tv Charles Fishman One Giant Leap CSPAN September 5, 2019 7:33am-8:41am EDT
they said i'm not racist and today white nationalists say i am not racist, no matter whether they are in the white house or planning the next mass shooting. >> host: at 11:00 pm former defense secretary jim mattis recount his military career and his thoughts on leadership in his book chaos, learning to lead. watch booktv every weekend on c-span2. >> hello, everyone. welcome to brussels bookstore, thanks for being here tonight. we are here to celebrate "1 giant leap: the impossible mission that flew us to the moon" written by charles fishman, claimed daughter of other titles including a curious mind with brian glaser, the walmart effect, he is a 3-time winner of the most prestigious prize in business
journalism please please help me giving a warm welcome to charles fishman. [applause] >> good evening. i'm delighted to be in houston. i am always delighted to be in houston. tonight is a nice night. i want to take you back to sunday afternoon, july 20, 1969. it was about 2:15 central time. neil armstrong and buzz aldrin were in their spaceship, in the lunar module. they were getting ready to fly from lunar orbit, down to the moon to tranquility base and that last leg of the 240,000 mile journey would take just 13 minutes, from 50,000 feet to the surface of the moon. the first three minutes of the 13 minutes went perfectly
normally. the last we 10 minutes were a cascade of problems. you would not have noticed the problems if you are listening live because that is the way astronaut and mission control were. the first problem was as armstrong and aldrin swooped down toward the moon, looking out the window, armstrong discovered the place they were intending to land was strewn with boulders between 10 and 20 feet, boulders as big as honda accords and toyota camrys. the lunar module had been fine on autopilot and at that point neil armstrong took control and had to go looking for a different place to land. that led to the second problem. the second problem was, did the lunar module coveted the eagle have enough fuel to look for a
good place to land? what would happen as they got closer and closer to the bottom of the fuel tank? the lunar module was burning 1000 pounds of fuel every 30 seconds. the total quotient for fuel was 120 seconds. they had flown all the way to the moon and the extra fuel they had was exactly two minutes. this is houston, people probably know this, the reason you fly with such a little cushion is a pound of fuel in the lunar module requires three extra pounds of fuel on the launchpad in kate kennedy. it was a constant balancing, house when you had to be and they didn't have enough fuel to do a second run at landing on the moon's the margin was chosen at 120 seconds. as armstrong is looking around
for another place to land in the back of his mind he is thinking how low do i have to be to the surface of the moon so if i run out of fuel we all going to be okay? 25 feet no problems, the leader module is designed to fall from 25 feet to the surface of the moon and not be damaged. there is no atmosphere on the moon or passively thin. once you run out of fuel you are falling straight down. 40 feet they would probably be okay. above 40 feet, 40-70 feet you might well damage the lunar module in such a way that you wouldn't be able -- he would be trapped on the moon forever. in the back of his mind neil armstrong is thinking how much fuel there was and where he wanted to be in case he ran out. this how serious those
situations where. during the last three minutes of the lunar landing, mission control only spoke to the lunar module twice and lisa two words each time. once they said 60 seconds. once they said 30 seconds. telling them how much fuel they had in case they weren't paying attention. otherwise mission control was silent which is unusual for people familiar with mission control, usually instructions going up whether they need them or not. they were letting armstrong and dalton -- aldrin fighter spaceship. looking for a new place to land and running low on fuel were not the big problem of the first lunar landing. the big problem was the lunar module computer. the computer was flying the ship even with armstrong
running the positioning control, he was just giving commands to the computer and the computer was doing the flying. the computer on the lunar module was a marvel. it was the smallest, fastest, most nimble computer that had ever been created. taking data from gyroscopes and accelerometers straight from mission control, from the lunar module's own radar, and it was sending instructions to all kinds of devices as well, controlling the big engine, controlling the positioning thrusters on the top edge of the lunar module. 200 input and outputs to that one little computer, taking data and sending information back in the lunar module. as armstrong and aldrin are headed to the surface the computer's main alarm goes off. this isn't the seatbelt finger in your car.
this is the car alarm of your car inside the car. it was called the master alarm for a reason. the computer's alarm went off five times in four minutes just as armstrong was discovering he needed a new place to land and started looking for it, just as he was thinking about running out of fuel. the question was what did the alarm mean? were they safe to land on the moon? or was it and abort in the cockpit of the lunar module? a saturday morning cartoon version of an abort button, and actual red button. if you push the red abort button the leader module took straight back off immediately and headed back to orbit. the question was what did the alarm mean that was reveling the entire inside of the lunar module? there was only one shot, now go
arounds, a 20 billion program at stake. there was one guy in houston, in mission control, who knew what the alarm meant. his name was jack garland. a mission control veteran, three years out of the university of michigan. he had a handwritten chart of apollo lunar module alarms. he had written every single alarm code down, what it meant and what its significance was and whether was okay to keep going based on what the alarm was. jack diamond had 10 seconds to decide. is 25-year-old in three years out of the university had 10 seconds to decide the fate of the first lunar landing. the computer was being overloaded, an electrical circuit inside the lunar module from radar that wasn't in use was pouring signals into the
computer. the computer was dumping the extra work that he didn't need, restarting itself in the middle of the lunar landing while continuing to fly the ship and it was sounding the alarm. the alarm meant there is something wrong with your spaceship. the computer is fine, i am continuing to do my work but you ought to check out what is wrong. that is the alarm code is i'm getting too much work and continuing to do my work, something has gone wrong somewhere else, please check it out. jack garland knew that was the alarm light so he gave the okay to land, you are go, to the bosses in mission control and capcom said go to land, don't worry about the alarm. then he could hear the alarm go off again and again every two
seconds. the computer reporting the same thing. he didn't wait to be asked, he said we shouted into his head set same type of alarm, go to land, keep going. 159 seconds after the last alarm we have that famous exchange we are all familiar with, houston, tranquility base here, the eagle has landed. houston, roger, tranquility base, you've got a lot of guys about to turn blue, we are breathing again, thank you. and most of us didn't know why they were blue or why they had resumed breathing, because if you listen to the transcript, you don't actually have a sense of how urgent the situation was they were going through. the apollo flight computer was the size of a small briefcase. even in 1969 that very basic
computer understood what was going on. it was making decisions a lot faster than armstrong and aldrin could have. i find it remarkable he was rebooting itself as the lunar module was floating down to the ground. rebooted itself more quickly than the typical macintosh laptop these days. at one point when armstrong and aldrin were just 1000 feet off the lunar surface the last alarm went off, the display on the computers of the lunar module went dark. for ten long seconds, if the dashboard on my car went blank for ten seconds at highway speed that would seem like a lot. 1000 feet, falling at 40 feet a second, you don't hear a word about that. none of them said to mission control by the way the computer screens are blank. armstrong said in his technical
debriefing we weren't sure they were coming back. even the computer display had gone blank, a sign that computer was doing the right thing. at that moment it didn't have enough processing power, it turned at the displays on and was able to dump all that work it didn't need. the apollo computer did 85,000 calculations a second. everyone in here has a smartphone and most of you have an iphone. the current iphone does 5 trillion calculations a second, taking that apollo computer 681 days to do the work your iphone can do in one second, just different kinds of work. the apollo computer had less brainpower than your microwave
oven. please do not ask your microwave oven to fly you to the moon. going to the moon was the largest single project ever undertaken by human beings outside of war. it was 10 times the size of the panama canal. we have lost track on the 50th anniversary this summer, we have lost track of two important things about that undertaking. one is how hard it was to get to the moon. the second is the impact on the way we live now. that is why i decided to write a book, to bring that back to life for the current generation and step back a little bit and reassess what the impact of the moon project was. we are 33 days from the
anniversary as we stand here today. as i said i'm delighted to be in houston. i have literally lived in this town for months of my life reporting on spaces i started reporting on space with the challenger disaster in 1986 and i have been writing about it ever since. i'm going to tell you some stories, review a little bit from the book. i hope you have some questions. i'm going to read you a little passage from the book. this is about what happened about 7 hours after they landed. the scene of the first moon walk but not a senior used to hearing about. here we go. the first moonwalk ever, sonny reem was watching every move on the big screen. he was a supervisor of the most important moon technology for the spacesuits. as neil armstrong and buzz aldrin got comfortable bouncing around on the moon, got to
work, sonny reihm got more uncomfortable. the spacesuits were fine, they were the work of playtex, the people who brought america across your heart brought in the mid-1960s. the industrial division to nasa, made the cheeky activation the company had a lot of expertise in clothing that had to be formfitting. when the cavorting started on the moon, sonny reihm got butterflies in his stomach. buzz aldrin was bumping around in his spacesuit with his big round helmet when all of a sudden here it came, bounding from foot to foot like a kid in the playground right at the videocamera he and armstrong had set up at the landing site. aldrin was romping straight at the world and talking about how he had discovered how to watch
yourself when you start bouncing around like he was bouncing around because you couldn't trust your sense of balance in lunar gravity. going too fast, lose your footing and end up liability on the rocky learner ground. you have to be careful to track where your center of mass is as though earthlings would soon find this moonwalk advice useful. the time it takes three paces. sonny reihm should have been having the most glorious moment of his career. he had joined playtex industrial division in 1960 at age 22. by the time of the moon landing before he turned 30 he had become the project manager for space suits. the blaze white suits were a triumph of technology and imagination. they were completely self-contained spacecraft with room just for one. they had been tested, tweaked, custom tailored but what
happened on earth didn't matter, that is what sonny reihm was thinking. only one test mattered and buzz aldrin was contacting it right then in full view of the whole world on the airless moon with unabashed enthusiasm. aldrin should trip and land hard on a moon rock a tear in the suit would not be a seamstress's problem, it would be a disaster. the suit would deflate instantly, catastrophically. the astronaut would die on tv in front of the world. that is what sonny reihm was thinking about. aldrin would land on his left leg and came to the right like an nfl running back. he kangaroo hopped in front of the american flag. this was not a good way of moving around. not quite as good as the more conventional 1 foot after another, he said. and he disappeared from the
camera at you. this time sonny reihm could barely contain himself. that silly basket is out there running all over the place. seconds ticked by. armstrong was by the lunar module looking back to the camera. suddenly aldrin came dashing into the left straight across the landing site, moon dirt flying from his boots, his narration back to mission control was called but his speed was anything but. he was doing a moon run. what a sustained pace might be like the one i am using now is rather tiring. even though the whole point of the spacesuits was to explore the moon, sonny reihm could not wait for the moonwalk to end. why in the world was aldrin acting crazy? he knew the astronauts were out there euphoric lee enjoying what they were doing. the world was excited about the
moon landing. imagine being the two guys who got to do it. in fact, according to the flightplan, right after the landing armstrong and aldrin were scheduled for a nap but they want to get out right away. they hadn't phone all the way to the moon to sleep. instead watching aldrin - around, sonny reihm could think of nothing but get back up the ladder and into the safety of the lunar module. they went back up the ladder, the happiest moment of my life. it wasn't until quite a while later that i reveled in the accomplishment. sonny reihm's anxiety is a time machine. it puts us back in the moments before anyone knew how the story would come out. it is a reminder of the mostly unsung men and women who made it possible for armstrong and altman to leave those blueprints at tranquility base. i was captured, i remember the moment i watched this video of
these guys in the mission control support room and heard them talking about watching the first moonwalk. why wouldn't you be exuberant over what you have accomplished? a guy who is 29 years old is in charge of spacesuits for the first ever landing of human beings on another planetary body and all he can do is think god, i hope they get back in the spaceship. what was so captivating about that moment for me was i had never thought about the moon landings from the perspective of not knowing they had happened and succeeded. it opened a window into the beginnings of what it is like to be somebody in charge of or working on all this technology not just the astronauts but the whole reputation of the country was relying on. when john kennedy said in may 1961 let's go to the moon,
it was impossible. it was literally an impossible task. there was no moon rocket strong enough to fly to the moon, there was no spaceship like the lunar module that could land on the moon. there wasn't even an agreement what kind of ship could land on the moon,it's walking around in. there was no moon car to drive around on the moon in, there was no space computer small enough to fight to the moon, there was no -- kennedy said let's go to the moon, the united states had 15 minutes of total spaceflight experience and only 5 of those minutes were actually in 0 gravity. there was even a debate among scientists inside nasa about whether human beings would be able to think in 0 gravity. of course space travel would be a lot harder if you couldn't think in space. apollo created a culture of what i think of as innovation
on a deadline. apollo required innovation on a deadline. there were 10,000 problems to be solved between 1961, and 1969. nasa looked everywhere with real open-mindedness how to get those problems solved. they picked playtex to design the spacesuits and that division of playtex, many corporate iterations since then. it is not part of ames. that same group still makes all of nasa's spacesuits. they make the space station spacesuits and the maneuvering units used around the space station. general motors designed and engineered the lunar rover. often the innovation got ahead of our ability to manufacture
what was conceived and designed. that did not slow anyone down. the spacesuits were high-tech models, 21 layers of nested fabric. they were strong enough to stop micrometeorites but not strong enough for buzz aldrin to do kangaroo hopped across the moon. every stitch in every layer sown by hand by women working and over, delaware. the heat shield for the apollo capsules coming back, the command module coming back through the atmosphere, the command modules came back but first, the backside, to slow down the capsule. the friction created temperatures of 5000°c. all the material had to be invented to protect the command module and the astronauts. they had no trouble coming up with the material. how to get it onto the back of
the capsule and get it to stay, they designed a honeycomb made out of fiberglass on the back of the command module where they needed heat shield material and the honeycombs contained 370,000 individual cells, each cell was filled one at a time by a man or woman using a caught gun, filled by hand one at a time, filling the cells with materials so delicate answer technical they trained for two weeks on how to fill the cells, to be certified to do that work. what about the computer, that remarkable computer that flew the astronauts to the moon and flew them from orbit to the surface? the apollo guidance computer, the apollo flight computer revolutionized computing in the united states. it literally laid the foundation for the world we live in today.
they had just 703k of memory. if you get email this morning, headlines from your local newspaper, it likely requires more than 703k. the apollo computer's memory was literally handcrafted. every single one and 0 was a wire, each of those wires was woven into precise position by dozens of women in factories in massachusetts. the ability to manufacture the computer lagged 5 years behind the design and need for the computer and so these women wove the computer one bit at a time, every wire had to be in exactly the right place. that 703k of memory, just remarkable. when you think of the astronauts as courageous and daring, they were, the more i
learned about the quantity of work the astronauts did in the range of things they took response ability for, more impressed with them. but the story of the astronaut is wonderful, the computer programs and are not engineers, the factory workers, it turns out, were also courageous and daring. they had to be. their work also had to be perfect if we were going to successfully get 11 apollo missions in the air. here is how demanding the work of the people back on earth was. part of that reporting and research for the book, i added up the total amount of time, total amount of work done during those apollo missions. nasa is very good at producing statistics. the 11 apollo missions lasted 2500 hours, a little more than 100 days total in space. for every dollar of
spaceflight, 1 million hours of work was done on earth. what is 1 million hours of work? typical person in the united states, their whole career, 2000 hours of work for 50 years. 100,000. every hour of spaceflight required to work life of ten people to prepare for that one hour. imagine doing something for an hour of ten people have devoted their entire work to getting you ready for. it was without question the single most intense experience of preparation ever in the history of human for me, the joy of reporting about apollo in particular in all of my space reporting experience was discovering a new undiscovered story or moment, literally every day. it was an incredible journey. the story of the three people
who knew how to fold apollo parachutes, let apollo missions, 33 parachutes compose parachutes were folded by the same three people every time. they were licensed by the faa to fold apollo parachutes. they were recertified every six months toie make sure you have t lost the touch. they were the only people the nation who knew howey to do it d who are licensed to do it. and as a result nasa for bid those three people from everve writing in the same car together, two man and woman because nasa couldn't afford to have them all in the same car accident at the same moment. the first idea for leaving the lunar module and getting to the lunar surface was a rope. this wasn't a joke. tom kelly the two chief engineer the t lunar module had his folks rigged a rope from the hatch to the surface, with lots every
18 inches to have handholds on the way down. here's how serious it was. at the first full of market review of the lunar module, the rope was the way out of the hatch and to the ground, a nasa astronaut ed white put on a spacesuit and was rigged in that sort of 16g rigg, a a sort of training to help them up above the surface ande you try to clib the rope down and then he tried climbing through back up any announced that no nasa astronauts would be using a rope to get from the hatch to the moon and thus the latter was born. i wasts amazed, that i think the only thing i stumbled into in four years of reporting that i thought just seemed completely ridiculous. lots of good ideas were triedco that didn't work. the rope didn't seem like a good idea to begin with.
it rode the survey are number one for the first robotic to soft land on the moon and take photographs and get a sense of what the mood was like for the astronauts since 1966. and the scientists who designed and built the surveyor number one a few days before they sent it on its way one of them went to the drugstore. they took the flag off and cleaned it. no one knew about it, but about seven engineers and when the surveyor number one landed
neither hughes nor nasa was amused by the first, but that made the front page of hundreds of newspapers in the united states. an unsung hero here in houston named jack kinsler came up with this remarkable flag raid that you have the pole and a second one you can swing up and latch into a horizontal position.
that is how the american flags flew on the moon. it was at the top and just slid out. so it literally they ran so late thinking of erecting a flag on the moon into getting it approved. the head of the technical services department got on a gulfstream jet here in houston and flew to the cape with the planned. there were these wonderful stories have been all through the stories of ordinary people at the front line of getting the work done. okay i want to read one more passage and then we will wrap up and take some questions. this is from near the end of the
book. there is a little bit of an apollo hangover. we think of it as a spectacular performance but what have we done since. americans love space. it always provide a spark of connection and pride. during the routine they dropped the geology hammer. thus flying everywhere it was too disruptive. with the help and instructions from the mission control they constructed a replacement in sight of the module. using plastic masks and duct tape and the a secured them to improvise using clips from the cabin. let's pause and appreciate someone tossed a roll of duct
tape into the cabinet as they were getting ready to blast off. the president of the autobody association of america was so impressed with that repaired immediately before they had even left the lunar orbit and he confirmed the official lifetime status as members of the american auto members association. we are delighted to see that went something like this happens on the moon, he said from his auto body repair shop in neptune city new jersey, that they have the ingenuity to ge put it back together. those astronauts, college graduates, pilots, geologists, they make good. 70% of americans today are not born or were younger than five when we first went to the moon. it's something to find on youtube or read about in the.
most of those who led the effort had died and hundredhave died af thousands of americans who worked to make it possible. but the appeal of the accomplishment which is often separated from the politics that inspired it, the accomplishment remained powerful allure. we are not in fact bored by the romance and adventure of our own space travel. the smithsonian museum is a position of prominence on the mall in washington and has a second even bigger set of buildings out by the dulles international airport. in fact this branch of the museum is so large you can put them on the ball inside it. between the two location is the most visited museum anywhere in the world with 24,000 visitors a day for 364 days a year and more visitors than then.
we visited for all kinds of reason. space flight hardware is quite the cool and amazing but one reason w we visit is we visit it of our daily lives for a moment interconnect with the spirit of adventure and daring as it requires. the space suits and gemini capsules you could easily imagine yourself in them. that's where this comes from in part. have you noticed all of the human knowledge is accessible from the device that sits in your hand? the world we have so quickly come to take for granted requires. and determination, vision and
daring. it didn't always required physical courage but the required intellectual courage to the relentless determination in boldness of imagination. the spaceships leaked the solar systems to unlock the mysteries of mars, jupiter, saturn and all kinds of astronauts in the moon. when you talk to the people who took america to the moon, when you read what they said at the time as to how they reflected on it decades later, these people tell you that in working on apollo, they did something extraordinary that was the greatest experience of their lives. there were 24 when they did it for 54. they always say to other things
the task inspired and motivated them and brought out of them work they might not have been able to do in other circumstances. to me that is the spirit of america anspirit ofamerica and e american dream. as for me, that is the best part of the story. it is a heroic story but there are no superheroes. it's a story of ordinary people inspired by the challenge and urgency of the mission that kennedy laid down and who did extraordinary work. it is the story of those unsung heroes, jack kinsler, the guy that was three years out of the university of michigan with ten seconds to decide in a handwritten list that he had
made. the story of one of the extraordinary people who worked here at houston and there is a chapter in the book called the man who rescued apollo and it is about how he went and untangle the mess that the computers have become before they were used. we have a lot of big problems today both in the united states and the world. climate change is the premiere of those. most of those problems we didn't have a start on. we know how to have some climate change we just didn't know how to do it. so, that to me is also part of
>> i had been to the factory in seattle and talked to those people and watched the rockets s into the capsules could constructed in a talked to folks and watched what everybody else had watched. those operations are thrilling in their own way. if you want to be excited about spaceflight and space travel in 2019 and you have not yet. watch the blue origin rocket come streaking back from the edge of space backwards at 3,000 miles per hour in a and bland spot perfect almost a foot of where it took off. it is an amazing moment. so, i think what they are doing is exciting as they are reengineering space travel. if you got on the boeing 767 in the morning at 8:00 every morning and flew to laguardia and landed at fort:30 and then we threw it away and start again
with a new one, no one would get to fly because that is a ridiculous way of giving air transportation but that of course is the way that we have been doing rocket for 50 years. i think we are at the beginning of a remarkable new space age in which we welcomed to consider space travel routine the way we consider launching space flights. the launch of weather satellites was a big event. no one even notices now except for the people who both weather and the meteorologist community. we often don't pay attention when it flies from new york to london. that is completely routine. the first 747 flight from kennedy to close by the first ft lady of the united states christened.
that's what i think they are going to bring to spaceflight which is they are going to bring the price to 90 to 95% and they are going to make it so routine that w we've really learned howo do it. i think what they're up to is thrilling in its own way because they are cracking a different operational frontier and reengineering. [inaudible] a woman standing next to me had an apollo shirt. i decided to ask her when she thought we were going to get
back [inaudible] did you think we can make it back by 2025? >> the trump administration two or three months ago said vice president mike pence gave a speech in which he said we are going back to the moon and we are going by 2024 is what he said. they were announced we were going back to the moon in half the time is the first time. the trump administration budget for this year is 2% less than last year. they haven't resubmitted any appropriation requested that would have to rise 50% to match apollo's budget and pacing and they want to do it twice as fast. if you ask if we are going back by 2024 i would say look at their behaviors and don't ask my opinion. when kennedy said on may 25,
1961 this nation should go to the moon. the legislation was with the speech up on capitol hill. you have the appropriation bills written and ready to submit and argue over and in fact the next day whether they should have been uncritical or not, americans were tired of being beaten by the russians. they had been beaten with the first satellite, the first creatures to return for the first astronauts, first female astronauts, they were done coming in second and it was almost unanimous support in congress. but the detailed plan was ready when he announced it. so, no i don't think there's any evidence that we are going back to the moon by 2024 simply because they do not have a plan in place.
idea or ridiculous nobody said the iphone will revolutionize but that is one of the things smart phones have done. cities and data companies understand. when you lower the price by 95 percent or 99 percent you completely change who thinks about doing things. in the last two years private company put up a constellation satellite that photographed every square foot of the surface of the earth every single day. the roof of this building is photographed every single day. that is how we know what the north koreans are up to. their ships loading and unloading every single day. you can look at tomorrow or the day after that's a great
i thank you are right about what is going on. >> there is a sense of excitement. >> where do you see that quick. >> i will say a couple of things. first of all i certainly have interviewed hundreds of people at nasa over 25 or 30 years. and i think the fact the trump administration has tried to reinvigorate and that gives people a little bit of a charge. nobody wants to be ignored and that you have the right direction somebody is paying
attention. but to zero in a mid-level or senior level to have a mission of the agency? as we want to go and that's why. there are a lot of things you can learn as a cold war mission with the soviet union with the lunar command module , there was a soviet robotic probe in space and it was to land on the moo moon, grab moon rocks and moon dirt and beat armstrong and aldrin back.
so they can say they got the rocks first. in those going 400 miles an hour so that did not happen but then right to the end but that was a motivation whether that is a right solution or not that is a question for history and what god is there. and with that sense of focus and direction at the moment as an administrator it's not really my job but i think what we have learned about nasa it's a great r&d agency and apollo was a project. and then we just try to get
there and learn something about the moon and in fact the shuttle and the space station and the operational enterprises we have not had a great sense of accomplishment. so what are we doing? so the whole world has matured. that robert bigelow wants to create habitats in space. we need spaceships of artificial gravity.
of the universe. and then since he was approved i have been down trying to finish landing on the moon myself. thank you for coming. [applause] [applause] [inaudible conversations] >> saturday on booktv at 9:10 p.m. eastern, our interview with disability rights attorney and author, she details becoming the first deaf blind graduate of harvard law school and how she maneuvers to a sided hearing
world. >> student, just go to school and expect the teacher to teach them. i couldn't do that. i had to think about what i might be missing, what are the potential unknowns, how can i find those unknowns. and all my life has been this process of trying to identify unknowns and figured that it od come up with solutions. >> and at 10 p.m. on "after words" american university professor talks about his book how to be an antiracist. >> i don't think even well-meaning people, even people who are trying to be against racism, recognize really that the history of this term, so when eugenicist classifies a racist, they i'm not racist. when jim crow segregationists
were charged with being racist, they said i'm not racist. an up-to-date even white nationalists are saying i'm not racist. no matter whether they are in the white house or planning the next mass shooting. >> then at 11 p.m. former defense secretary jim mattis recounts his military career and his thoughts on leadership. watch booktv every weekend on c-span2. >> this is the story of how this whole new economy was built, and i've always been really interested ever since i was working in washington, in how business and government interact with one another. they have an antagonistic relationship but also a collaborative relationship. the real story of american history is one of public-private partnership in many ways, in ways sometimes are unseen and so
this was, , the story is really get great way to get into that. >> university of washington history professor margaret o'mara discusses her book "the code" sunday night at eight eastern on c-span's q&a. >> we are live this point as members of use intelligence community are gathering for a daylong forum to discuss the role of u.s. space policy in intelligence gathering and emerging threats to national security. live coverage on c-span2. we expect it to start shortly. [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations]
[inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> members of the intelligence community are gathering today for a daylong forum to talk about the role of u.s. space policy and intelligence gathering and emerging threats to national security this is live coverage on c-span2. we expected to start in just a
[inaudible conversations] >> again, we're waiting for the start of this intelligence and national security summit being held in national harbor, maryland. it's expected to start in just a moment. yesterday the british house of commons debated and voted on a no deal brexit during that debate nickless solms was the grandson of winston churchill gave his thoughts on the brexit plan. >> thank you, mr. speaker.
i rise to support this bill but before i do so i want to make clear i've always believed the referendum result must be honored and, indeed, i voted for the agreement on every occasion that is being presented to the house. it is more the could be said that the prime minister, the leader now the member of adventists share disloyalty such an inspiration to so many of us. [laughing] mr. speaker i think history will in due course favorite that you articulate so clearly last night by my right honorable friend, the member from west yorkshire, a threat to commit an act of self harm if you can't fashion negotiation you are not doing exactly as you wish. it's not exactly like to be a successful negotiating strategy. the bill before the the house y is modest in its ambitions. it merely seeks to work avert e immediate risk of a disaster of a no brexit exit on the 31st
of october and is thereby seeks to give the government a further opportunity to achieve a resolution of this profound difficult issue. contrary to the prime minister's assertion, it does not deprive them of the ability or the other effectively to achieve negotiated settlement with the european union on the 17th of october. but it does ensure if he should fail as with his current demand i think he's also likely to do so then it will be time for him to rethink his remarks. mr. speaker, i'm not standing at the next election and -- >> what my right honorable friend except what i think is if you should not just for me but across the house, that would be a great loss? >> here here. [applause] >> i want to make sure everyone is awake out there. good morning. welcome to day number two of the intelligence and national security summit.