn't mathematical and scientific proofs that governed the ability of that spaceship. to go to our sunlight, to land and then come back.
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when you hear about scientists being ridiculed for their warnings about global warming or when politicians try to rewrite history to advance her own interest or careers, it is, reassuring i think it makes my job more rewarding to know that americans still have that old basis facts and like the wright brothers, and you know, figuring out what an objective truth is and then acting on it and that is what historians tried to do, they go through all of this stuff and put in as an appealing story as possible, the truths of what they find in our history. >> outlook at the palo alto
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literary community continues with a local author, jonathan roden with why cities lose. the deep roots of the urban rural political divide. >> why cities lose is a book that has two things. answers to questions. the first one tries to understand why did the united states become so polarized along lines of population density? why is it such a divide between cities, suburbs and rural areas? it answers the question not just in the u.s. but look at other countries were similar divide has emerged. the second thing the book does, what is been established one of the implications of that divide for representation? in particular, the parties to the left and parties to the right. parties to the left have become urban in many places. because voters those parties are so clustered in cities it makes a difference in how their
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votes are transformed in the seeds and ultimately, representation in the legislature and government. when we look at the united states the best way to see it may be said take data, maybe it's at the level of precinct or counties, we can see that there is a correlation between population density and votes for the democratic party that is just astounding. that correlation is been there for some time as i show in the book but it's really increased quite a bit since the 1980s. one of the other things that's interesting about it, it's a relationship that shows up at many different levels. the county level, it's very clear. but perhaps what is especially interesting is will go below the level counties, in pennsylvania or roll how, if we take the picnic level data will see that as we go from a sparse rural place to maybe a town that has a county seat you know in the courthouse and some rental housing. we will see a dramatic increase
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in the democratic vote share even in that setting. so the correlation between density and democratic voting pops up. it is kind of like a process that keeps showing up again and again at lower levels of analysis. and we see that in some other countries as well. what i argue in the book is that this really started already in the 1920s, the democrats started to become a party of cities in the late 1920s and especially this really took off in the new deal period. the industrial self in the beginning is where things start. the same thing is true in europe.we see all of a sudden parties of the left emerge in the era of industrialization and labor union mobilization. and they become powerful and cities. but if that was the end of the story we would see then as the industrialization takes place and labor unions decline and
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people move away from industrial cities, you would expect this phenomenon to also decrease but instead rescind the opposite. then the public comes, what happened in the 1980s? so this relationship between density and voting was pretty flat from around world war ii to around the 80s. then it takes off. and so one of the things that happens around it, a couple of things are happening about the same time. one of them is that the parties start to politicize issues. so in the 70s if you are an opponent of abortion was unclear if you should vote for democrats or republican.but it starts to become very clear around 1980 in the reagan administration. that issue gets politicized, parties start to take distinctive positions on something that they previously had -- positions on. happens at peoples preferences on abortion and related issues
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are pretty correlated with population density. progressives tend to be clustered in cities. that was already true back then. when that new issue became politicized, it led to some urban people fording into the democratic party and some x urban and rural people sorting into the republican party. that was one of those moments and i think the other really important one is more recently, the rise of the knowledge economy. by that i mean, we can think about the messages miracle as is process where mit and harvard start to collaborate with investors and entrepreneurs and start to build, start to build i think new startups, new industries. and this is something that happened in a place like boston where the democrats have really been the dominant party. ever since the days of industrialization. so very early on the democrats start to kinda form an alliance with these knowledge economy
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groups. and so in silicon valley something similar eventually happened. places like san francisco and seattle had been old democratic dominated industrial cities make this transition to becoming really very wealthy, knowledge economy cities. what's fascinating is that the democratic vote share increases when that happens. and you end up with a part of it once had a base it was really mostly working class, people working at the docks, people working in labor unions. it becomes a party that also under the same umbrella starts to represent these very high income educated professionals. that are taking over the cities. >> was fascinating is the same thing happens to labor parties in places like london and city and melbourne in australia. the same thing that happens to left voting in canadian cities. these parties have become more diverse as the cities have transformed. and so now we have economies that have emerged in the knowledge economy and it
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becomes quite desirable for knowledge economy employers to be concentrated in this certain set of cities. and in this case with the knowledge economy. this creates the concentration of democrats in those places. very different kind of set of democrats but the same phenomenon. and with the second part of the book, it tries to understand what happens when we draw these kinds of districts. on top of the geography that had been describing. vendor with a real concentration of orders for the party of the left and the urban districts, and so that creates a situation where these parties are often able to, on the basis of the strength in cities, win the popular vote or do very well in state or national elections. but they do much worse in the distribution of seats in the state legislature or the
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national legislature. because of his concentration. it is something we often associate with gerrymandering and it gets complicated. this is also driven by gerrymandering. but there's also a kind of natural gerrymandering, if you will, that takes place because of people, because of his residential patterns when we draw electoral districts. this is something that happens in certain settings. without anyone even trying to make it happen. one of the things i do in the book, without making specific recommendation, i described how the world can be different and how it is different in some other countries. one of the things i think is interesting to notice, is that in continental europe, all the countries in continental europe once had winner take all single-member districts like the united states. in early 20 century they had this type of a system and all of them sometime around world
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war i, in part because of the entry of left parties, and what that was doing to the system, the entry of social democratic and socialist parties ended up in two different representation systems. one of the nice things about proportional representation is that it doesn't force all of these different dimensions of politics i was discussing earlier spirit abortion, gay rights, the knowledge economy, economic does not force them all into one choice between two very diverse parties that represented different geographic places. it creates a wider menu of choices. and i think it has the impact of reducing somewhat this type of polarization. that i've been describing. in european countries with the representation the urban parties of the right. we do not have any such thing in the united states.
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there are no places that are densely populated in the analysis were republicans get majorities outside of perhaps, little havana in miami. maybe sometimes staten island. but for the most part, we don't have a party of the right in cities. so the victory for the right is really victory for x urban and rural areas. that is not the case in europe. a right government will have, instead of rest and still have lots of representatives from stockholm. they vote freitag reported that a little different than the voters in rural sweden. but they're able to form a coalition. similarly, voters in rural sweden want to vote for a party of the left have an option that is acceptable to them. so again, the left government is not simply an urban government. so the proportional
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representation is one answer but one that many americans, especially interested in and trying out. it seems to have a better reputation in the united states. i'm not optimistic about that reform being adopted anytime soon. although it may have a lot of advantages. we'll see if we ever get to the point as a country where people are really willing to take that seriously as an option. >> many of the things that we think are unique to the united states are not necessarily. that this pattern is, it is a global pattern and this concentration of affluence and economic activity in densely populated areas, and then having that drive a growing economic -- is that something we sing around the world. an understanding of how the s fits into the broader pattern. seeing the bigger picture and some things that seem in the moment, to be unconnected or seem to be kind of one-off events. or you know, especially in the
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u.s. context. things that seem to be driven exclusively by gerrymandering that might actually part of a something bigger. seeing that fuller picture of american political geography is my hope people come away from the book with. >> we continue to look at palo alto. as we hear about his contributions to rock 'n' roll and pop culture. >> we are on perry avenue. this is an unincorporated area. this was known as perry lane. this is maybe the last one left on perry lane. it was an enclave of stanford graduate students included the married kim kcu came in 1958 to take creative lighting classes.
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casey veronica makes $75 going to the menlo park va and becoming part of drug testing conducted covertly by the cia. he used the money, the tests were for lsd, the use of money and the drugs he found there. he was a knight orderly. to have parties in his living room. he didn't at this particular but when i compared the parties in his living room spread all over the world. this is part of the story of palo alto. one of the things that, one of the things that made palo alto in history of rock that were developing for our book. it's a story written because palo alto has its place in the history of rock. beginning with the kingston trio the developed folks music, joan baez that continue to, the
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grateful dead who introduced the psychedelic element, grace -- the gone to high school palo alto. she brought her own version of it in her song, white rabbit.♪ ♪ [music] ♪ [music] >> palo alto was the leading wave of this cultural change, acceptance of palo alto was a key factor in the whole part of our history. and jerry garcia lived a few blocks away. he was under 21. he would come down with friends from the crash pad and they would crash the parties that they were throwing. they got to know each other and when casey wanted a band for his acid test in 1964 he hired garcia's band which had just
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been recently named the grateful dead, and in the kept for the next 30 years. until garcia died. so the grateful dead really their origin, was on this cottage here with jerry garcia sitting on kim casey's liberal partaking of the parties that were going on. >> we are in an alleyway in palo alto. this is a district next door. there's a new city hall.when i seen it was only about 30 years old. an old spanish colonial building was here back in 1963. when jerry garcia was working in a music store on vine street. it was new year's eve. he had since come in for music lessons. they did not show. he came out, took his banjo, came out back and started playing.
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bob weir and her friend were walking on hamilton street, they heard the sound, they came back and bob sat next to jerry, picked up a guitar, started playing.and bob weir became an integral member of the grateful dead. they stayed friends ever since. this is a hotel in palo alto the beetle stayed on the eighth floor, top floor of the hotel where they stayed after the concert august 31, 1965 in davis city. the beatles really injected the current band, current rock 'n' roll into sleepy old palo alto and never seen anything like the deals but back in 1965, the beatles were top of the world
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this was sleepy and quiet so the whole town went crazy for the beatles, the parking lot was full of people. just wanting to be here. this was what was happening in 1965 in palo alto. >> this is an area part of american history that has stayed with us. it has a time that has gone by but in important part. especially for people that now in the 60s and 70s, 80s, they remember it well. >> twice a month, c-span cities tour takes booktv in american history t.v. on the road to explore their literary life and history of a selected city. working with their cable partners, visit various sites as we interview local historians, authors and civic leaders. you can watch any of our past interviews and towards online by going to and selecting c-span cities tour from the series drop down at the top of the page or by
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visiting tour. you can also follow the c-span cities tour on twitter. for behind the scenes images and video from our visits. the handle is @ c-span cities. >> here is a look at some books being published this week. in the pioneers, pulitzer prize-winning historian, david mccallum recalls a settlement of the northwest territory which would become the future states of ohio indiana, illinois, michigan and wisconsin. national book award author george packer recalls life of richard holbrook and our men. the author of guns, germs and steel authors why some nations rebound from crises and others don't. and, upheaval.
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american university professor rachel louise snyder exposed domestic violence and no visible bruises. in war and peace nigel hamilton concludes his trilogy on fdr 's leadership during world war ii. also being published this week, -- records harper lee is a tent to write a true crime book in serious hours. in ghosts of gold mountain, stanford university professor, gordon chang tells the story of the chinese immigrants who built the transcontinental railroad. and in democracy may not exist but we will miss it when it's gone, astrid taylor examines the concept of democracy and its practical application. look for these in bookstores this week and watch for many of these authors on booktv on c-span2. >> you're watching booktv on c-span2 with top nonfiction books and authors every weekend. booktv, television for serious
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readers. >> they live at noon eastern is in depth with political communications expert, and former dean of the annenberg school, kathleen hall jamieson. she will answer questions and discuss her many books including her most recent, cyber war. how russian hackers and trolls helped elect a president. also this weekend, on afterwards, stanford university professor jennifer hart offers her thoughts on implicit racial bias. and the cato institute michael tanner provides a blueprint for reducing poverty. check your cable guide for a full schedule. >> we want to introduce you to author, justine bateman. here's her book, it is called "fame" the hijacking of reality. read through the book it seems like it's a relatively painful experience to write, is it a fact? >> i do not know that i will qualify it as painful. it is more


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