Skip to main content

tv   Hearing on Combating Hate Crimes  CSPAN  February 21, 2020 4:31pm-8:03pm EST

4:31 pm
america in their book tight rope. thereinterviewed by oregon democratic senator jeff merkley . >> the people in the small-town around america and the ruralareas around america , peopleare walking on a tight rope .and one miss and they fall. there's no safety net. >> over the last 50 years we have vastly overdone it and it's become kind of upset with this personal responsibility narrative, blaming the people who fall off the tight rope. for the catastrophes that follow. >> once afterwards sunday night at nine eastern on book tv. >> next hearing remembering the holocaust and marking the 75th anniversary of the liberation of auschwitz. the house oversight and reform committee heard from witnesses on waste to combat bigotry, discrimination and violence area this is 3 and a half hours.
4:32 pm
>> good morning, the committee will come to order. and without objection the chair is authorized to declare a recess of the committee at any time. with that i'll now recognize myself to give an opening statement. two days ago, the entire world came together to mark international holocaust remembrance day. in addition, 75 years ago this week, in january 1945 , the auschwitz broken out concentration camp was liberated from the nazis. it was one of the most infamous sites of the nazi genocide. more than 1 million people were murdered there. the purpose of today's hearing is to commemorate these brave anniversaries
4:33 pm
remember the nose we lost and to honor those who are still with us. but it is not enough to simply recognize these things, we must also contemplate what led to these atrocities.we must remember the lholocaust in order to help combat bigotry, hate and violence of all kinds today i am so pleased to have our distinguished panel here today . i have asked them to help us come together on today's solemn occasion, help us rise above issues that may divide us and help us unify our efforts around a common purpose of hope and inclusion. on this day of all days, i hope we can all do that. one issue we will discuss today is what we can do to ensure that future generations never forget the lessons of the holocaust. this may sound hard to believe but the pew research center recently issued a report finding that fewer than half of americans
4:34 pm
surveyed new how many jews were killed in the holocaust. another report found that only 38 percent of american teenagers surveyed new the nazis killed 6 million jews and only a third new that hitler was democratically elected. the best way i know to help people remember the holocaust is to hear firsthand on the people who went through it. we are very fortunate to have that opportunity today. in addition, the holocaust memorial museum just a few blocks from your comment is an outstanding and gripping institution. ocdedicated to remembering the holocaust in order to fight today. i am also pleased to announce that on monday, the house of representatives passed bipartisan legislation that 393 bills that i introduced and offered called but never again education.
4:35 pm
to give teachers additional resources to teach about the holocaust.i hope the senate will pass this bill and send it to the president as soon as possible. because the lessons of the past must inform our approach to fighting hate today. for example this morning we will hear testimony about the horrific shooting the tree of life synagogue. the most deadly assault against the jewish community in american history. after that, the massacre of a group of holocaust survivors, a volunteer in the holocaust museum road to the pittsburgh jewish community in solidarity . translating why they dedicated their lives to sharing the horrors they experience. they wrote and i quote, we seek to remind people especially young people our country's future leaders that he can never be ignored. complacency is dangerous.
4:36 pm
standing up and pushing back is the only way we can make a better future. ". unfortunately, there has been a sinister increase in hate crimes recently. not only against jewish communities but against african-americans . muslims, immigrants and others. and in november the fbi released data showing the highest number of reported violent crimes in the united states in exceeding years. the number of hate groups exploded to more than 1000 in 2018. this was a record high and a 30 percent increase over the past four years. to take just one example, when we watch the gruesome video footage of the neo-nazi attack in charlottesville, we see an excruciating detail the evil that still poisons our society to this day.
4:37 pm
i want all of our members to know that our committee is dedicated to fighting bigotry , hate and violence of all kinds. today's hearing which commemorates the 75th anniversary of the liberation of auschwitz now is one in a series we are holding on these issues in 116th congress. chairman raskin has held for hearings in the civil rights and civil liberties committee. to confront white supremacy religious persecution and our government's response. chairman lynch from the national security subcommittee has worked with chairman raskin to investigate the national security implications of these threats.ts going forward, we are planning additional hearings including one on voter suppression and minority communities, anti-muslim dissemination, anti-immigrant actions. and issues acing that lgbt community.
4:38 pm
i have been in touch with many of you over the past week and i hope you will come to me with any additional thoughts, ideas or proposals that you think are committees to take up as part of this series. we mark this day of remembrance just weeks after a recent spate of antioxidant attacks in new york city. including an attack at a rabbis hold during the festival of konica. it was heartening to participate in the solidarity march in new york, following these attacks and i hope we can work together with that same spirit of solidarity today. i now want to recognize ranking member jordan of the but before i do i want to thank him personally for his support of the holocaust never again education. thank you mister jordan and you are recognized. >> thank you for calling this hearing today and thank you to all of our witnesses for being with us today in your
4:39 pm
testimony. and i want to apologize on the front end, i have to head across to the other side of the capital here in a few minutes. there's a proceeding inthe senate has been going on for a couple of weeks . on monday we recognized the international holocaust remembrance day and the 75th anniversary of the liberation of auschwitz. we pause to remember the 6 million innocent lives taken by this evil area as vice president and said we have an obligation of remembrance to never let the memory of those who died in the holocaust be forgotten by anyone anywhere in the world. we must never forget the horrors of the holocaust and must always condemn anti-semitism in all its forms. i would like to dig a moment to recognize mister next shop year, witness who i just met here today with us is also himself holocaust survivor, it's an edincredible honor to have you with us today thank you againfor your testimony . one of the most important ways in which the united states forced the jewish people is through our unwavering support of the
4:40 pm
state of israel. since the formation of israel 1948 united states has had a special bond with the israeli people. since president trump took office for years ago, you made it his mission to strengthen this important bond. president trump has worked to ensure the whole world knows that the united states and stands firmly with the state of israel. president trump in just three years, in just three years here's what happened. recognize the long hikes as a part of israel. he has withdrawn from the failed iranian nuclear deal . he has taken decisive action to eliminate solomonic, one of the greatest terrorist threats in israel and the middle east. oppose the boycott divestment and section movement by those who want to diminish israel to issue an executive order anti-semitism on college campuses, around the united states and just yesterday , president trump released a groundbreaking peace plan. but maybe most importantly,
4:41 pm
president trump fills a decades-old promise to the people of israel and recognized in jerusalem as the capital of that state. past presidents have routinely made this promise to deliver 1976 former president carter ran on a platform that said we recognized and support the established status of jerusalem as the capital of israel, us should be moved from tel aviv to jerusalem and in 1993 president clinton jerusalem is still the capital of israel and in 2000 llbush said as soon as i take office i will move the us ambassador to the city of israel, it's chosen capital and in 2008, democratic nominee for president barack obama said jerusalem will be the capital of israel, i said before and i will say it again president from the promise last year. recognizing jerusalem as the capital of israel and officially moving up in the theater shows the israeli people they have the support of the united states of america. we should all be proud of this close friendship with israel and the people and the work that the president has
4:42 pm
done to solidify the relationship area as the committee continues to address the crimes we would be wise to listen to and learn from the testimony today. vacuum m chairwoman and i kneeled back. >> you very much and i like to recognize 2 of my colleagues, a representative lawrence and wasserman schultz. they are both founding members of the congressional caucus on black , jewish relations. miss lawrence. >> thank you chairwoman maloney for holding this hearing and drawing attention to the alarming rise in anti-semitic acts and hate crimes in the united states. i'm glad to see our community , committee will be using our oversight authority to find innovative ways for the government to combat anti-semitic and the rise in white supremacy analogy. last year, i formed the congressional caucus on black jewish relations. the two discuss the relationships between
4:43 pm
african-americans and jewish communities. also to highlight our shared story of combating racism, and how the two groups in this country and work together to combat a crimes moving forward. i sharedhistory of slavery and the holocaust . as given us a heightened sensitivity to hatred and to racism in our country. if you cochair for the cochairs of the caucus it is bipartisan, i represent it's john lewis, lee selden, wilford and my colleague tion this committee, debbie wasserman schultz area we are all committed to advancing the needs of these 2 communities area unfortunately anti-semitic acts have become far too prevalent in our society. since the beginning of 2020, already we are still, there's
4:44 pm
been at least three reported anti-somatic incidents in my inhome state of michigan and more than 25 across the united states. the last few years has seen a disturbing spike in anti-semitic attacks where more than 100 reported in 20 alone, according to the anti-defamation league. most recent audit of anti-somatic incidents, 857 percent increase over 2017. as local communities experience a substantial rise in hate crimes, the federal igovernment must assist state and local government and law enforcement entities to develop ways to combat a rise in identity -based hate crimes. this pattern of hate illustrates a disturbing trend in our country that must be reversed. hate filled anti-somatic acts
4:45 pm
will not be tolerated and i will not stand by idly as creditors of these senseless attacks seek to atsow your across our country. the first amendment gives all americans right to freedom of religion.will not allow, we will not allow that right to be hindered by asmall fraction . who use their awful agenda to spread hate and crimes. i look forward to working with the leadership of this amazing chairwoman's maloney of this committee, members of the caucus on black and jewish relations all the members of the congress and in the words of martin luther king injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. and i want to thank you again, madam chair for holding this hearing. >> iq. >> thank you madam chair, i had the gentlewoman for convening this important hearing. i served proudly as the first
4:46 pm
jewish woman to represent florida and the united states congress. and i just returned from israel and auschwitz birkenau with a bipartisan delegation led by speaker nancy pelosi for the 75th anniversary of his liberation . over 1 million men, women and children lost their lives at auschwitz birkenau alone. we walked train tracks that transported innocent people to captivity and the gas chambers and visiting this historic monument genocide, only reaffirmed for me that we cannot ignore the resurgence and hate that we see now. to live a moral imperative of never again, we must hold hearings like this and shine a light onbigotry and white supremacist ideology . it is important toó for this hearing the fight against anti-semitism and bigotry is about more than support for the state of israel. the story of the shallot must also be clear. the systematic mass
4:47 pm
extermination did not happen overnight. it began with a speech , harassment and attacks on vulnerable communities area as these symptoms reemerge, we must seek out. today, we will do that. we must also educate the american people by highlighting the amazing placements of persecuted communities in the united states. during important events like the upcoming black history month in february jewish american heritage month with we celebrate in may. l educating one another about our cultures, traditions and accomplishments when so many people across the country are unfamiliar with minority communities achievements and traditions is essential. do that if each of us think about it there are many of us who have populations of humanities and our own districts that are either tiny or minuscule and the first time that many members
4:48 pm
of congress interacts with a minority community is when they join the united states congress area that is why it's important to hold hearings like this one today madam chair i appreciate our ability to make sure that we can with our nation of every denial of one another's humanity. i want to thankthe panelists , especially for being here, for being in the fight every day to make sure that we continue to shine a spotlight and bigotry and hate in all its forms and i particularly want to thank my colleague and your friend congresswoman brenda lawrence for her leadership and vision to establish the congressional caucus on blackjewish relations and i'm proud to join her as a cochair of that organization and look forward to our workarea i yelled back . >> i welcome our witnesses . i recognize represented raskin to introduce our first distant with witness. >> thank you ma'am chair for
4:49 pm
calling this hearing and for giving me an opportunity to introduce to everyone a remarkable constituents from my district. ãfear. was a little boy in romania wwhen a policeman arrived to arrest him, his sister and his parents. to take them to a ghetto. for the crime of being jewish area astonishingly, remarkably, they survived the holocaust but mister safir lost 32 other family members to the genocidal war waged upon the jewish community of europe. since the holocaust and it, the civilized world as come together with one reverent, never again and yet we live in a time of resurgence authoritarianism, propaganda , conspiracy theory, mass psychological manipulation, human rights violation, anti-semitism, racism and religious persecution, fanaticism and violence. since yesterday the civil rights civil liberties subcommittee madam chair held a hearing on accelerating global religiouspersecution , taking place under the guise blasphemy, heresy and
4:50 pm
apostasy laws and ideological real education including the internment of millions of muslim leaders and the genocide against the road and get in burma. here at home, the last decade of dirty work by cambridge analytic and vladimir putin injecting racial and religious poison into the social media has helped to propagandize and activate the most dangerous and unstable elements of our society creating a wave white supremacist violence and terror against synagogues, churches t, jews in their homes, systemic walmart and anyone the outsider. we got to get a hold on the convergence of rising white supremacist violence and off the charts gun violence. we must continue to pressure the federal government as we been doing in this committee to devise a strategic plan to combat the rise of violent white supremacy and domestic
4:51 pm
terror here in the united states. today we can focus on mister shafir whose resilience is a lesson to all americans in these dark times. last year at 82, remarkably he became the only holocaust survivor known ever to scale mount kilimanjaro, a feat accomplished by keeping in mind the words his father spoke to him in the holocaust : never give up. we are honored by mister shafir's presence. >> thank you for the introduction and we are honored to have you mister shafir and congratulations. we look forward to your testimony. we are also fortunate to have brad orsini, he is the senior national security advisor for the secure community network and former director of community security for the jewish federation of greater pittsburgh area i want to thank represented doyle for his assistance in putting us in touch with him and we look
4:52 pm
forward to his testimony and mrs. doyle may be able to join us later, he had a conflict right now. we also welcome doctor edna friedberg, he is a historian for the united states holocaust memorial museum. jonathan greenblatt is the chief executive officer for the anti-defamation league and hillary shelton is the director of the washington bureau and senior vice president for advocacy and policy for the national association for the advancement ofcolored people . we also welcome ambassador doreen gold, he is the president of the jerusalem center for public affairs and the former israeli ambassador to the united nations. the former director general of the israel ministry of foreign affairs. so if you would all rise and raise your right hand i will begin by swearing you din .
4:53 pm
do you swear to affirm that the testimony you are about to give is the truth, whole truth and nothing but the truth so help you god? let the record show that the witnesses answered in the affirmative. thank you and be seated. microphones are very sensitive so please directly into them. and without objection, your statement will be made partof the record and with that , mister shafir you are recognized for five minutes for your opening statement area. >> thank you thank you chairwoman, ranking member. and congresspeople. i'm honored to be here today and share with you a little bit about personal experience. >> pulled the microphone a little closer to you so we can hear better . thank you.>> i'm honored to be here, i'll share with you a little bit of my personal experience as to what happened to me and my family during the holocaust years
4:54 pm
area in 1924, my father established a farm in the northeastern partof romania . for 18 years, he and my mother worked the farm. my two sisters and myself were born there. i went to kindergarten, i started first grade. everything was okay on the farm for a child in particular. one of our neighbors was a priest who used to come by once a week to ask my father for a donation to the church and also some products for congregants that would otherwise afford it. in 18 years my father never once refused dietary records. one day in november 1942 the same priest showed up. however this time he edshowed up with an armed police officer and two armed guard soldiers,also armed . he did not know why that happened this time so we all
4:55 pm
went out to find out what was going on. when we came close to the priest, he was looking at a police officer pointing at us and saying these are jews. so we were turned into the authorities by a priest. the police officer stepped forward and said to us we have 4 hours to vacate the farm because he has ordered to relocate us in a different part of the city. now, at this point my father and mother both tried to convince him perhaps he can forget the order for relocating us but that didn't help. at this point we also know that where we were going because in 1941 the ghetto of diaz was established earlier. after four hours were over we came into the house, we pack whatever valuables we had and when the four hours were over the policeman told us it is time for us to leave and we were escorted to the ghetto. once we arrived there, we were turned over to the ghetto police where we received our orientation what
4:56 pm
we can and cannot do, mostly things we were not able to do nor were able to go to school, jewish people could no longer dissipate in public prayer. while we were there we were given ration cards and also the same time were given five yellow star for the word you gone on it which means you that we had to wear constantly on our left lookout. every man through the ages of 18 and 15 would be going to war on a daily basis. my father's job was to sweep the streets in the summertime and shovel the snow in the wintertime and clean the market area. my mother was all the way in the hospital .at this point, ewe didn't know what we can do to survive early because there was a certain mode of survival if we tried to constantly focus on. my thought is to go to work on a daily basis, then one
4:57 pm
day in 1943, in june 1943 a big sign was posted in the ghetto area that said any individual mail in particular between the ages of 18 and 15 assembled at the yard or the main ghetto square and bring extra clothing if they had any. the night before, my father was to be assembled, he didn't sleep that day, that night area the next morning they cried but didn't know when or if we were going to see our father again. the last minute before he left i asked my father if it's okay for me to walk with him efthrough the assembled area, he agreed. we walked hand-in-hand until we got to the area that he was supposed to be assembling and at that point he did not say anything to each other. we just held on tight. when we left the assembled
4:58 pm
area my father said matt, it's time for you to go back and he turned to me with both his hands on my shoulders and said five words to me orthese five words will remain with me the rest of my life . he said matt, take care of the girls. and at this point i am seven years old. you cannot imagine the pressure that puts on a seven-year-old boy. i could have told him i will try, i'll do my best but i didn't. what i said, i'll take care of the girls pop, i will. from that point in no matter how hard it was for me personally and how easy it was for me to give up i couldn't because i promised my father i will take care of the girls . the same day that day my father was chips to a forced labor camp. we didn't hear from him for many, many months .
4:59 pm
while he was away, i tried to do my best to get our family to survive so one of the things that we received in the ghetto was the ration edcards, ration cards were primarily for bread which allowed us to receive a quarter of a local bread per person every two days and five liters of kerosene area to receive these rations we had to walk out of theghetto . since i was, since my sister mwas two years older than me my fatherwould send out my sister to get his ration card , his rations and so one day he found out that some of the hooligans have taken jewish girls area from that point on we start incoming me out to get theserations . the same hooligans also picked on julie's voice many times i would come home , beat up, bloodied face. but that never hurt so much as it did when they took away my bread for the two days we
5:00 pm
had nothing to eat. my when my brother realized what happened for the first time, she also realized this would happen again and from that point on she started ration us from our own rations tried to save a little bit every time they receive .rations. this went on for a while. >> ..
5:01 pm
when he said to somebody you look like a walking skeleton or skin and bones that's pretty much what he looked like. the red cross came in and said the conditions people were in immediately put them on chips and to them to sweden to recuperate. to uncles unfortunately did not make it to sweden. he died on the way and was buried at sea. one did survive. he was in a sanitarium and the hospital for four years to gain weight and get his health back. eventually he emigrated to united states. they were liberated by the
5:02 pm
russians in the early summer of 1945. we never heard from my father what happened. once you were liberated the ripple to go back to school however the sentiment was still strong under the communist regime. it in 1945 my father was able to come back to us and in 1947 he realized that there was no longer future for jewish people in romania and decided to leave. the only country that would accept refugees at that time was palestine. he applied for an exit visa from the authorities and every time they apply to leave the country he received a return reply denied. he tried for two years and eventually my mother was able to bribe officials in charge of giving up the pieces and a 1950 he received a visa to leave for
5:03 pm
israel. in the meantime i lived in israel for 10 years. i served in an elite unit of the army. i married. i had five children and 12 grandchildren. all of my children and grandchildren are named for one of these people murdered by the nazis. i thank you for listening. appreciate it. >> thank you so much for sharing your story. we will now hear from mr. orsini snag chairwoman maloney ranking member jordan distinguished members of the committee thank you for giving me the opportunity to address you on this very important january 2017 i retired after 32 years of federal government service for years in the united states frank orr and in 28 years of special agent of the fbi today joined the jewish federation pittsburgh and i developed a security program is the first security director. the first synagogue everth visid
5:04 pm
i asked if they receive hate mail. the answer was instantly yes. i then asked them what do you do at with that hate mail? he said they throw it away. that would not be the first time i heard that. from that point on her goal was to conduct an awareness campaign stressing the importance of reporting every sign of hate and provide the tools necessary for community to build the conscious security. we followed to see something say something model and we requested our community to commit to action. over the next 18 months until october 27, 2018 the pittsburgh community continue to experience anti-semitism on a routine basis however thised time our communiy started to report incidents. we would no longer nor any sign of hate and encouraged our community not only in pittsburgh but all over the country to report every incident. in pittsburgh we developed a program that was based on three prongs, to keep our a people sa.
5:05 pm
the first prong was assessment of our organization and the building which leads to target hardening and the development of emergency operation plans. number two constant training and drills for people in three threat mitigation and a way to facilitate action from law enforcement. we fully understand what happened on october 27 w he need to the missions are committed to took regarding our communal program. several measures outlined for foley in my written statement and to help numerous people survive, to get out in to help others and protect themselves and get to safety. unfortunately we still lost 11 lives that day. our communal security program prior to october 27 trained over 6000 people in this burg in various security protocols to include stop the lead training and the act of shooting training could we have taken and used daily survival testimonials to
5:06 pm
train all of the country to demonstrate why people live that day in the importance of training. simply stating training help minimize loss of life and it sure did that day. it's unfortunate we have to teach our jewish community and prepare our community to live three to five minutes prior to law enforcement responding to various training protocols. two other very important training initiatives that to ways involve the pittsburgh police department first is our holocaust initiative for aware of rep pittsburgh police officer spends four hours of the holocaust center in pittsburgh prior to graduating to the police academy. secondly the pittsburgh police department started and initiated a rescue task force on 1027 he was the first time the task force was deployed and we have a trauma surgeon rendering lifesaving first aid in the building while the shooting was going on. when on. when it comes to tracking anti-semitism and threat mitigation we partnered with the
5:07 pm
fbi. this has been instrumental and import relationship between the community and law enforcement producing as we received any anti-semitic threats for any platform from her committee we were purported to our virtual command center which is linked to the fbi. they see everything we do in real-time and track assess and mitigate the threat. on october 27, 2010 or community witnessed the deadliest anti-semitic attacks in our nations history. the shootings had a profound impact on jewish people across the country. pittsburgher communal efforts prior to the shooting were focused on prepared mr. awareness and education. not everybody in the community that it was necessary to prepare to take an active role in their own security. that's solely up to law enforcement in the nor did issues and the rise in anti-semitic and 70. after the shooting that will change. not only change pittsburgh but jewish communities across the
5:08 pm
country will never forget through that horrific crime scene on october 27 and witnessing destruction that one man caused because of anti-semitism but i'm certain that those who were in that building that day including our community members as well as first responders will never forget those images as well. people were murdered simply because they gather to pray. for countless number of people that image will never be erased. it cannot nor will it ever be forgotten. we need to build strong resilient jewish community. i have now spent over 35 years in my professional career protecting the country and the jewish community. an absolute honor to serve the jewish people and i continue to spend the rest of my professional career working to protect the jewish and other faith-based communities. thank you for your attention i look forward to answering any questions you may have. >> thank you so much. mr. jonathan greenblat.
5:09 pm
senate good morning chairman maloney. i want to thank you and all the distinguished members of this committee. good morning chairwoman maloney and all the distinguished members of the committee on behalf of adl and to share perspective is a privilege to be here along with such a distinguished panel but i want toto particularly honor mr. shaffir and your strength and courage which is an inspiration to all of us but i'm feeling particularly moved because i just returned from the world holocaust memorial in jerusalem where more than 45 world leaders recommitted themselves addressing hate it is a pleasure to see a bipartisan delegation from congress there including congresswoman wasserman schultz. i also want to give a special thanks to you chairman maloney for leading passage of the never get education act in the house this week at adl already is working on the 11 states that mandate holocaust education genocide education in the public school curriculum.
5:10 pm
when i was a boy i could ask my grandfather who was a refugee from germany what it was like. i could speak to people in my synagogue in bridgeport connecticut and my community that survived but that's no longer the case. as time passes memory fades. refuse -- the pew study last week released current -- adl poll determined only an estimated 54% of the entire world population that is even heard about the holocaust and others think it's just not important. the survey that adl released this morning reported 19% of american adults say quote jewish people still talk too much about the holocaust. this at a time when hate crimes are up, when violence is up against jewish and otherp
5:11 pm
religious minorities and other marginalized communities. a college football coach defending hitler did trooper cadets in wisconsin snapping salutes to activists in chicago getting booted out of the pride march because they carried a flag during a jewish simple -- symbol. harassment in the subway in manhattan or assaulted in broad daylight in brooklyn. incidents of anti-semitism are up at adl's most recent audit has recorded more than 1800 anti-jewish acts of 20 teen the third-highest total we have ever tracked in 40 years. the hate is getting more violent. not just against thehe jewish bt against all minority groups from charlottesville to pittsburgh to el paso from jersey city to muncy. extremists feel emboldened in this environment to act out their hate.
5:12 pm
it might surprise you as early as anti-semitism is the increased incidents are happening against the backdrop of steady low-level anti-semitic attitudes among the general population. why is that? first we have leading voices in our nation who are normalizing anti-semitism who are making hate routine. they are using anti-semitic tropes about globalist controlling government of bankers destroying our government and jewish attacking the jewish state that the same myths they used to demonize the jewish people and all of this be stigmatized as anti-semitism. all of this renters and tolerance routine. second the internet and social media and on line game environments are spawning and spreading hate particularly holocaust denial the original fake news with nearly 2.5 million members facebook is the
5:13 pm
largest and most established of these defenders. the policy still don't classify holocaust denial is hate speech. youtube has made some progress but not early enough. just as the market leaders have used ingenuity and innovation to reinvent media and build billion-dollar brands they now need to apply the same capabilities to remove hate from their platform and build stronger better societies but that made conclude this key recommendations the number one leaders must speak out against hate at every opportunity. number two social media platforms must act more responsibly and banned holocaust denial for what it is, unacceptable. number three the never get education act must become law. number four congress to pass the no hate act up tude 2019 despite hate crime training intervention to number five congress should fully fund the nonprofit grant programs to protect all at risk
5:14 pm
non-profits and specifically faith-based institutions and finally we would implore congress to pass the domestic terrorism prevention act to show the federal government is a properly allocating resources to the threat of white supremacy and radical extremism today. i applaud the leadership of this and mrs. chairwoman thank you for the opportunity to be here and i look forward to your questions. >> members of this committee thank you for asking me here today to discuss the topic is crucial to the naacpcu and all e individuals families neighborhoods and communities we serve and represent as well as our nation as a whole. the growth of white nationalism and white supremacy in america you are to be recommended as leaders in your community as was reflected in the nearly unanimous passage of one of the first acts of the hundred 16 congress that is of age rest 41
5:15 pm
the revelation rejecting white nationalism and white supremacy inwh america in the preamble to our associations constitution the naacp is sworn to continue to fight for justice without regard to race and gender creed or religion to enjoy equal status. short we were founded as an antithesis of a white nationalism and white supremacy in members and followers of naacp have continued to this day to oppose this ideal of equal opportunity and equal protection of the law. it is not an easy path however and we continue to face challenges. i've threat history white supremacists have espoused to the detriment of many others of their race and ethnicity religion point of national origin or family background. as we all know white supremacy can lead to a tragedy such as genocide of native americans the holocaust slavery lynching segregation and a whole host of
5:16 pm
other horrors. we successfully fought back against some of these s terrors the loss that the hate crime matthew shepard hate crimes prevention act yet wesh can and should do more. we must be ever vigilant. to begin naacp strongly supports a bipartisan bicameral national opposition to hate assaults and threat to equalityio act. this important legislation addresses the problems of underreporting to the fbi under the hatend crimes citizens accet allows courts to require the defendant participate in educational programs for community services as a condition of supervised release. we must also address the problems associated with on line hate yet i'm quick to note a word of caution. the hate speech and first amendment rights of free speech is extremely narrow. the stronglyth endorses the domestic. harris: read this legislation
5:17 pm
would have the federal government's efforts to prevent domestic terrorism by requiring federal law enforcement agencies to regularly assess the threat posed by white supremacists and other violent offenders and take concrete steps to address this threat. we also strongly supported enactment of the emmett till anti-lynching act. the legislation would make lynching a federal hate crime therefore eligible for additional tools needed in local communities and resources used to investigate an prosecute these heinous crimes. the naacp endorses legislation which was just introduced yesterday in the other body. the justice for victims of hate crimes act which would make it easier to prosecute hate crimes. finally i cannot emphasize this strongly enough we need to boost the education of our youth and the horrors of the genocide of native americans the holocaust slavery lynching and all other acts of terror that white nationalism white supremacy has
5:18 pm
brought upon us as a nation in the sewer project out to do so would be a crime in and of itself an insult to our ancestors who have struggled and died to address these concerns. we enter member mired from the past so it is never repeated. i set the i beginning of my testimony the leaders of this community we commend you for the great work you do and reject white tassels and white supremacy yet we do have political leaders who talk about racially -- white nasa's white supremacist western civilization how did that language become offensive? they make statements such as you also have people that are very fine people on both sides of the august 2017 charlotte l. demonstration that resulted in a violent confrontation between a group of neo-nazis against social justice advocates supporting diversity throughout a nation and equal opportunity for all americans.
5:19 pm
this led to the death of heathes heyer. there is an obvious need for more research understanding reflection in education. we thank you again for inviting me here today and for your interest in the use of naacp and i look forward to answering any questions during this presentation. tonight thank you. ambassador gold. >> madam chairwoman, ranking member jordan thank you for your invitation. i have been an israeli citizen and an israeli diplomat and i have two have been in washington yesterday because of the ceremonies that occurred in the white house where the united states issued a new peace plan for the middleed east but i was very glad to join you here and
5:20 pm
express some of my conclusions on this issue. this hearing was conceived to deal with three interrelated issues. first commemorating the 75th anniversary of the liberation of auschwitz at the end of world war ii. secondnd we are using this momet to consider the rise of anti-semitism in recent years especially in states that fought the evil ofsm nazism which is wy it is so particularly disturbing. these are states that are at the center of our current civilization. when anti-semitism is rising in france, germany written in the united states you have to pay attentionat and perhaps ways we wouldn't otherwise. and finally we consider what the legacy of auschwitz requires
5:21 pm
from us today. i have served in multiple diplomatic positions for the state of israel including ambassador to the united nations , as director general for the ministry of foreign affairs. wherever i was posted the holocaust was a national disaster that we the representatives of the reborn jewish state could never forget. during my tenure as director general and coming for a dialogue with the chairman government we took time off to visit the outskirts of her lynn and the fella where senior ss officers like the infamous reinhart heidrick convened a meeting in january of 1942 to plan a final --of the jews of europe it was here that a plan was conceived for the jews of
5:22 pm
chairman occupied europe that included the building of auschwitz. as in many historical sites that were preserved he had a guestbook which i was asked to sign. what do you write in such an look at such a location? have a nice day? with the burden of our history and my shoulders i wrote a short comment. i wrote quote we would never allow anyone to do this to us again unquote. i remember in the course of world war ii 6 million jews works are made by the germans in an auschwitz alone 960,000 jews were killed. auschwitz was located in the eastern part of the empire.
5:23 pm
that meant it was vulnerable first and foremost to the red army along the eastern front. the chairman determination to complete their mission of extermination despite the advances of the russians caused the germans to transfer the inmates from auschwitz to other concentration camps further west and within the borders of the chairman state. that is what led jews from auschwitz to bergen-belsen on forced marches during the frigid winters of northern europe. ann frank and her sister margot removed in this way were they both died. on a personal note my mother-in-law and her sister mr. mr. were relocated from auschwitz bergen-belsen with
5:24 pm
thousands of others. five days after the british army liberated bergen-belsen the bbc reporter named richard dimbleby entered the camp and recorded the jewished prisoners rising up with their frail bodies on a friday night and breaking into the hebrew song which means the hope. they were minding the world that there hope was 2000 years old and dated back to when the jews live as free people in their own land. it wasan time for them to go ho. that's what they were saying. it became the national anthem of the state of israel. modern israel's committed to fighting anti-semitism and defending jews worldwide.
5:25 pm
went to the anti-semitism is not just active in venezuela or in remote areas of yemen, it is being revived in the heart of western civilization in france, the united kingdom and germany as well as the u.s. and canada. this new wave of anti-semitism can be fought with legal tools and with education. anti-semitic incitement can have lethal consequences. we ask our allies in the west to stand firm and help us vanquish hate speech and vanquish this phenomenon before it gains further strength. i want to close with an observation as a former diplomat we have a very important tool to fight this. inin 1948, the international
5:26 pm
community signed the genocide convention and the genocide convention contained a specific clause outlawing incitement to genocide. when the iranian leadership spokera about wiping israel off the map. we convened a group of international legal scholars to look into whether they had crossed the line of incitement to genocide. when i was in rwanda with the ministry of foreign affairs and met with their minister of foreign affairs anyone who reads about the rwanda genocide will find that insight meant that genocide was a key component. it was a warning signal that something is about to happen. if we sharpen these tools and if
5:27 pm
we actually use them and not just read them in textbooks at law schools i believe we can take at it measures to narrow, to constrain the use of hate speech and we can also combat direct with the phenomenon, the spreading of anti-semitism and other forms of hatred that are occurring today. thank you. >> thank you very much. dr. edna friedberg. >> good morning. thank you madam chair for your leadership and service of holocaust memory and education for having me here today. when i became a holocaust historian more than 20 years ago i thought i was dealing only with the past. i was so naïve. over the course of my career i
5:28 pm
have seen the voracity of holocaust questions. i have seen the very language and symbols of the nazis resurrected in new racist attacks and other witnesses have testified today we are experiencing a resurgence in anti-semitic violence in speech and racists of all types feel emboldened. you don't need to be jewish to be seriously alarmed by the nature of this trend. as a historian i can testify unequivocally that whenever anti-semitism was expressed publicly and without shame in entire society is at risk. it's ann indicator poor health f a society. the holocaust did not begin with gas chambers. started with words with racist cartoons, with children's books and boys to bels afraid of their jewish neighbors with posters that portrayed jewish man as rapist threatening blond women and girls.
5:29 pm
hitler was obsessed with race long before coming chancellor of germany. his speeches and writings by his belief that the world was engaged in endless struggle and when the nazis came to power these police became government ideology and were spread in posters radio, movies classrooms and newspapers. they also served as the basis for a campaign to reorder chairman society first to the exclusion of jews through public life and is well the systematic rigor of germans with mental and physical disabilities. let's remember the nazis did not seek power through military coup or revolution. they rose as part of a power-sharing agreement in a fledgling democracy. in order to make jewish persecution palatable not be propagandist branded jews is a biological trepid governorate sponsored racist propaganda is announced sub 20s aliens and parasites and said they were
5:30 pm
responsible for germany's cultural political and economic degeneration. these words had enormous effect creating anal environment for persecution and violence were not only acceptable but an imperative. propagandist builds on the fisting stereotypes to directly link sebomana the spread of disease like vermin. as part of their campaign leaders implemented so-called hygiene policies to protect non- jews. for example in occupied poland germany reinforced its policy of confronting jews to urban prison zones known as ghettos by portraying jews is a health threat requiring quarantine. this approach was a self-fulfilling prophecy or by depriving the hundreds of thousands of human beings in prison in these ghettos with food water sanitation and medical care the nazis created a disease population.
5:31 pm
chairman propaganda films were shown to schoolchildren characterizing a jew as a carrier of lice and typhus like rats. the site and even seemingly admiring the positive stereotypes about jews that they were smarter than other people good with money well connected are powerful fees to draw on much older anti-semitic conspiracy theories about global jewish domination of the nazis and folks links between jews and communism to allege that jews were war mongers. similar accusations are currently leveled regularly against prominent jews round the world. in our own country during the era celebrated americans like henry ford and charles lindbergh spread anti-jewish propaganda and characterized american jews is an enemy element that threatened the united states interest. in august 2017 white nationalists carried torches to
5:32 pm
charlottesville virginia to invoke the racist legacy of germany. in a charged context it signaled violence and destruction. the regime began by carrying torches and parades and rallies and by 1938 burning buildings and torah scrolls. eventually burned the bodies of millions of human beings. the very word holocaust derives from the greek meaning sacrificed by fire. marching with torches in the american south has an additional more specific resonance of fire bombs and lynchings. unlike in germany our country today has checks and balances to prevent racist violence from dominating our streets. the torches carried during a nighttime march in an american university town two years ago deliberately echoed an earlier races and murderous era.
5:33 pm
in closing hate speech and violence against jews are canaries in the coal mine to the health and democracy of civil society. a government that does not confront them does so at its own peril. my teenage nephew exasperated once asked me why can't jews ever stop talking about the holocaust and speaking as the daughter of a survivor i had to take a deep rest before answered him. his question was really why do we study the holocaust? why? because it's an documented crime in human history when driven by genocidal racism. but he gets warning signs. thank you. >> i want to thank all of the witnesses today for their very moving and important testimony and i want to thank all of you for appearing here today. i would like to beging my questions with mr. shaffir. we are very honored to have you
5:34 pm
here today and i was deeply moved by your testimony. you and your family have suffered an incredible loss and show incredible courage. i know that testifying today must be very difficult for you. i want to ask you given how difficult it is for you to relive this t pain why did you agree to come here and to tell your story? why is it so important to you that other people hear this story? >> we need to share this historic tragedy. it is possible for people to remember the sum of them probably will forget whate happened and how many millions of innocent people were killed because they were jews. if i don't speak out, if i don't share myea information i only he myself to blame because i
5:35 pm
haven't shared my information. that's one of the reasons i am here to share the information as best i can. >> is there a single message you would hope to convey to the american public for any who are watching on television many of whom are young -- members of the younger generation? a with a key message be you would like to convey to them? >> the message i would like to convey is if i can summarize that into words, to powerful words, speakak out. important that you do not remain silent. >> on monday this of this week we passed overwhelmingly bipartisan legislation to provide additional funding to give students the opportunity to learn from people like you and to hear from survivors. this bill would also expand the educational program of the holocaust. i understand that you work at
5:36 pm
the holocaust museum, set recollects. >> i have been there forre 10 years. i give tours to law enforcement agencies tried to teach what happened and make sure things like this never happen again. >> could you tell us why these education programs at the museum are so important to t help educe future generations could. >> in the 1930s and 40s we had one common enemy and that was hitler. today unfortunately all of us, many of us are dying out that i'm one of the younger ones and i'm 83 years old. i don't know how long i can live so we don't tell the story. obviously we need to educate young people. right now i still have my voice. once i'm gone i need the next generation to be our voices. >> what do you think it's so important that our nationyo remember the lessons of the holocaust? think it's so important that we
5:37 pm
don't forget about it. but it's not manufactured or ignored or alteredan? >> if you don't remember the past or future won't look very bright. unfortunately for hebrew letters the horror has twoor meanings oe remembertw and one don't forget. remember the atrocities committed against innocent people. don't forget all these who perished. we need to remember all these things and pass on to our children and grandchildren so they will not forget you. >> i want to thank you for yourk very moving testimony and you know better than any of us what can happen when hate is allowed to flourish. as her committee continues to examine the threat of white supremacy in the weeks and
5:38 pm
months with the other hearings we have scheduled we are fortunate to have your perspective and we are very grateful for your time and your testimony. thank you. i will now recognize jody hice for questions. >> thank you madam chair and thank you to each of our witnesses for being here today. ambassador gold i want to begin with you. during this past the sober democratic debate presidential candidate bernie sanders stated that in his opinion the u.s. should quote leverage military aid toev israel in order to manufacture changes to israeli domestic policy specifically as it relates to gaza. he was saying we need to withhold funds for that. do you believe that kind of action would be helpful?
5:39 pm
>> it's not interest to jump into american domestic politics but at the same time one has to understand what is in gaza. what is in gaza today are people who are miserable, who have been taken over by one of the most hateful organizations on earth. it'se called how boston that has allies like islamic jihad and other salafist groups. putting leverage on israel is mixing up the fireman with the fire and will not produce a more stable outcome. i want to say that i am very optimistic if about it as a whole and there are herbst states the see eye-to-eye with israel about the need to extinguish hatred, the need to work together to build a better
5:40 pm
region and we are seeing evidence for the first time senior arab diplomats who will go to poland and visit auschwitz that's something that didn't happen before. >> a situation it didn't create. >> i agree and the bottom line of trenches it would not be helpful to withhold aid to israel. madam chair with ask unanimous request that this article about those comments be submitted to the record. >> thank you very much. by the way i believe this is a quid pro quo. we will provide this money, provided israel make some changes and it's interesting to me who that came from is really what they -- many of my
5:41 pm
colleagues at and claiming is an impeachable offense in itself. mr. greenblat let me go deeper this past weekend this past weekend a member of this very committee tweeted and unsubstantiated claim that israelis kidnapped and killed a 7-year-old palestinian boy. you confronted this claim on twitter as a vicious lie mcadoo also called it blood libel and of course the incident was proven false. the words themselves i suppose are not necessarily anti-semitic but indirectly they certainly are. they were unsubstantiated. they were reckless. they were troubling and they were proven false. do you believe these comments are at all helpful? >> congressman thank you for the
5:42 pm
question. the blood libel, the accusation that jews are responsible for the murder of children, gentile non-jewish children christian and muslim have followed jews first century's greatest venues to demonize them. it's been used as the basis for persecution, for slaughter literally going back almost 1000 years to england in medieval times.s. so as the head of the adl and organization that's been fighting anti-semitism for over 100 years i will call out accusations like a blood libel whenever and wherever they happen. i think it's important to note that the use of applied -- blood libel in these anti-semitic slurs we shouldn't use them as political or partisan weapons. i will call it out whoever says that, whenever it happens on the
5:43 pm
basis of the facts that hate is unacceptable. time went anti-semitic incidents are on the rise and i spend a fair amount of energy paying respects to the victims of hate crimes in pittsburgh and san diego in new jersey, new york. anyone on either side who engages in that kind of behavior. >> madam chairman i would ask to be added to mr. greenblat's replied to an accusation in the article. i yield. >> tom malinowski is a member of our delegation. without objection the gentleman from new jersey will be added to the panel. thank you. now i recognize the gentleman from the district of columbia mrs. eleanor holmes from norton for questions. >> i want to thank you
5:44 pm
especially for holding this hearing on the 75th anniversary of the liberation of auschwitz and i particularly thank the witnesses who have appeared today. i want to say shelton that i think was perfectly appropriate to have a high representative of the naacp on this panel. first to indicate that hate appears too be on the rise but t would help of the sun is that if you find someone who hates jews you will also find that he hates african-americans. we perhaps canan understand the latest fbi statistics. the most frequently targeted group for hate offenses are african-americans.
5:45 pm
47% of hate offenses are motivated i raise or ethnicity or ancestry. that made eve because they are identified by those characteristics. perhaps in recent times the most -- of the hate crimes was the dylann roof destruction of the church a historic african-american church in south carolina the oldest church in the south during bible study. i don't nofi chose the church and the time but the symbolism cannot be lost on any of us. i am concerned with the increase of anti-semitism and where in the world is a come from?
5:46 pm
mr. shelton do you see a relationship between an increased and anti-semitic, anti-semitic attacks and the increase i just spoke of, the increase in hate offenses motivated by race or ethnicity? >> absolutely. the ideology shared with those who committed these horrific crimes is so very similar. as a matter-of-fact as we listen to those who made presentations about various experiences of the jewish community i sat there checking out fox is of the same strategies often utilized against african-americans whether it's vilifying african-american -- they are all going to be racist -- at as well use heard the same stories told and that jewish men in the ghettos and certain language is very similar. we are seeing an increase in the
5:47 pm
same organizations that hate african-americans and jewish americans and anglo-saxon caring for the ideologies of the third reich. the similarities are clearly there. as we look at the hate crime data shared with us by the justice department making sure we have categorically covered all the various and the increases are consistent d regardless and certainly the experiences of the african-american people are similar to the jewish community. >> mr. greenblat there has been a long special relationship between american jews and african-americans. in fact the only ones who have consistently been vocal and active are in the civil rights movement and with respect to matters having nothing to do with themselves but on race alone have an american jews.
5:48 pm
that relationship is long even to the founding of the naacp itself where -- could i ask you in light of your own work went has the anti-defamation league found about threats and increases, threats and violence against african-americans that you spoke of end of the relationship and what do you think can be done about the rise of anti-semitism and racist attacks going on at the same time?at >> i think first and foremost i would agree in a force we separate the relationship between jewish americans and african-americans is long and deep. there's a shared history of suffering. there's a shared history of
5:49 pm
diaspra if you will and if the holocaust was the pivotal moment of the jewish experience so was enslavement a pivotal moment for afghan americans in a shared something to the critical success we have had together. i'm proud of the at-bat then s.b. they had of the adl in the 50s and sissies stood in march with dr. king in selma and i'm proud of the fact we filed a brown v. education and i'm proud that we were today on so many issues together. make no mistake from charleston to charlottesville to pittsburgh aired as a through line of white supremacy is a violent threat against all marginalized groups in the people as my colleague hillary said who hate jews also hate african-americans simply because they and weme are
5:50 pm
different from their majority area and view. now there's a lot more work to be done. i would commend congresswoman wash them in schultz for starting the bipartisan caucus on jewish relations would have the privilege of addressing a group of black and jewish legislators with my friend derek johnson of the naacp. there is so much more work to do at adl we were founded after jewish man was lynched in 1913. he was lynched after having been falsely accused of a crime essentially a a blood libel murdering a christian girl but i would note is that when that man was lynched the founders of adl wrote a charter to the organization and in it are the uses theirill mission statement today. what they wrote was this organizational quote stop the defamation of the jewish people and secure justice and fair treatment to all.
5:51 pm
spare the gentleman's time has expired. >> all to say you can expect american -- defend american jews unlessen you defend all america. i recognize therw gentleman from -- gentlewoman from north carolina representative virginia foxx. >> thank you very much and i want to thank the witnesses for being here today. i don't think it's possible that we can overstate the tragedy of the holocaust. i just don't think it's possible that we can do that. any kind of hate is unacceptable. any kind of discrimination is unacceptable. i believe that's how the people on my side of the aisle feel and we feel it everyday and express it everyday. i want to say having hearings and reminding people of what has
5:52 pm
happened is appropriate for us to do. mr. greenblat on december 11, 2019 president trump signed an executive order to combat anti-semitism on college campuses. does the adl supportrt this ord? >> congresswoman thank you for the question for the second order the president signed into law was based on a bipartisan piece of legislation the anti-semitism awareness act that we indeed did support. that i should note the anti-semitism awareness act was based on rulings became out of the education department under presidents bush and president obama and indeed i think the executive order is a definition of the holocaust of definition of anti-semitism developed by academics from a number of different countries. we do support it. >> i just made a simple yes or no. >> yes of course. >> thank you and thank you very much for that.
5:53 pm
ambassador gold simon wiesenthal -- worst instances of anti-israel incidents. unfortunately anti-semitism is still alive and well. in december we have all spoken about or mentioned the numerousa attacks against jews during the hanukkah season. do you believe in no the number of anti-semitic attacks is on the rise had do you believe social media platforms have provided greater access for people to spread anti-semitism? >> i'm completely aware that the number of anti-semitic incidents around the world is on the rise. i'm also aware that as much as social media platforms can be
5:54 pm
great vehicles for education and mutual awareness. they are also being used by some of the most vile organizations in the world to spread hatred. the tension between free speech and incitement to killing is a real tension that lawyers and scholars have to work out. israel is a democratic society in the united states as a democratic society and we cherish our democracy and free speech but we cannot divide a vehicle that allows the spread of hatred. at my center that i now run we have been examining how the internet is used by radical
5:55 pm
islamic organizations particularly in canada and they are spreading anti-semitism. we have found a way and are representative canada has found a way of representing this information to the canadian authorities. you have to use, you have to use your legal system to combat this and you have to shine your flashlight on where this is coming from. >> i have another question for you. our white neo-nazis the only ones pushing the effects and were a ceci hop at the the of anti-semitism? you just mentioned canada and is the heir to say that anti-semitism is prevalent across all races and genders? >> i believe it's evident among all races and all genders.
5:56 pm
it has to be fought in combat in regardless of its point of origin. >> i asked about do you see how that's any mentioned canada. are there other hot heads of anti-semitism that your group has recognized and that we should be aware of? >> we have done a lot of work on the united kingdom in britain and there are real serious problems of anti-semitism. we have seen it enter into parliamentary life in the uk which to the horror of all of us as we look at britain as a beacon of democracy. there's a lot of work to be done worldwide. >> let me assure you that i come from north carolina and country where we have great reverence for the people of israel and for all jews. as you know most christians feel
5:57 pm
that sub 20 are god's chosen people and it is our place to support israel. do you have ideas to follow up on what you just said on why anti-semitism knows no ethnic geographic downed trees when we have historically, again those of us who are very strong christians, felt so positively toward israel and towards the jewish people. >> that is not the kind of question i can answer but it does indicate we have got work to do. we have got work to research. they have got toch find where is coming from and we have to make recommendations on how i can be dealt with. but we can't just sit back and let it happen.
5:58 pm
it's getting much worse and it's not good for the jewish people worldwide and it's also terrible for the country's where it is occurring. i will just tell you this i was heavily involved in israel's efforts in 2016 to restore diplomatic ties and political activity across the continent of africa. i remember sitting with the foreign minister of rawanda and she told me you have got one hard nut to crack. she was talking about south africaou which is led by a political party which has been bothering the whole bbs movement and is now spread worldwide.
5:59 pm
i know less persisted in trying to reach out to south africa and will continue to do so. >> thank you madam chairman you have been very tolerant and i appreciated. i yield back. >> i now recognize brasov krishnamoorthi. >> thank you congresswoman and madam chair thank you but i want to thank all of our witnesses for appearing here today and especially mr. shaffir thank you for your very moving personal story. i would like to start with mr. mr. orsini and ask a few questions about what happened on october 27, 2018 at the tree of life synagogue. that day as you mentioned that man armed withh an assault rifle and three handguns stormed thelt tree of life congregation shouting anti-semitic slurs and slaughtered 11 worshipers. as you know that was the deadliest assault against the jewish community in american history.
6:00 pm
of theini at the time attack you were working as a director of community security for the jewish federation of pittsburgh, isn't that right? >> yes sir. >> could you spend a minute talking about the impact of this tragedy on the community and the congregation since the attacks of? >> now attack not only affect did that section of pittsburgh were jews in pittsburgh but the entire city. imagine we live in a dayay and e now where we have to think about detection and a house of worship when you go there is the most vulnerable that you can be and to get guns down. .. that shooting, the three congregations that prayed in that synagogue are still affected. the entire jewish community has been affected.
6:01 pm
the effects of that shooting are long lasting and they are not going to go away they're not going to go away anytime soon. it's important in our community in pittsburgh to make our folks feel safe so they can get back in to worship, no matter denomination it is. >> children witnessed that attack, right? children were present? >> to my knowledge, there was no children in there. there were not enough people in their to witness the attack. >> will spend the impact on children in general since the attack? >> is very important to us in pittsburgh at the time, it was to work a very quick resolution, it was important for us to get them back in school. get our jewish facilities, day schools, preschools and work with our community to get them back in there. it's a long lasting effect. i went from school to school,
6:02 pm
preschool to preschool to talk to parents about how terrified their children were, how terrified children, students and quite honestly adult worked and walked the synagogue. we had to work hard as we do every day. to make them resilient and strong and we continue to do that but the jewish community unfortunately, is a targeted commuter. >> let me jump in. one of the things probably folks everywhere understand is that regardless of whether you are in pittsburgh or not, i think folks who worship in synagogue fear going to their synagogues for a long time after this particular that it. >> i would like to hear your views on the role of holocaust education plays an eight crime prevention. generally. >> i think it's paramount the
6:03 pm
city of pittsburgh is one of the few cities and maybe the only city in the country right now that requires its police department and all cadets training to go to the holocaust center and spend time there prior to going out a on the street. it's a model based after the national holocaust museum, the only other group i know is fbi agents echoed through their. it's soat important for holocaut information to continue and it needs to start in middle school. how can the federal government must support either this type of educational awareness or hate crime prevention generally at the local level? >> i think there are several things. i quite honestly it takes money. human capital and time. it's important to be mandated in
6:04 pm
public schools and education platforms, we have to never forget, teach our community what happened and what's out of hate. i think for our community and the jewish community, it's ever so important. i have worked civil rights the fbi for many years, the civil rights coordinator, i've worked hate crimes for numerous years. it's generational, we need to be on the ground floor of children, educating them, what happened in the holocaust, what hate does. >> are to finish, amount of time but i want to underscore that last appointment which is that to end hate because it is generational, you have to start with the kids. you have to teach them that anti-semitism, phobia, hatred of all kinds is not right and i
6:05 pm
think we at the federal level to support that. thank you so much.ale >> thank you so much. recognize the gentleman from kentucky. >> thank you. thank you for being here today, i appreciate your testimony. every time we have a workgroup from kentucky come, we always recommend holocaust museum of all the great museums. that's the most special museum. most educational museum that makes such a difference. how much they were touched by that museum. i'd like to focus my questions on israeli policy. can you explain how dangerous iran is to israel and why they were necessary to israel
6:06 pm
defense? >> iran is a country which is underh regime, which stated its determination to destroy the state of in my institute, the government has done this a while, we have collected statements made by the iranian leadership right across the board. civilian leadership which calls for wiping israel off the map. the question is, is this just rhetoric to shows, off or is the something behind it? i'll give you a specific example in the rainy armed forces, there's something called the she hopped three which can strike israel.
6:07 pm
up until recently, 800-mile range, up until recently, the iranians and conventional warheads in this, but now they are aiming to replace the conventional warheads with adocuments that israel has with future nuclear warhead. those missiles are paraded once a year. as well as the missile carrier, they write israel must be wiped off the map. so they suppose their intentions with a military capability they are building and by the way, it's not just israel. it goes much further.
6:08 pm
so our concern about iran is first and foremost its nuclear weapons program. which we don't see having been altered by the poa but as a program that's probably gotten much worse. >> let's focus on the president american israeli policy, president trump's action from the nuclear deal, eliminating international terrorist soleimani made israel safer, your opinion. >> you talking about the elimination of soleimani? >> yes. >> the most gratifying international pact that i undertook before i returned to working for the government of israel, i set up a dialogue, i
6:09 pm
will answer your question. i set up a dialogue with a saudi general and we have a dialogue going on between his agenda and jerusalem and at one time he said, go to converse with me and bobby against the g away. i agree with your intentions, i think it's a bad idea to lobby here on capitol hill out of the interest of saudi arabia and the interest of israel. but we are think tanks. there's nothing that prohibits us from going to a think tank in the united states and voicing our views. that's exactly what we did. we were invited here in washington, he appeared and spoke in arabic, i spoken english and the whole place was
6:10 pm
filled with american press. i'm telling you that because the threat to israel and many of our neighbors in the region who are slowly but surely becoming our friend, a new security architecture from middle east is now n growing as a result of tht perception of shared security threat. i think we have to build on that but it's also giving me optimism with my neighbors. we can become not just friends but allies and hopefully, that is something which we can work on with the trump administration and with the american national security and bureaucracy. >> i know i can ask the gentleman from maryland
6:11 pm
questions. >> thank you. >> the tweets or retweets by democratic members of congress that circulate intensely or not, anti-semitic tropes and you've spoken strongly against a tv commercial run by donald trump in the 2015 election that attacks them as globalists and especially enemies of american people and i think you have spoken out about outrageous equipment manifested by president trump's stating they were very fine people on both thsides in the event that took place in charlottesville. what is the importance of speaking out againstki anti-semitism wherever you are seeing it and not permitting it
6:12 pm
to be a partisan weapon? >> rtthank you. indeed, you are correct. they have spoken out consistently and i would say clearly in response to anti-semitism from both sides of the political aisle. we are living in a moment where they feel emboldened because literally the talking points of supremacists and other radicals are jumping off their cages of propaganda and the talking points of elected officials. there's no excuse for it. so we call it out when it happens and wherever it happens. in large part because we want to make sure elected officials of political candidates understand there shouldn't be anti-semitism or hate for partisan gain. i wrote a letter to congress last year specifically asking this body to prevent a tenancy from using these to gain or make political points and i'll say in
6:13 pm
closing, anti-semitism is not just a jewish problem, it's everyone's problem because it is typically and historically assigned in the decay of democracy. a tool that populace use to press their own authoritarian agendas. we have got to have the moral courage and electoral honesty to call out whenever it happens, no matter who says it. >> thank you for that. i think in our country, anti-semitism racism both are the gateway to destruction of liberal democracy and equal rights for all of our people. i want to thank all of the members of the panel for underscoring the importance of the historical memory as to all of the events that have taken place, assaulting the rights of minorities. going back to this possession
6:14 pm
and violence against americans in our country and our experience as well as all of the horrific events that took place in the last century respect to anti-semitism, i wanted to say this, i've been reading a book by christopher wiley in the pot to break america about vladimir putin's t to plan to inject racl poison into our politics in the 2016 election and beyond. i think it's a scary book in some ways but ultimately, i find it to be an uplifting book a raciste are not country, were not in anti-semitic country. but there was a deliberate effort to activate the most
6:15 pm
unstable and extremist elements of the country. even if that 1% of the american people, but still a few billion people. certainly in what took place in charlottesville where you had americans marching right out in the open, fascist in our country. i want to ask a question about onliner hatred in these efforts to go out and find people using what they called the dark triad of narcissism and people were psychologically predisposed to go out to demonstrate hate in a violent way. what are we going to do about that even if the vast majority of the country doesn't stand for that, what's the proper response to it? i don't know whether they have
6:16 pm
any thoughts about that. >> let me begin by saying as we look at these challenges and problems, it is important that we point out how similar they are, how this strategy, ideologies and put these together and they areto so clear and if we separate them out, you see as we think about the attacks on african-americans empty slavery experience, we know it was done as a tool to be able to marginalize african-americans, we continue to take advantage and whatever the spoilage is and we perceive it as an acceptable way. >> the jewish friends are going after them because of their beliefs. we are think what they apply. native americans, we don't talk about it enough in my opinion about the genocide that took place in the land that has been taken.
6:17 pm
the natural resources being sought as well. make itce acceptable to be ableo shout them that as well. the marginalization and characterization of each of these groups. make it acceptable in the horrific things they've done. there's nothing to be done about it. it's important we look at all of these issues in that context. think about it, even those who promote ideologies in the third rights, white supremacist and what they seek to gain and what they actually fund them. it needs to be worked together. >> if i may, thank you. you think it's a very important question, i'm an individual was on the ground looking at anti-semitism, trying to keep
6:18 pm
the community safe. it's verye important for our community to report everything. however, i've spent a lifetime raising my right hand to protect the constitution of the united states. firmly believing the first amendment rights speech is important. however, what we see on the ground is hate speech, not a crime but it leads to a hate crime. we have to have a mechanism or tool for law enforcement officials when they see a swastika author advocates reported not to say it's protected first amendment rights speech and there's nothing we can do about it. we need to work together with law enforcement partners to come up with a way to assess the truth out there from these groups because it's out there. a large amount of the community does not even know identity, we see the signs of hate everywhere across the country.
6:19 pm
they are reported however, the things affect protected first amendment speech. the african-american community, muslim community, those signs of hate are important to understa understand, recognize and report. it's very important for us to work with the government to come up with a method where don't dismiss it and protect the first amendment speech. we truly do need to assess and mitigate the threats out there. >> thank you for that important point. your time has expired. i now recognize the gentleman fromouou ohio for questions. >> thank you. thank you for coming today and thank you for your work to ensure this horrific event never happens again. thank you for your testimony and
6:20 pm
we don't want this to ever happen again. bless you. i was also stunned at his testimony, i had no idea. i googled it and in the early 20th century, it was stunning to me. i just had no idea. it was amazing to me what was going on. i wanted to make that comment but they called donald trump the best friend they've ever had in the white house. ensure israel's safe and secure, the u.s. embassies jewish, he recognized in israel and recently issued an award at u.s.
6:21 pm
college campuses. withdrew from iran nuclear deal. a strong opponent of boycott investor pds. also, i know there's a peace plan and accomplishments, would you agree? >> again, i do not want to get drawn into your american domestic ping-pong. however, when somebody does something for you, which is exceptional, which stands out, it's rude not to say thank you. i am grateful for what president trump has done. i think these are ideas that have been out there in the american discussion for a long time. 1995,in federalism embassy act
6:22 pm
supported by tom and bob dole, isaiah important? there was a bipartisan support of these kindsds of moves. it got stuck and no one did anything. the first one to do it was president trump. actually move the embassy. so many of the actions the president has done are actions that have been suggested, thought about, legislated about but no one did anything. he did and i think that's appreciated by the people of israel. >> i appreciate that. last year in the house, we voted to condemn a a 390 votes. bipartisan but some of my colleagues here in congress support the movement.
6:23 pm
we had a strong bipartisan vote but some, strongly against supporting that movement. >> i'm going to put it this way, it is evil from my standpoint. you know why it's so painful? for us to build a new future in the middle east with our neighbors, we can't have boycotts. we can't have divestments. we can't have sanctions on each other. what's happening now is that we are building new malls, new factories in which palestinians are shopping together, working together, living together. we'll make peace, you will see they go to the emergency room, palestinian doctors, jewish patients, palestinian patients, all together trying to build an
6:24 pm
effective careful system for the city of jerusalem. that's what we need. we don't need people with ideologies from south africa or from other places telling us wee should be boycotting each other. that's not going to make peace. make hatred worse. >> i totally agree. commerce and trade, we build relationships in a safer place and we have more respect for each other. i hope the president put out this week is moving forward and we get it done. i yield back. thank you. >> thank you. i recognize the gentleman from california. mr. harley, for questions. >> thank you for convening this important hearing.
6:25 pm
i'm anxious to bring it back to the bipartisan purposes we are all here for. thank you for all the witnesses for your testimony as well. in the previous testimony talked about how we have seen with recent surveys and pulling that many of our teenagers don't fully understand what occurred in world war ii, the holocaust or with the r rise of hitler. in my district, we've seen firsthand the consequences of ignorance. in my district, a m young collee dude was murdered by a high school acquaintance and a neo-nazi group. my district, they had a swastika and write about german engineering on social media. in my district, members of water pool team hold their hand up in a salute while singing a german upper canada song. my district, they been
6:26 pm
desecrated by neo-nazi crews appear again and again on high schools and colleges. in my district, watermelon has been thrown on the front steps of african-american students. my district, is not uncommon to see white supremacists flags flying behind cars and trucks as they fly across highways in our district. in the aftermath in many of these incidences, what we have seen in socal, jewish communities are incredible. embrace the teams that have been involved in these incidents and educated them. sat down with kids with the stepsister of anne frank and invited them into their synagogues and help thems understand what transpired. showing very clearly how important education and elimination of ignorance has. i want to turn it to doctor
6:27 pm
freeburg holocaust memorial museum, tell us why the education is so important, not just for teenagers here in the u.s. but for all of us in the united states and across the globe. >> thank you. i wish you didn't have such a long list to give. it's about more than just holocaust education. i can say i'm very disturbed by the general decline in the teaching of history around this nation. i knowro when our partners from europe and other places, they are surprised because the united states don't have a national education standard. there are benefits to the and most other countries theiren standards state and local levels. it's not the uniform thing. one of our goals is to lift level of holocaust education across the country by training
6:28 pm
teachers, facilitating regional course so local teachers who are experienced and they don't have to be just history, they can be literature class or what we used to call civics. they could be a religious faith based class, to work with the direct evidence of holocaust and teach and facilitate responsible and meticulous one of the points are like to make is that even people who think they know about the holocaust often talk about it in a sophistic way as though it's a morality tale where it's pure evil and pure good. obviously there is pure evil and good in the holocaust but the vast majority of people who lived in europe were mixture. either onlookers or complicit in someplace and have others. we had a special exhibit a few years ago on this topic called some of our neighbors and i encourage you look at our online version of it which describes the way in which everyday
6:29 pm
ordinary people had choices about whether to get involved, whether to stand by or to facilitate. it's more than just numbers and dates, it's about social cohesion and psychology. >> thank you. currently only 12 states across the country require holocaust education and on monday, i'm very proud they introduced legislation across the country they have access to the resources they need to teach about the holocaust. we can legislate all we want to fight hate and anti-semitism but the reality is, it has to start in our hearts and heads. it requires leaders across the century, leaders in the white house, the administration and this body in academia and elsewhere to make sure we are all fighting hand in hand, shoulder to shoulder the fight. i'd like to turn to you for closing comment from my time
6:30 pm
here, can you talk about your education as well? >> thank you. the leading providers of the united states anti- bias and anti- hate, we reach over 1.5 million students in orange socal, we think indeed education is the best antidote to intolerance. teaching about the holocaust, we seen these which students understand what happened, it leads to a greater awareness of anti-semitism. we know it works, we need more of it and let's hope the senate passes this. >> thank you.. >> i recognize the gentleman from texas for questions. >> thank you for taking time here today, good to see her. i want to say thank you for being here, thank you for your testimony and by that, i don't
6:31 pm
mean your testimony here butst your testimony of faith triumphant and what you represent. rest assured, there are many of us committed to ensuring the history of the holocaust are known and what i believe is the hope for humanity that now emerges from that and i hope we see in the jewish people is something we will be able to care for together, so thank you for the care. i've had the fortunate to visit israel twice. i hope to go again soon. my wife and i were struck by two things in particular, one a bipartisan basis for a few days, democrats and republicans overlapped. we were there and we had, we joined together there and broke
6:32 pm
bread, drinkdr wine, we were visiting and talking about nonpolitical things and we were struck by the happiness of the jewish people. we were struck by the fact that they often pull happiness, the israelis pull, despite having 150,000 missiles pointed in jerusalem given any day. despite being undercut in a nation that is a fraction of the size of jersey, it struck us about how happy jewish people are and as a result, my wife and i came back and joined with friends of ours, now we shut down on some things, we put our telephones and ipods down and started joining and trying to
6:33 pm
restore the community. we've been doing that religiously, so to speak. inever since last august, our return from israel and it was a response to our great affection for our experience and our time in israel. again, thank you. as i can think that struck us was -- i had not had the chance to go back. i was struck there also by the feeling of hope you get as you walk through the horse of the history of the holocaust, you see the light at the end of the journey. by design, it is extraordinary. you look through the old letters and the hope of the jewish people, it struck us in an extraordinary way. a couple of questions, and their
6:34 pm
be any room for error for isra israel? >> some of that comes down to a space and time, how long does it take to getfl across the united states? >> five, six hours, depending on where you are going. >> to the mediterranean, three minutes. margin fore error is pretty muh reduced. >> other currently texas coming in from israel 2005? >> absolutely. i can tell you we withdrew from gaza in 2005 and in the. right after the withdrawal, the amount of rocket fire on israel
6:35 pm
went up by five 100%. >> other currently about 120 thousand there? >> and other places. >> would israel be safe without these technologies? >> no, it would require israel to do that. >> you said iran is on, here's my question. how important is a strong and sovereign israel to the hope and futures to the israel people? what role do they play in the rise of anti-semitism? >> that's an excellent question. i would say this. the historical connection of the jewish people in jerusalem is something which can be documented, which can be shown
6:36 pm
and demonstrated in terms of archaeological finds that wegi have and when countries get behind resolutions, they try to deny that connection. it makes our adversaries right. it is a vile lie. you know how we know that? opened the crown. the mention of arabic for the temple, the muslims knew it, we are connected with jerusalem. >> .request. >> i have a few articles here, this is to articles.
6:37 pm
mayor bill de blasio, bart announced perpetrators insertra semitic crimes, there's been a title belt reform setting suspects free after a string of anti-semitic attacks embark says it will getnv more involved in fighting these attacks. >> give us a copy of it. i now recognize you from florida. >> thank you. i want us to go to these questions, it would be hard to feel more solemnly about the necessity that israel remains a jewish and democraticc state and also, it has nothing to do with the support for and believe that israel should remain built. to return to the focus of the hearing, which is the ongoing battle against hate, the
6:38 pm
backdrop of international holocaust remember that day and deliberation, i just returned from poland to mark the anniversary. when you walk down the platform, the train platform, and i have been therapy for but the enormity of the evil and the human capacity for evil that exists today very clearly, really overwhelms you. the importance of his hearing and shining a spotlight continuously, never forgetting that the human f capacity for hatred and evil has not diminished is absolutely critical.
6:39 pm
the statistics documented in 2018 attracts a staggering 1800 anti-semitic incidents in the united states. a 5% increase in harassment in the previous year, i'm glad you read through the attacks in his own districts. when i plan at the airport in my district at the end of this trip last week, i landed with a fire i was being distributed throughout the city that says a red fire, a picture of a -- one day we will shut their dirty flying jewish mouth. and i won't promote the website on the flyer. hatred knows no boundaries and
6:40 pm
has existed for thousands of years. i appreciate the efforts, i would like to ask you, given that we appear to be living in an age where we have a resurgence of conspiracy theories, that are festering and growing and being promoted at the highest level of power in our country and condoned some cases by the highest level of power in our country. you see a connection between the growth of that thinking and the rise of anti-semitism and bigotry? >> thank you for the question. we talked off-line about that fire so i can make sure my staff is following up. there's no doubt that the contention for conspiracy theories are contribute to the lies and prejudice generally in anti-semitism. it's a conspiracy theory that the jews are somehow having too
6:41 pm
much power and yet are week. we are over human and subhuman, it's possible for all the world bills and it goes on and on. when people in power have prejudice, it endangers all of us. the jews are typically the first to be b harmed, anti-semitism never ends with the jews. whether you are the president of the united states or the president of a university or the president of a school board, when everyone to speak out firmly against anti-semitism and conspiracy theories that are often associated. >> i do not speak out and there was no one left. thank you so much for the work of the end see aa cp. being relentless and always being in the forefront of our nation's leadership on combating
6:42 pm
hatred. the jewish and african-americane community have walked that is the purpose of our forming a bipartisan coalition of the jewish caucus in congress. given that we are now dealing with the 21st century version of bigotry and anti-semitism and hatred in all its forms, can you talk about what we can do through both of our communities who work together to renew our fight against hatred directed at both communities? >> thank you so much.h. it is important we focus on the challenges and recognize that we call a convergence in interest. think about what our communities want, it's amazing to seek different groups separately. they'll say the same thing.
6:43 pm
we want our families safe and secure and have an opportunity for a future. top-notch education and good healthcare. understand each of our ways to bring us to this conversation. the same goes with we may have companies coming from different places in different ways but we are in the same boat now. understand the experience, it makes a difference. when i talked to mike jewish runs about these experiences but it's amazing how challenges and negative impacts are described in such similar ways. a different group of people, a different type of the outcomes are so similar, the attacks are eerily similar as well and the challenges are similar, too. celebrate who we are and what we are and the passion for life and experiences are an important ort but understanding our vision of the that's important as well.
6:44 pm
they talk about a reformed judaism and discussed others from the jewish community. i would say that applies in other cases as well. partly african-american jewish community. there's a lot of pain for different reasons and different nsys. we understand that we can achieve this goal and find ourselves a little more tight. >> our communities are clearly linked and was often said about the community across the globe, it's imperative for us to come together against hate and shine a light on people that still unfortunately permeating society all across the globe. i yield back. >> thank you. your time has expired. we recognize the gentleman from wisconsin.ns >> thank you very much.
6:45 pm
good news, i spent as much time as anyone in my district, congressman from california and people in his district, i've never heard anybody in the anti-semitic, maybe one guy but in my district, i don't think it's like california, much more accepting in my district. i don't want to make it appear americans that way. in theca event, there seems to e a more mainstream politician in an effort that's going to raise their profile and become more easily elected. before i was involved in politics must reading about the affair in new a york, embarrassg a christian minister citing
6:46 pm
hatred and encouraging somebody tora die i was glad he wasn't in pewaukee. two years later, the anti-semitism resulting in people dying. a country of 300 million people. however, what concerns me is rather than being swept into history's background, we recently have had this person become somebody who politicians stand with, getting more votes and mainstream politicians, successful politicians, nancy pelosi, the speaker of the hou house, thank you for saving america and crediting getting a majority back in the house. this is something mainstream politicians are embracing.
6:47 pm
one after another, people looking to become president and a guy in new york, amy klobuch klobuchar, the mayor their of south bend, if any of you would comment how this embarrassingly reportedly question, why did this guy can be loved or respected by so many which should be mainstream politicians? >> if i might generally respond, first of all, i would say we talked about like what happened in new york, they came from hate, there are approximately four eight incidences in wisconsin in 2019. a suburb of milwaukee, a high school student did the hitler
6:48 pm
salute last year. i just want to point out that it can happen in any geography, it can be a problem in majority and minority. christian communities as well as non-christian communities. the question becomes, what we do about it? >> what is this about, this embrace? >> i was going to>> say to thati think he has a long track record, i have agreed with all of his statements. i'll tell you after the situation in the murder in jersey city, i remember getting a text from him on my phone. what can weab do about this? i think he has a mixed track record for many but i appreciate some of the outspoken we've had. >> there's a group that
6:49 pm
sometimes sends me stuff called initiative and they talk about anti-semitism on college campuses. i want to know if you could comment on what's going on college campuses and why, this is where the minds of the future are so to speak and why is seems to be you have more intellectu intellectual, i don't know what you call it but why anti-semitism, why it seems to, why american campuses seem to be where it seems to go a little bit. what's the deal? >> i would invite others to jump in but i think one of the challenges that the way the jewish has demonized college campuses saying, using what they have used to demonized the jewish people. they were foreign, illegitimate,
6:50 pm
they were aliens and now they say that about the jewish people, we need university presidents to recognize, i certainly believe in free speech, and speech we don't like but there's a price for free speech, is not free. they do not dismiss what anti-semitism is used to demonized the state of israel. they need to caught up and understand that it shouldn't be tolerated with supposedly being used in the debate of our politics. >> your time has expired. i now recognize the chairman from maryland. >> thank you. i think everybody on the panel for being here and staying with us for so long in your incredibly impelling compelling topics here. you talk about conversions and
6:51 pm
interests and that's an important. >> to emphasize, you are saying that the american education and progressive association, the ctrgest and most active organization in the country that represents interests of the greek american community, it was formed in the south in response to planth activities, directed t greek american's back in the 1920s and 30s. so that conversion of interest is very directly bearing on that but all of these communities that we are speaking about today have a conversion of interest and clearly, there's two important responses we need to have when these incidents hate speech, religious, racial
6:52 pm
incidents occur, acts of violence, one is to show an immediate sense ofsh solidarity and responding to it. the other is a very practical steps to try to protect against these attacks and i think we are bringing important focus into congress about this. if i could go back to the solidarity element, often our concept of solidarity is reactive. in other words, something occurs and then we assemble kind of unified coalition response to that to condemn it. obviously that's an important thing to do. t what that seeks to overcome his human nature because when an incident occurs, the immediate
6:53 pm
reflexive human response is to think, in my part of the group that was attacked or might not part of the group? if you weren't part of the gro group, this specific group that experience the pain and attack, your reflex is in a sense, relief. you momentarily set yourself apart. that's a difficult thing to apovercome. but we need to get to a place where this convergence ofet interest concept is so deep and if any particular subgroup within our community and society deals with attacks that we feel it regardless of whether we are part of that group. when i wanted to ask anyone to comment on is what opportunities
6:54 pm
do you see or activities underway that are getting a sense of solidarity at the ground level at the front and so that when the attack occurs, the broad community feels in the instant, rather than a kind of delay response. which is important but is a delayed response. maybe you could speak to pittsburgh and other places where different communities are aligned with each other, creating coalitions so they feel equally these attacks, regardless of which groups are directed at. >> i think that's important, when the attack happened in pittsburgh, what happened prior to the attack, we have a community relations council, a community relations council director in pittsburgh spending
6:55 pm
time with all faced faith-based groups. he convened interfaith committee, it was instantaneous. we had every faith-based group, african-american, muslim, christian groups surrounding us in pittsburgh, that didn't happen by chance, i was by the interfaith community working together. we felt that through the community in pittsburgh right away. we had a muslim group working with us and quite frankly, the first groups to donate money to the victims. it was heartening to see that but that work was done prior to the shooting. >> your time has expired. thank you so much. i now recognize the gentleman from illinois.
6:56 pm
i did not see him come in. okay. the gentleman, you are recognized. >> i would like to think all the witnesses on today's panel for being here for this incredibly important hearing. when discussing the issue of education, george w. bush said continuing failed policies meant leading childrenci stuck with te soft bigotry of low expectations. we are discussing anti-semitism today, we can say we are facing bigotry of soft was. they come in phrases like boycott and sanctions. even worse, they come in deafening silence from people in this country. yhen terrorists get physically attacked or kill people of the jewish faith merely because of their religion. americans must not beio silencen this ugly bigotry.
6:57 pm
anti-semitism is unfortunately, still alive and now 75 years after deliberationrs. the simon wiesenthal center has produced a list of anti-semitism including some last month during the hanukkah season. ambassador, can you speak to the scene with these anti-semitic attacks and what can be done, what we can be doing to move toward the goal of eliminating thee boycott investment and sanction and other forms of anti-semitism? >> i'm a big believer in knowing who your adversary is. if you're in the m military, the is an intelligent branch. it tries to give a picture of how your adversary lays out its forces.
6:58 pm
that's doing their business, too. you have to find out who they are and what they are doing. many times people don'tey know r it's left up to writers the conjecture for this is coming from. but you can get to it, you can out, it's important if you're going to try to figure out where the anti-semitism is coming from, have multilingual capacity. when i wrote the book back in 2003 called hatreds kingdom about how theha hatred that entered into and was part of the attack on america on 9/11, where did it come from? i hired a team which could actually read off thehe web some of the most sensitive arabic
6:59 pm
information was not classified. people aren't even aware of it. that's what you have to do. it's arabic or hindu or you've got to see where it's coming from. once you know that, you have a criminal justice system that should operate. i want to stress something which is obvious to probably everybody here in bettis when i bring up subjects that sound like problems of radical islam, it's not muslims, it's not something that should be misinterpreted. radicalrp islam is as much a threat to muslims as it is to jews or christians. >> i think people who are sile silent, the silent sometimes considers some of those may be adversarial two.
7:00 pm
>> can i say something? >> i want to get to another. >> actually. president trump has been at the forefront of this issue taking action such as relocating the u.s. embassy,s in recognizing il sovereignty, signing an executive order to combat anti-semitism on college campuses and just yesterday, releasing his peace the palestinians. i think these actions impacted the u.s. relationship with israelel today and what was the relationship looking like moving forward? ... certainly these actions strengthen that bond, allow us to move forward to build the safer region.
7:01 pm
>> thank you and i yield back. >> thank you i now recognize the gentle lady from illinois. >> not that i wentz to bling you anything political, but i have to say since al sharpton's name was raised and i don't believe in everything he has said, but also, i just have to say i feel like we have one of the most divisive people in this 201st century that we have seen in a long time. and people -- mikey has a base and elected officials that follow him. so just to pick on al sharpton, is very interesting to me. but anyway thank you all for your testimony on this important day as we remember the horrors of the holocaust. thank you so much for being here, for your courage, and wanting to educate the next generation. you are very much a treasure. >> with a gentle lady yields
7:02 pm
for second on al sharpton? we have had a terrible increase of incidents anti-semitism in the city i represent, new york. the community has come astogether. he has been one of the leaders in bringing the community together. his national organization has had numerous meetings, reaching out to the community, preaching really that we have to unify. and fight this. so i think the gentle lady for the point you made. i yield back. >> sadly in recent years we have seen a rise in anti- somatic neo-nazi rhetoric field in part by social media. mtherefore, it is my opinion that it is really important not only study the holocaust as a historical events, but also use it as a lesson for the fragility of democracy and the importance of remaining
7:03 pm
ever vigilant in promoting human rights. we have seen an increase in hate. doctor freeburg and others frequently dismissednd comparisons to hitleraz and not see germany because the nonstate regime and the holocaust are so horrific. can you please explain what germany was like prior to the rise of the not see party? meaning was it an advanced country economically culturally, was there a representative government? >> thank you congressman for the question germany was an advanced country as a democracy although a very young democracy. it had been in existence for just over ten years at the time the knot sees rose to power and they rose to power's part of process. none the less that did not bring back the society paired i want to emphasize the holocaust was not a synonymy, it was not something once it started there is no way for it
7:04 pm
to stop. and i would actuallyto like to say something that would be surprising to people i find a great deal of inspiration in the holocaust. not in the horrors of it but the way things wentz in different direction prayed the holocaust was not implemented uniformly by studying it, not in broad generality but in the specifics of each contest and precision we are able to identify the variables, the context and choices and roles of different people in society that made it better for juice in some places and worsen other places. soso we are very pleased to have a long-standing partnership with the adl, our law enforcement and society program change members of the police, it trains every new fbi agent recruit an analyst. because we look back at this history not to make people look sad or just to warn us about hates, but to say who are those people? who are those who sit in roles who can actually protect our
7:05 pm
society so that those on the margins, the extremist haters do not come forward. we have trained close to 50 or 60000 members of state judiciaries, members of the military. we work with every military academy. it's not just about whether society is advanced, but how do we make people aware of the roles and responsibilities? >> how does a modern advanced diverse and culturally rich nation devolved to genocide in a matter of years? >> i think that's a great question and my opening remarks and said my grandfather was from germany and lived through and endured not see germany. watch that democratic country descendent to madness. although he survive, most of his family was slaughtered. what he endured was in speakable and did not even begin to be part of what he experienced. i think one of the things we haven't even talked about this morning is how nazis germinate
7:06 pm
use the instruments of dehumanize, demonize, and ultimately lead to a path of genocide. in particular, social media. we haven't talked about the role of silicon valley and i only below big-time left but it's gotta be talked about this morning we want to try to stop anti-semitism and hate even further. >> i just want to share with you i am a diversity trainer and i started under you guys. >> bravo spivak i yield back. >> i now recognize the gentlewoman from michigan for her questions. >> thank you madam chair, i just want to be on the record, this is a very, very serious issue. i am a descendent of slaves. we just marked the 400th year within this country that i love, these united states of america, enslaved, killed, and oppressed people. a democracy.
7:07 pm
this is the 75th year of recognizing the holocaust that happened in the country where others saw a group of people being identified and persecuted. this is not a platform to promote and to use -- this discussion to have political endorsements. we are talking about the united states of america. what are we doing here? how do we, as a country, not repeat what we know happens in this world. and in the united states of america? shame on anyone that wants to use this to promote a candidate. so i will continue with my statementst now. we know, and i was raised by this woman whose tears were falling from her eyes during the civil rights movement. i was a little girl watching her cry as the hoses and the
7:08 pm
dogs were being sick on people in the south. she told me, brenda, your lifetime, you are going to have to educate people because we know racism is ignorance. it is a stereotype, it is generational as we spoke of. just hatred that has passed along. she said and you are going to have to forgive them because if you don't you consume their hatred and their anger. why did i want to start a conversation and bring together two groups and this body that is supposed to pass lawsie and policies to stand together, to fight against hatred in america? this statement i used was one martin luther king used. if we see it happen to one it's going to happen to others. we see through history that so
7:09 pm
many people sat on the sideline and to sit anywhere in america today and say oh, i don't see it happening. theyni need to be slapped in the face with history and with reality. we have so much work to do. and spare me thed ignorance, and the lackac of compassion. and as a black woman in america, having a double whammy being a woman oppressed being an african american woman. i have had the opportunity serve as a mayor of a city that i had tod go to to protect the jewish community because i have a one of the largest jewish communities in congress. i will not sit here and be silent, as so many people did as we know when these
7:10 pm
incidents happened. my question, mr. green buy has the anti-defamation league witnessed a similar uptick and violence hate crimes and to what do you attribute this increase? we have not talked about what isis happening where we are seeing more and more and it's more violent, we talked about the words, the hatred of words but we are now seeing violence. any of you, what is it that's happening that we as policymakers need to step up, so please tell me. >> congress met a few thoughts i applaud your leadership starting the bipartisan it is so important. i hope we can find ways to work together. just like adl and the naacp we have worked together for generations. we talk about the adl the pyramid of hate. when you don't call out bigotry when it is spoken, it can lead to acts of hate. acts of hate like harassment that can lead to violence.
7:11 pm
violence when you don't interrupted it ultimately leads to genocide. we believe prevention is better than response. and so that startsth in part by something you are kind of going earlier using the bully pulpit.o leaders need to lead. they don't need to not just interrupt intolerance when it happens, they cannot allowed intolerance happen on their watch of the first place braid that means inclusive language, welcoming people of all of their differences and creating an environment that's comfortable for everyone, no matter how you play or who you love, we need more of that in this country and we need it >> just adding, the new technology is extremely important in thinking about these hate manifest. if you think about the utilization of social media tools to do everything from television shows to radio shows, to music and everything else to further indoctrinate this ideologies of hate. it's in our everyday society.
7:12 pm
to the bottom line is keep doing what you're doing. keep up with hearing from like ours about experience was going on across the country and develop new strategies, tools, and resources to stop it at every place along the way. and dig into every little community but you're also going for a broad and extensive and admitting ideological things are being promoted. >> i know my time is up and i must say we must, madam chair, addressed social media that has become there new weapon of hatred and racism. and i just want you all to know we have so much work to do. thank you for being here. thank you for sharing your story. thank you. >> thank you brenda, i now recognize that gentle lady from west virginia for her questions. >> thank you charwoman, and thank you all for being here today. this is such an important and somber topic. and we must continue to draw
7:13 pm
attention to make sure that things like the holocaust never ever happen again. i don't need to remind you that monday was the 75th anniversary of the liberation of osher which. it is the unspeakable horrors that occurred there at the hands of the not cease. the 1.1 million people, the world watchedle in horror because i don't know if it was naïveté or lack of the facts of the instant news like we have today, but they did not really comprehend that such things would happen. i grew up in the city of bexley within the city of columbus and the jewish community. i grew up going to bat mitzvahs bar mitzvahs, i wentz to my nephews bar mitzvahs. now they are all adults. i think back to being in high school her mother had numbers tattooed on her arm and of course i was born in 1950, i
7:14 pm
probably shouldn't say that out loud, but growing up just when everyone came home from world war ii. even i did not understand until i was an adult, the horror. but that's because i read and i was able to educate myself. so it is so very important that we pass this along, because history will repeat itself if we don't let people know what has happened in our past. i am thankful for the efforts that our president has taken to strengthen our relationship with o israel. to me itt is so important. we moved to the mark by doing what we have done and having the embassy in jerusalem. i just can't comprehend the anti-semitism that we are witnessing today. the fight against hate and education about what has a occurred during the holocaust
7:15 pm
is so important to keep in mind as we create our policy in the future. how has the holocaust dark legacy impacted the people of israel? >> my son served in the armored court of the israeli army. and i remember at one point his commanding officer takes him to show him the disaster that the jewish people confronted during the holocaust. his officers try and imbue him and his other soldiers with that message. the holocaust is very munch in the conscience of israel's
7:16 pm
citizenry. it doesn't make us less prone to compromise or understand our neighbors, by no means. but i think it adds to the inner conviction of the importance of our self-defense, especially when we have, not only our neighbors but certain neighbors that still use language that looks like it came out of germany in the 1930s. >> i have seen some of that language. i was fortunate to be able to go to the museum in israel. when the guide took us in, he said you have 45 minutes to view something that would take eight or nine hours. it's just so overwhelming. i can't say enough about how
7:17 pm
oureed to educate children tohi understand. how do you think it is impacted the policy coming out of israel? the policymakers, the policy. >> i think people have to separate is much as possible what happened in the holocaust from every day policy making in the state of israel. again, you may have a vicious threat emerging in the east, and you have to cope with it. for example you have to understand that if somebody is going to say your country is to be wiped off the face of the earth, and then hangs a poster saying that on his latest generation weaponry, you better take it seriously. you can't ignore it. you just can't turn the other way. and i think therefore, the
7:18 pm
israeli leadership from the highest levels down too the corporal or private in the army, understand what is at stake. it's veryy serious. i think we approach it with a sense of tremendous responsibility. i think we also have to use our diplomatic arm. i had hoped, frankly, not long after 911, that we would take up the genocide convention which has been signed by the united states, by israel, by many countries in the world. and start using it against countries that are using genocidal language. i will also say something that represents my personal view, it does not represent formerly
7:19 pm
the positions of the state of israel. i feel having been an israeli diplomat, that one of the responsibilities we have is to use our talents and our skills and our technical abilities to identify genocide when it is occurring anywhere in the world. and acting diplomatically to nip it in the bud. i have studied what happened in africa during the 1990s, i have studied the battle in bosnia, i would once the jewish state to be a part of the international effort to prevent those things from ever reoccurring. the holocaust is a unique event. and i don't like to mix the
7:20 pm
holocaustt with other developments around the world. it teaches us, how barbaric manni can become. and maybe having been victims, we have a special responsibility to get the information and update people i will just tell you one think and i do? >> the gentleman time is expired but you can say one more thing because i want to hear it too. tell me. >> the state of israel has in many countries that turned to us t and you would be surprised to know who they are. they indicate a desire to, under the table, have relations with us. i remember sitting with senior european a diplomats and asking them and saying we are in a dilemma we want to expand our diplomatic relations around the worldip but sometimes these aree rather horrible
7:21 pm
countries. what would you do? and from the most important countries in western europe, look we believe in braille polity. and we would try to expand our diplomatic relationships and basically turn away from the crimes that these countries are engaging in. that is horrible and as the state of israel, we should stand against that and we should advance policies that fight genocide, which is the most evil developments, the most evil policy which we, part of the core of civilized countries have to face. >> thank you the gentle latest
7:22 pm
time has expired. i now recognize the gentlewoman from michigan for questions. >> thank you so much madam chair, thank you so much for your coming here in your incredible courage. i will make sure that my sons hear your testimony. i think it is very important for my children to consistently hear exactly what the holocaust means, and again so we don't repeat it. you are absolutely right, humankind if we can do nothing. so thank you again for chairwoman and new colleagues for hearing holding this important hearing today it. learn from the lessons of history and continue to fight against anti-semitism. and all forms of hate. iran a campaign to take on haight in michigan, i would always tell the young people you have to take on hate with action. this week i am really honored to be a cosponsor of the never again education act as we make
7:23 pm
sure our children and every other generation understands what it means when we talk about thes holocaust. when i visited the holocaust memorial center in remington hills michigan with my young son adam, i remember you spent the day reading everything he could. when i called beforehand they said he might be too young for the visuals and i said no, if he can see that step in video games, if he can see that stuff on tv, he can see the reality of what is actually real. if i wanted him to see it. so he was reading this whole wall of newspaper clippings and even the news clipping documenting unspeakable atrocities of the holocaust, and something i will never forget when he looked up at me and he asked mom, he calls me mama, mama, why did it take so long for people to do something about this? because even at that young and, age, do nobody notice? he noticed the years for we finally set jews free.
7:24 pm
at such a young age he recognized how slow the international community was actually taking action.n. he could not comprehend how the worlds stood back as the brutality unfolded beforee him. as a historian when you spoke about it was so important because it resonates with me about what's happening even across the world. even what's happening in china, i'm really fearful we are going to find out much too late about what is happening there. what can you tell me about the environment that enabled adolf hitler and the nazis to rise to power? what can history teach us about how the democratic processs can devolve into something with such atrocities? >> thank you congresswoman and also for sharingri your personal perspective. i brought my young son with me here today.
7:25 pm
what i can tell you is that when you study the holocaust and beyond nazis germinate you can see hate is a way part of the story. it would be a a mistake and too comforting for us to think if we could just inoculate ourselves against racism, that people willl not do bad things to other people. but what we find we study the holocaust in a specifically as much of what enabled the nasis rise to power with motivations that are much more relatable. motivation like career aspirations, greed, fear, opportunism, we can see for example that the nazis regime and some of our fellows at the museum researched great opportunities for women should be in roles they had not been able to be in before. any women were complicit in the killing process as a result. the eastern front, for example offered a opposite of a wild westin but an environment in which a lot of social norms are broken down. so i want this to be careful
7:26 pm
to think there is some kind of brainwashing of the german people, but also the nuremberg laws of 1935, most of what happened to jews and nazis germinate was legally it was done in a framework of laws. it was not criminal it was actually the government action. >> adam noticed that, he saw the slow but sure enough taking away people's properties he noticed that. >> smart kid so as an example that nuremberg laws, jewish doctors were no longer allowed to treat aryan patients. think about that if your chief resident is jewish, and suddenly he is gone, maybe you don't objects and much because it opens a door to you. and you're just going to be quiet. you may be afraid to make noise and it's an
7:27 pm
opportunity. so want to think about we study the history in its precision in that way because we see how anyone of us could have been part of that process. whether or not we were a racist in our hearts. >> one of the things that spoke to me and why it took my son to the holocaust museum is when he was nine years old, he's 14 now, when he was nine years old he heard me talk to his father about this awful cartoon that was in usa today thatli depicted muslims in a way that would invoke peoples violence towards muslims. i was just talking to his father almost whispering to him and he heard and comes into the bedroom and he said mama don't worry don't worry, if anybody asks if i muslim i will lie and tell them i am not. and at that moment it struck me i was like, oh honey, no we cannot allow this to continue, this form of oppression. all of you are doing incredibly important work, i love seeing the naacp here. because african-american pastor said it beautifully in detroit he said were not a country this divided we are a country it's disconnected. we need to connect and understand, all of us as fellow human beings that never
7:28 pm
ever need to be targeted based on who we are, our faith or anything else. so thank you all for your incredible testimony and thank you chairwoman for your leadership. >> verse about like to thank you very much for taking your son to actually witness something like that. it is very important. i hope and wish that more mothers, or parents would take their children to places like that. thank you much. >> i now recognize the gentle lady from california for questions. >> thank you. my colleague and i had the same age of sons. my son luke, when he came to washington, i tried to interest him in so many things. the only place he wanted to go visit was a holocaust museum. today's topic the ongoing battle against hate is really my community in orange county. according to the san diego
7:29 pm
county sheriff's department, that shooter posted an anti- somatic message on eight chan before he went on his rampage. samuel woodward, the man accused of killing 19-year-old at a park in my district in lake forest was reportedly a member of the neo- nazis group. they open he openly described himself as a nazis i want to take a fewi minutes to focus on the role of social media, online chat rooms, messaging as their potential use as a platform for white supremacist to spreado hate. did social media play a role in the planning or the execution of the attack at the tree of life synagogue? >> unfortunately i cannot answer that question, that case is still under prosecution. i have made an agreement to not talk about that about the shooter himself. >> i appreciate your professionalism. on a more general level could you comment on what the
7:30 pm
research might tell us about how white supremacists are using the internet and social media today? >> sure think of a much for the question. social media is really today, become almost a breeding ground of bigotry. i was someone who works in silicon valley for many years i manage products. iran teams of engineers. facebook is a front light and fighting hate. anti-semitism thrives if it used to be if you went to a white supremacist you had to go to a compound in idaho to find a now you can find a rally happening 24-7 with a swipe or a click. your young kids from porter can literally with a couple of clicks on their phone engage in the kind of horrific content you would never -- that could never be published in print, would never be shown on television, or could never find us when to film. it is now available to our children. there are things that companies can do to start the
7:31 pm
process. again we believe in the first amendment at the adl. but we literally started a center in silicon valley in 2017, our center on technology and society's doing cutting-edge research. i had phd's in artificial intelligence mill sheen learning working at adl now doing research. i'll just share from my congresswoman some of the thing silicon valley could do today to tackle this problem. number one, they all have terms of service that prevent hateful speech, whether it's anti- muslim, anti-jewish, anti- black, and all they need to do is recognize. they are not public places their private companies. the same ways you could go into starbucks and slander jews or sit in the pen narrow and yell at mexicans, haters that get on these platforms should get pushed out like that. number two, they should adjust their algorithms. you can find salacious content on cable television late at night, but it's not available in the middle of the day for people to see it. adjusting the algorithms as
7:32 pm
equivalents of having some editorial guidelines. number three, slow it down. the shooter in christchurch who murdered 15 muslims inmu cold blood, the shooter and holly who try to burst in the synagogue, the shooter in el paso that used go pro cameras and live streams their snuff films. but frankly there is no natural law that says when i click publish it should be available for billions of people to see. there should be a delay on the content and they should use ai to prevent this kind of thing from getting out there. number four, the company should stop hateful profit. youtube should not allow neo- nazis to make money on the content. twitter should not allow extremists to literally profiteer off of prejudice. this should stop right now. and lastly, the companies should submit to regular independent third-party
7:33 pm
audits. this is crucial, i should say facebook, youtube, twitter, we work with all of these businesses and they have taken some steps. but they haven't done enough. if theyd would apply a bit of transparency and submit to the same kind of practices that all other businesses submit to, we would be able to have some context then you would enbe able to independently verify whether they're doing enough to take the venom out of their systems. >> this is very helpful thank you very much for your concrete suggestions i really appreciate it. i'm really excited about bringing the u.s. holocaust memorial museum's traveling exhibition to the university of californiaa irvine. i hope at some point you can share with this committee why that exhibit is so important and what you hope it will be able to accomplish. >> i will encourage those of you in d.c. to see that exhibit here and i'll be happy to come speak in irvine. >> i have seen it twice.
7:34 pm
>> i now recognize a gentlewoman from new mexico for questions. >> thank you madam chair thank you all for being here>> today. thank you for your strength, courage, and sacrifice. i would first like to make mention and honor the man who worked tirelessly until his death to fight hate. and who advocated feverishly to move the un genocide convention forward. and he also coined the word genocide and that is mr. raphael lincoln. i think he would be proud ofe every single one of you for carrying on his legacy, so thank you forar that. and it's 2018 report, the fbi found that the number of victims of anti- latino or hispanic hate crimes increased by 21% over the previous year. in my home state of newpr mexico, hate crimes have increased over four 100%. that includes recently the shooting death and beating
7:35 pm
death of homeless native americans in this city of albuquerque. on august 3, 2019, a gunman entered a walmart and el paso, texas and shot and killed 202 people while also wounding 207. minutes before the rampage, the shooter posted an anti- immigrant manifesto and learning about the quote hispanic invasion of texas and bowed to shoots quote as many mexicans as possible. among those was angie she was murdered that day, she was 84 years old, and a mexican, the oldest of ten siblings. she had seven children, 21 grandchildren and great-grandchildren. children have lost their parents, parents of lesser children, and yet we can't figure out how to stop reliving this nightmare. no one should have to live it, t,pecially not our immigrant communities. for communities that enrich
7:36 pm
our countries by bringing their culture here and sharing them with all of us. hate has been a weaponize again so many communities, my own community of hispanics, muslims, and immigrant community. so my first question is for you and your view, what might be driving the increase of anti- immigrant or anti- latino sentiment. >> congresswoman i'm really grateful you asked this question becauses it allows me to it something that i was not able to say before hate crimes are vastly underreported. sometimes this comes from the fact that thepl people in the communities don't know to report the experience of hate crimes. sometimes i think law enforcement isn't trained, but i am deeply concerned about the latino and immigrant communities who are afraid to report these incidents. i know this because i have heard this from immigrants and latinos. and the adl developed a partnership with the government of mexico, we
7:37 pm
provided hate crimes trading to over 2000 mexican counsel and officials across the united states. over 2000. because mexican nationals living here in the u.s., they are literally g going to their consulates to say my child is being bullied at school, my business was vandalized because they're afraid to go to the police because they're worried about rumors of ice enforcement. it is unthinkable to think that people living here legally are afraid of the authorities. so wise's happening? the anti-immigrant movement in the united states has been empowered in ways that we have never seen before. you have the kind of hateful rhetoric coming from people in positions of authority, starting with the white house, demonizing immigrants, dehumanizing latinos and people seeking refuge in this country in ways that are unconscionable. adl has beenn reporting on this and i would point you to our report, we need people in positions of authority to use that authority wisely. and recognize that this
7:38 pm
country needs to be welcoming of everyone, particularly those of vulnerable people seeking refuge on our shores but frankly that's why this country was founded at nasa waiting to live up to those values today. >> thank you so much thank you for that. during the holocaust many countries including the united states erected barriers to make it nearly impossible for jewish people to immigrate, is that correct? >> not exactly. thank you for the question, in fact they did not need to erect barriers during the holocaust because the barriers were already in place. immigration laws that were passed in this body in 19204 severely restricted immigration based on country of origin. and one fact that is very important to know is the united states did not have any refugee policy. i'm going to repeat that, there was no refugee policy in the united states during the period of the holocaust. so it's not that it wasn't enforced, we simply did not treat people who wereho fleeing from violence or persecution
7:39 pm
in any way different than a wooden economic immigrant immigrant or someone coming for family reunification. it was just not a priority of the united states government at that time. >> thank you so much, i have one more, i think i'm out of time. i yelled. madame chair. thank you. >> the gentle it is time is expired. i now recognize the gentleman from missouri for questions. >> thank you madame chair and thanks for convening this hearing today on this important subject. i want to thank the panel for your testimony. in my district in st. louis, which is where mr. shelton grew up in. i have a large and historic jewish community which iy, have enjoyed a great friendship with over many decades. three years ago, just a few blocks from my home, a
7:40 pm
historic jewish cemetery in university city, missouri was vandalized.. because in shock and pain to families. i had the opportunity to work with them to make that cemetery whole again and i considered that not only my duty, but an obligation of faith. earlier this week the st. louis jewish federation announced an 18 million-dollar expansion of this remarkable holocaust museum. holocaust education is essential not just to honor the memory of the victims, but be because future generations must know that evil deeds can begin with hateful words. hate can proceed and grow when good people remain silent. many of us remember the quote, unitebe the right rally that took place in charlottesville in august of 2017.
7:41 pm
we watched with horror as white supremacist and neo- nazis boldly and proudly marched with their burning torches chanting, jews will not replaces and into the ovens. ultimately one self-described neo- nazis rammed his car into a car of counter protesters killing heather heyer and injuring 30 other people. doctor friedberg, into the ovens, i believe is a holocaust reference would you agree? >> yes. >> do you believe the public at large understood the significance of those words? >> some do and some don't. and in fact in the aftermath of charlottesville, we create a whole educators guided website so that the public could deconstruct andco understand the dog whistles and symbols that were being invoked. >> thank you, after everything
7:42 pm
you it experience, how does it make you feel to see scenes like charlottesville, and other scenes like that? what is that do for you? >> memories like that keep coming back. i remember when i was six, seven, eight and saw all of the violence against jewish people and jewish children. it kind of wakes me up more and i'm trying to do as much as i possibly can while i am live. because after we are gone, it's very hard for somebody to know what really happened there. >> you are right and i appreciate you coming forward today and telling -- sharing story. thank you. mr. greenblatt, how does the anti- defamation league defined neo- nazis? >> sir, at the adl, we'd track
7:43 pm
extremists across the board and including right wings extremist they embrace the third reich, its ideology its iconography and continued to promote it today. >> so how would you characterize the threat of neo- nazis in the u.s. today? do you believe this charlottesville march reflects or contributes to increasing anti- semitism? >> i think the issue today is less nazis is amid more extremism, it's one variance of that. i worry about that violent right wing extremism, which has been responsible for 73% of the extremist related murders this country in the past decade. i worry about the right wing extremism which is responsible for the 40 to 50 murders in 2018. i worry about the right wing extremism that promotes the
7:44 pm
toxic ideology in which african americans jews, muslims, ltp 2q people, immigrants latinos, anyone who is different from their vision of this country is demonized, dehumanized and they think ultimately should be murdered. we have seen that play out in el paso, in pittsburgh, in power way, and too many places in the past few years. >> how would you characterize the actions of a top white house official named steven muller and how he has fed into this frenchy? can you comment on that? >> we are on the record is calling for thegn resignation of steven muller because of his utilization of white supremacist ideas and ideology. we have seen some of the documents released showing he is trying to promote this in the media. ultimately, we judge people based on what theyth do, and not just what they say that what they do. and the set of policies don't reflects i said earlier our values in this country. as a grandson of a refugee, as
7:45 pm
a husband of a refugee, i just can't count on a country hit isere we do not embrace refugees and others seeking reference here. >> my time is up i thank you for your response. >> thank you so much and i now recognize the very patient gentleman from new jersey mr. malinowski. >> it takes patients to fight anti-semitism. [laughter] thank you. mr. greenblatt, i want to start with you, you said this morning that adl's research has found that the increase in anti-semitic attacks in the not caused byis change in attitudes among americans but more of the millions of americans holding these views are feeling emboldened to ask. i wanted to explore that with you. obviously a lot of explicit anti- somatic rhetoric today. charges of dual loyalty for example.
7:46 pm
a number of the questions focus on less explicit examples. figs example initial to ask you about conspiracyy theories. i wanted to be more explicit about that. when people, and the public's fear unchanged fear trail against globalist, r the deep state. when prominent people who happen to be jews are attacked for controlling the state department or the mass media. does that make for safer climate for jewish americans? >> clearly the invocation, thanks for f the question, clearly the anti-semitic jokes which creates an environment which is literally dangerous for juice and for all people. when you talk about it being the public sphere, let me give you an example. right now chairwoman maloney or anyny of your staff i would ask you to open up youtube and look at the comments on this hearing.
7:47 pm
which i have just learned are ripe with the call of holocaust denial is in anti-semitic conspiracy that you are asking me about. this is a clear and present danger and it is happening right now, unfolding as we speak. >> you are also asked about anti- immigrant rhetoric. so rhetorical attacks on immigrants threatening our culture. statements about immigrant invasions or infestations, same category as the impact on safety for jewish americans. >> yes, the short answer is yes. these are the invocations of classic anti-semitic tropes, and long-standing stereotypes. they were used to justify restrictive immigration laws in the first half of the 20th century and they are used to dehumanize people today. >> in fact the shooter in pittsburgh explicitly cited his paranoid fears about immigrants invading america and blaming jews for funding refugees in the united states, is that not correct? >> that is accurate.
7:48 pm
>> and just let me raise the question of israel. so obviously demoralization of israel including movements such as bds contributes to laissez-faire and climate for jewish americans. is it enough to be pro-israel? to say that you stand against anti-semitism the united states? >> look i amm unapologetic tickly, unabashedly zionist. my organization is b proud to be pro-israel. at the same time i will tell you that the architects of the bds campaign and what it creates absolutely contributes anti-semitism. there is no doubt the delegitimizing goes to d little much eyes and the jewish people. but we talk about anti-semitism there are no bds in brooklyn they're been assaulted in the streets. so i think we need to be able to say yes we can be pro-israel, but we can also be
7:49 pm
anti- bigotry. and that things are not necessarily this the same. >> mr. gold have you heard of a man named roberts jeffers? >> i have not. you mentioned the embassy opening in jerusalem. i was in favor of recognizing jerusalem as a capital of israel. robert jeffers is an evangelical pastor who was invited by the administration to say the opening prayer at that ceremony. he claims to beny pro-israel. he is also said, and i'm just quoting him, you cannot be saved being a jew. he said judaism, like other non-christian religions, not only leads people away from god, they lead people to an eternity ofer separation from god inm hell. and this is someone who claims to be pro-israel and gave the invocation at that ceremony. so can you see that it may be possible to be superficially pro-israel while in fact also
7:50 pm
contributing to the climate that is making life less safe for juice in america? >> there is an expression and english is called due diligence. hopefully when you organize ceremonies of such importance for the united states government or for any western or any power in the world, you have to check who is coming. obviously these are detestable positions. but i want to ask something else because i am getting a sense here, and i really don't want to jump into the american domestic scene. but it seems like everything is coming from the rights. in my understanding of the rebirth of anti-semitism is both right-wing and left-wing. it's both. you can't just lean over and say it's one and ignore the other.
7:51 pm
so hopefully when we decide what are the sources of anti-semitism that are confronting us, we are live and look at both sources and fight against them. >> let me just say i fully agree and i think most of us would agree that the extremes of left and right tend to come together. and anti-semitism is the place where they come together. thank you and i yield back. >> thank you agenda without objection the gentleman from pennsylvania, mr. doyle shall be permitted to participate in today's hearing. and the gentleman from pennsylvania is recognized for questions. >> i thank the chair and first of all i want to say thank you toto you, for being here today. it's a very powerful testimony and we musto continue to hear the stories so that we never ever forget. i think it is most important
7:52 pm
for young people, young generations coming up to make sure they know this too. i also want to welcome brad orsini and say thank you for being here today and what you did before and after for the tree of life attack in our home city of pittsburgh. for the panelists and the people here in the audience, squirrel hill, which is a neighborhood in pittsburgh where this horrific attack took place, is a kind of neighborhood that you would never expect anything like this to be possible. this is a multiracial, multicultural, vibrant community where people of all faiths and ethnic cities get along with one another and work on community projects together. when i saw the television that
7:53 pm
morning, i was in my kitchen. there was an active shooter down in squirrel hero near the tree of lights, it almost did not register it first. i guess we are learning that really there is no place that is one 100% safe, even though we have a sense of security in our neighborhoods that nothing bad ever happens. we see something bad can happen, so brad, i wonder if you could explain the ways and places you would never expect, or areas you would never expect to have these incidents. how you look, what signs you look for for signs of hate and violence. how do you engage with social mediaa for security purposes too? do you think that y the attack on the tree of life change the way that the pittsburgh jewish community views their security? >> sure, i think it was a
7:54 pm
watershed moment for the entire jewish community across the country. nobodyav that knows pittsburgh maand squirrel hill would've ever imagined of that. but i would say i think anybody that has been involved in a mass casualty attack, would say the same thing. it would never happen to us. that's why our work is so important. the security network that we do now across the country to make awareness, teach and educate our communities to be resilient, teach our community to be first responders. it cannot happen to anyone, anywhere. a lot of things we have learned over the last five or six years during mass casualty events, active shooter events, is that we need to do a better job in educating our community on what to do in case they are attacks. in thee case of social media, we are working very hard in the community making national platforms through the secured community network, the organization i work with now
7:55 pm
to talk about and establish a social media review and to find these signs of hate. i think in pittsburgh, most people did not know the identity of rope a was. we see the signs elder pittsburgh. it's important for us to educate the community. why not to dismiss any signs of hate even though it's a piece of paper on a telephone poll? we need to let our community, our country know who these people are so we can identify them, assess that threat, and mitigate the next attack. social media plays a big role in this. we work hand-in-hand with the fbi, but the fbi needs help. they can't openly search social media sites. they have to rely on the community, the community needs to be great partners with law enforcement so we cannot dismiss any signs of hate. >> thank you, a senior testimony something that was really powerful. that the enemy of the
7:56 pm
holocaust and holocaust survivors like yourself, is time. what do you think are the ways to amplify and spread your story, and the story of other survivors to make sure we get them to young people so that they understand this to? >> as i mentioneded earlier, the holocaust museum. we travel for the museum to various colleges, various high schools. we speak to various groups. the important things that we do right now is to educate. it's very important to educate. i am consul he saying education is so important, and i will continue to do >> thank you so much madame chair thank you for your gracious time and i yield back. >> thank y you for your contribution to this important hearing. objection the following documents from organizations and individuals fighting hate shall be made a part of the hearing record. written testimony from organizations and individuals including liz holocaust
7:57 pm
survivor and president of the central valley holocaust educators network, julie raymond, the director of political outreach for ajc egg level jewish advocacy, deborah lobster executive director of new york city office for prevention of hate crimes, eric the director of legislative affairs and deputy director of the international center for human rights and public policy, renee from a jewish federation of north america, an op-ed from our witness adl president, jonathan greenblatt. i want to thank all of my colleagues, especially an incredible remarkable distinguished panel for your wisdom, your insight, your ideas, and your time. for being with us u and sharing this incredible hearing with us. i think we know we have a lot more work to do and that we
7:58 pm
can't sit back and let these acts of hate go un- confronted and responding to them. i think we have learned that we must work together to combat hate, bigotry and violence of all kinds. i want to thank all of you for your advocacy, your guidance, the committee will be hecontinuing this series of hearings on hate. i welcome all of you, all of the members of the panel here and of congress to give me your ideas for an additional thoughts, proposals you believe the committee should review. i just want to thank you again, and i would like to thank our witnesses for testifying today. without objection, all members will have five legislative days within which to submit additional written questions for thehe witnesses to the chair which shall be forwarded to the witnesses for their responses. i asked our witnesses to please respondk as probably you are able. i do want to say a very, very
7:59 pm
special thank you to the holocaust museum for working with congress, doctor edna friedberg, we are hopeful it will pass our bill in the senate, and it will have a centralized database that teachers can access for lesson plans to teach tolerance, acceptance, understanding that's appropriate. we hope it will pass with the allocation and funding so that wewe can take some of your exhibits to every congressional district in the country to learn more about how we can combat hate. i want to thank you again, it's been a remarkable hearing, i'm very inspired. thank you for being here and for all of your wisdom and inspiring all of us. this meeting is adjourned. : :
8:00 pm
8:01 pm
we don't say this is the greatest black achievers ever. these are the 44 that we looked at of the first african-american president and that here is something that they did pioneering, disrupting some cases they were noisy geniuses or quiet innovators.
8:02 pm
and it seems like a fresh argument of secession. so with that contempt on the other side so what is missing is an understanding of people. >> with the smell of small towns around the rural areas so oneness in the fall there is no safety net. and then to be obsessed with


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on