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tv   Author Discussion on Defining Latinx  CSPAN  April 25, 2021 1:01pm-2:02pm EDT

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followed by a discussion on the atomic bombings of hiroshima and nagasaki. later, authors share their story of women who fought against germany during world war ii. book tvs coverage of the virtual san antonio book festival starts now. stay back welcome every one a discussion about we are so excited, i am so excited. i was telling matt and erin i feel like i know them a little bit because i have been reading their books together. they've been in my head for the past couple of weeks. it has been such a journey to read your books together. i would recommend a lot of people read them together. it was an experience for sure. so thank you for joining us.
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so the first question i have, is, we were just talking at the introduction to your book you had to be both an and activists. we had met both of those hats on as we embarked on that journey. the fellow journalist myself i have them to deeply understand there is no such thing as coming to a story or to a peace of reporting from a place of nowhere. there is no such thing as ultimate objectivity. we look at the world, we experience world, we process the world from the place in it that we occupy. and so for me for example, as a journalist i know the place in the world i occupy gives me
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the lens of a first generation american. and many, many other lessons. so i wanted to start by asking you all, what was your place in the world, your starting point, your lens as you embark on writing your book. were you coming from msr theo. you are defining all these different lenses that you have, i think my problem is that i did not know could carry all of those lenses in one hats. i very much for many years in politics, i felt like a fight stepped in this dream i had to wear my hat if i stepped in the other room, pheasant mexico head actor certain way. but as with family i had to look a certain way. the beginning of that journey was understanding what all this things meant together.
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and that if i was choosing to be in one line how are other people choosing to live their life. so the beginning of my journey starts in 2016 is working the clinton campaign and i was very much completely certain that in that campaign and my hat this fansite deputy director of certain but latinos were going to vote, is very much wrong less than 50% that eligible latino voters actually showed up to the poll. it is a reckoning with the ideas i did know who i was i didn't know what i was protecting in terms of what latinos were in 2016.
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it was a search for myself it was a search to combine all these different identities that i had in one. it is to understand who latinos were and how they had changed and what it meant to these freedoms and identities. in a way i believe is not being captured in politics or culture. that was the beginning of writing those words. >> write about in the book that in hindsight now you are not surprised that in 2016 democrats were unable to capture some of those latino votes. because you do not remember black latinos, trans latinos, about the multiplicity of expression that comes latin exit. that is right. honestly we had to do is look internally in her own staff and understand we feel
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comfortable leaning into our identities. how is that interfering with the ways we are creating policies. there is a huge blind spot. my own partner, should state blacks mexican. she herself felt sorted outside of the latino bubble within the clinton campaign. she herself did not feel like she was included because she was only seen as a black woman or a black mexican. i think that example was present throughout all of our strategy per if we were in florida, we were in a place like arizona or neglected. we were neglecting a lot of the nuances that we ourselves could not see internally. i think the less you project that out loud, yes there trans
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and where latino are indigenous migrants here. yes or in the midwest but there's a huge latino growing population there. unless you say that line you miss it and we did. select erin where were you coming from when he started to write this book? what were your lenses? >> someone asked me once but the title of the book, homeland every mexican belongs since 1900. where i belong to. i joked if i could've answered that i would not of had to write this book, right? [laughter] my family comes from the el paso area i got pretty far away. but we grew up quite a busy way from that. so i spent formative years outside of wichita, kansas which was rose hill enhances in abilene texas. there is so little of what i
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experienced in my home set my mom in spanish and so out in the world i never read any book things that existed, sadly until i got to college in san antonio. and in san antonio is like a breath of fresh air for me. it was almost a revelation. their hands it could be different we could travel back to el paso. in the summer times over christmas time because they are you would have, it would've been the early to mid 90s and like el paso you would hear bobby and pearl jam,. [laughter] just all of these different things mashed together. our summer you can be this things. it didn't belong in either
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world. in college i did identify a little bit and then when i discovered in the archives of course i was drawn to these ideas of how folks fitted especially the historical point. that is kind of the place of the world i was coming from was slowly finding where i belonged and recognizing that it can be all of those things. you do not have to be one or the other you can bring together all of your multiple experiences and identities. one of the things i loved reading about your book that made me realizes all these identities first generation mexican-american. but i grew up on the border so in the states during that week
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and mexico on the weekends. my spanish state in a very sort of like casual family realm. while my english because it came to the academic english for before you note my cousins in mexico i also consider myself slick at carry both of these identities with me. and i loved in your book you showed us called mexican is tradition emerged. it did not matter if you're born in the u.s. or in mexico, so long as you shared cultural values at least for mexicans the u.s.
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during the mexican revolution 19 tens and 1920s seen influx of wealthy more conservative mexican national. they proliferate this idea of mexico on the outside. mexico exiles in the u.s. it was important to hold onto your mexican nest by speaking proper spanish, by conforming to mexican gender norms and most importantly by eventually returning to mexico. and it was three year book that us-born mexicans were excluded intentionally from this identity and derided for no longer holding on to their mexican accent. why was this point of tension your launching point? >> it is a great debate that's
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going on. you see it in so many interesting forms. you said in organizations that began to take shape in the 19 tens and 20s. and interviews. but all means to be mexican who isn't and who is. and they get intentionally thrown out. there is that mexican is tradition but gets upset because for a while people in san antonio and they website are like yes, then we get this large influx of mexicans from mexico and they show up and it's like no you're not. [laughter] there is nothing mexican about shoot. you don't wear your hair in anymore they took aim at men. but women the ire of these folks too.
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you have the audacity to cut your hair and a bob. you do not cook meals at home anymore and work hard for your family shield them from the eggs instead you're going out and dancing. so there really critical of women they do not understand spanglish and white u.s. board might speak that. and that to that occur. that is linguistic interaction. look to the 19th century really defines cowboy culture and it gets that anglicized. it's like english is borrowing there but by the 20th century you get the new form of like capitalism and their
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interacting in these jobs find new consumer goods that's all showing up in your language, they start saying at that time and some folks it's not a word. you know the word. [laughter] [inaudible] all these words are showing up. they're kind of foreign or alien to these groups in a moving in in the 19 tens and 20s. that is not mexican. there is this tension within the community that gets teased up and teased out more and more. and eventually come to an instinct that has the effects. they do that really threw that that have lost every thing
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mexican about them, right? one of my favorite quotes come from a novel that is written in los angeles and this brother is yelling at his sister as an insult. [inaudible] right? [laughter] like that is his criticism. there's another journalist and el paso riding in spanish language who calls u.s. board mexicans rate, without a name without any language or something like that. which this is all in spanish. having to make those translations different in the book reading that chapter made
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me realize there was so much. course i knew there was the way it was impacted and it really shows the evolution and why they came. you start finding latino acts in central valley were you provided portrait of actavis who are trying to find the proliferation in their communities. in communities where the environment is quite literally toxic. you also show us there are many farmworkers who get addicted to meth to work in the fields faster. you show us in community or
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abuse from corporation is normalized. work upward mobility is merely impossible. or at least actually set up it would be nearly impossible and where people are caught systems that really victimize their friends. there is this one scene where you are at leaving california right in the book you told your sources, i'll be back. and it broke my heart when you write about the look on their faces when you told him that. this look of skepticism. this look that they did not believe you because they were used to being ignored, the country not paying attention to them. why was it important for you to start here? to start in central california? >> i think unfortunately at all during oved that idea
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became more important and what that chapter alluded to emily saw during the pandemic farmworkers most forget about in california that literally have helped us survive the last nine months are the very ones were still been left behind. many of them lost their lives. the government never protected are the ones that were invisible as they were helping us survive. so, that flipside to that is what i think i sound that chapter when i saw before the pandemic is here's a generation of younger latin next folks that saw their mom or their parents or that normalized injustices are normalizing and healing of these types put their heads down because they had to be appreciative saw their mom
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visit their parents and be stuck into this vicious cycle. why were they taking meth customer and many eyes people were caught in criminal activity. there doing it as a form of survival. not just like the folks that were in the fields. but the beauty of all of that pain is all or sort of rejected that. but i found in california with everyone else that generation of people grew up watching their parents do that is rejecting that. those are the ones that are calling out the corporations. those are the ones that are trying to get out of these vicious cycles. shows you the hypocrisy of this whole system were like
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they are helping us survive. and unfortunately i literally just got back to the >> valley three weeks ago. with those messages ringing in my ears and had been over year since i was last there. what i saw was this amazing community that was completely devastated by covid come back and pulled themselves out of this crisis on their own. i was expecting to see this really, really devastated community. the way i saw them organize among themselves to make sure every single person is getting vaccinated because they know they can't count on the government, can't count on anyone but their selves. it was incredible. it is in many ways the heartland of who we are in this edges of the country.
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those are people that help survive this are also the people are completely out of our site. >> i love that contrary to popular belief the heartland is the outer western edge. yeah, i thought it was such a poetic twofer to begin people who are so often sorry turnoff notification. [laughter] that happens, and happens. one of the sections in your book that fascinated me, i found really, really sobering was when you show us how in the mid 20th century mexican
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americans battled discrimination not on the grounds of moral bankruptcy, but on the grounds that mexican americans were white. and you show us how actavis believed that whiteness privilege mexican americans to receive first-class citizenship in the same rights as anglo-americans because they argued we were after the same race. can you expand for me what it was like to uncover this relationship between mexican and american identity and whiteness? >> that is a great question. what history showed we understand race as a co-
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social construct. it changes over time, right? just because their social construct doesn't mean it doesn't matter would make them stick in our laws and institutions. it certainly does matter. but our ideas about whiteness is, the united states has changed over time who gains inclusion who gains an exclusion. the 20th century the first part of the 20th century due to the shifts occurring to whiteness. it is not consolidated quite yet. it's room with the calm variegated whiteness there shades of whiteness. better whites lesser off whites. then we see this error of consolidated whiteness we have one white versus group of others. but given the way we also understand race in the u.s. it's mainly white and black. so for many latino groups and mexican americans are part of this is that they hold kind of this ambiguous racial position in the united states.
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like place and time and also how dark or light and how well off you are matters. in a south texas you might experience a kind of racial regime similar to jim crow. but if you move away from that to maybe st. louis or something like that, you are better off you would experience would be very much different. and so mexican americans really want to be included in those european-american groups are getting access. they make those points like we want to be italian americans. we want to be like irish-americans, dormant americans. we are going to assimilate we are going to be one 100% american. we're going to subscribe to a set of things. many of those organizations begin to form our official language is going to be english. but somebody folks in the group do not speak english or
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much the correspondence is written in spanish. but they do have that's the way to go and to be recognized will get them out. we take some sort irish-americans are folks like that. they say they largely gave access to whiteness by behaving a certain set of way for the history of that is they gave whiteness through racial violence. they became part of the anti- black. and that's way they made their whiteness real in some ways. mexican americans don't do that with the do try to distance themselves from african americans and limit their attractions. they make that legal argument they are white and arson histories connected to that. to be a citizen you have to be white for a long time. the treaty of guadalupe bay allow them to be citizens
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without space legally they could rest the case once they got recognized as white it would all be over. that was a popular strategy up until the mid- 1950s. called the other white strategy. it kind of comes crashing down in 1954 on them. because it's not so successful. you see the switch in the supreme court case in texas were early on. >> you are against that right? >> that's exactly right. i say we have a constitutional right to a jury of our peers. they say he is not tried by his peers because this history of this county there's not been any mexican americans who served on the jury. and the judge should you claim your white there were 12 white people on there, what's the problem there's no basis for this case. that backfires on them they realize this is not the best legal strategy that's when you start to see okay, switch our strategy here.
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and kind of look at that to the 14th amendment. not everyone was happy with it, that is where you see that important shift. >> you have a chapter dedicated to young latino and he remind us of the 2015 study that showed latin next high school students were more likely to consider suicide. then white or black students. and then of a another study that found half of all young latinos were persistently sad or hopeless nationwide. and many times there is a narrative around these students that they are able, you mention this to sort of
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plow ahead. but you argue that it is their ability to look back to look at their roots and to confront the trauma that has been passed down to them, that ultimately empowers them. can you expand on that more? can you tell us about that? >> yes. so to me in 2019 the american psychological association then comes up with another study that says as latinos is experiencing a very specific type of discrimination. this idea that we are constantly thinking of ourselves as a perpetual foreigner. even though the reality is not more than 80% of latinos under
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the age argue as foreign part you can be as american as you want in they have u.s. passport there is this lingering idea, there's a lingering cloud that you always consider yourself as a foreigner. that is what the study found think even as erin is describing this idea of assimilation of conforming to whiteness i think very much as the older generation that's what our parents did. you grew up looking forward and looking to assimilate forward. the beauty of what's happening now across the country in places where there is a lot of pain and trauma. in fact we do want to look back. we want to raise those taboos. we want to speak out in a way that did it. we want to get closer to our roots in a way our parents were not allowed to because they had assimilate to
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whiteness we want to break a lot of the stereotypes that the older generation was taught to embrace. i always go back to this conversation i had an amazing activist she is a daughter of farmworkers. i know the difference you see with the younger generation is that unlike our parents, our print felt like that know to fall back on. they had to keep looking for they did not understand there's an army of people they could fall back on. the younger generation is that we know. we now if we look back there is an army of people that will hold us. and that i believe is a great. we have an ability now to lean into our identity to lead into our freedom, to lean into who we are way easier the lot more privilege than our parents.
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i noticed in the book i noticed it in movements i noticed everywhere. part of it is to embrace who we are the lot more pride perhaps the what our parents were able too. back it occurs to me that you're writing about a community, and identity that you are a part of. you are a latina. erin you are writing about mexican when you yourself are also of mexican descent. can you both tell me about moments in your journey of writing when perhaps your research led you to look
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inward? a moment when perhaps the you are studying landed personally on you. enforce you to reflect back on your own place in the world and look inward? i will let whoever of you wants to tackle that first. erin. [laughter] >> that is a great question. here trying to put it off support your thinking about it. [laughter] writing and research is deeply personal. you're always writing yourself like you began this panelist. there's something, think any of us can hide behind the notion of objectivity anymore. we do bring our experiences and our history to it. so there is, all of the
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chapters like pieces that help me understand who i was in my family. i think that is what drew me into the field of history. finally i was able to contextualize my family history my family stories. those stories they told me around the table growing up over and over the stories of the mexican revolution paid the stories of work, walking by signs it said no dogs no mexicans. i heard all the stories growing up. i was like okay but in the history i was reading, they never showed up. and so i finally discovered this field help me understand my place in the world, my family's place in the world, this book was directly connected to it. now i can say that with pride right? there are folks in the past
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two also said with pride, some of the stuff that make the cut for the book there was even a poet musician scholar, jack of all trades who is writing about being proud, or he is talking about him, he has a soul he's at both and stuck between certain uncertainties. he writes in english and spanish and in many cases. i was drawn to all of those things. also identified kind of in my pass with some of the things those mexican americans in the h century had done. opened one of his poetry collections railing against middle-class mexican americans who got too good of grades.
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he called them like threats to the revolution for as an undergrad it came across that book and he is bookstore in el paso it's like don't listen to those guys i got too good of grades. mike hey i'm reading your book. [laughter] dug in and was able to understand it a little bit more and to put it in context. and so each of those chapters are certainly something that made the world make sense to me. that helped me understand myself and my community more. well, your book certainly helps me understand myself and my community more. and i'm sorry and you can hear my dog. [laughter] about a moment in your journey were your book made you look
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inward. i think the whole thing for me was like, it forced me to it get out of my own bubble. 90% of the exercise was undoing a lot of what i had been taught a lot of what i grew up with. and i have to say like every single chapter in every single moment was lent me closer to an image i'd never grown up seeing in place like miami which is the most diverse. so growing up in miami and realizing outside there is a whole community, it was on the same zip code and yet we group our entire lives apart. so those conversations help me a lot to understand a lot about what it meant to be a cuban. having conversations with the
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trans community and understand the differences of beauty. how every conversation i had broke every stereotype that i grew up with. being on the board of the indigenous migrants and suddenly understanding or spanish as a weapon for me at hertz a lot of people. because they can't communicate in spanish because they rely on others. that opened up, it was red counties in georgia and understand there's a whole indigenous mayan community there. to every little corner of this country that i went to expanded my idea of who we were in ways we never grew up with. so at least for me it continues to be a learning experience. it continues to be in experience me to it check my own privileges. an experience when trying to
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define because of the book is simply like opening my eyes in ways that i never did. the way i thought is unless we do this now i really do think there's long-term effect because we continue to be extremely fractured and continue to be extremely divided. time to embrace something i was taught never embrace. >> and i have to say, in your writing, in your reporting and white coach people and capture their story one really gets a sense that you come with a humility and open-heart throughout the whole book. >> may be the hardest moment perhaps was when i was talking to the chairman of the probably is. like a black latino who
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embraced everything i was against. and yet in those conversations as a journalist, i'm sure you can relate to the sometimes it's hard to know we have to stop asking questions it is very hard to be a good listener. something i learned in this book. two following the narrative becomes hard to listen to people hurt and think in this book towards and specifically i just became a listener. i think the routine came out of that of someone like a proud boy you go and with so many biases toward this person and then when you listen you understand they too have needs and traumas. they were left out of system. it's all about learning and undoing in continuing to look forward.
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>> erin and your book you talk about this evolution went mexican americans at the roots of their discrimination. the root of the problem was that they had not yet molded to american capitalism. the only mexican-american assimilated to american principal that they could find a roadmap to equality through economic growth. then in the 60s we see a shift away from this mindset, a shift into, that actually know we are not the problem. the problem is that we are a colonized people. in the u.s. is our colonizer. tell me more about how we saw this evolution mindset that
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they have? >> yes. so we certainly see mexican americans thinking there has to be a way they prove they are equal, right? the folks are beginning to set ideas in places like san antonio, brownsville, el paso, tended to be from middle classes of the middle aspirational middle classes. some are newspapers while some were professionals like doctors and lawyers of their own grocery stores, they might've owned their own mechanics garage. the way they improve themselves with actual capitalist competition. this was like a real objective. this is like data driven through our equality to reach equal stature. it's like dollar bills, that was the receipt. and so they had to push these
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ideas of the idea was not to get rid of capitalism but to remove barriers so that they can participate in capitalism. that was the idea. it wasn't just mexican americans it was growth liberalism that was very prominent not just in the united states but through a lot of the world the policymaking world. we still see hints of that even in our policies today. even with say the democratic party. so when you get to the 60s we are experiencing the high point of liberalism in the united states. largely 32 -- 68. with this idea is going to lift off both. and when they look around for proof that the rising tide they saw no proof for a rising tide. so one of the chapters and begin the chapter with two pictures of the westside in san antonio. and one from the 1930s the others who 1960s.
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to extent to not be able to tell the difference from the 1930s -- 1960s. given we are policies and politics were explained that should not have existed anymore from the 30s to the 60s. there should have been a dramatic change. i look at for inflation, incomes had virtually -- they had not increase at all they not shifted at all. once adjusted for inflation the same in the 1930s to the 1960s. they're still lack of water and some of those communities into the 1960s those communions like rosie castro and the castro brothers would have come out of. there is not proof that was working. also a set of ideas you start to see social sites try to test them. this was a consensus there's a
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change everything good would happen. they were not seeing that they did not attend how the world works. -they got to them it's not working. now we have to develop new ones. that is the ideological world born into. a set of ideas in the political project that's a little different than we understand today a little bit more neutral or nine. there's a difference between mexican americans at that time mexican americans category came from but we should not be embarrassed the air force base
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in san antonio for they were mechanics or they work at lee crops in the migrant workers. that is something that is positive that we should not try to hide that. that is good to the way that we speak is acceptable could not only acceptable but legitimate. it is valid. then they begin to question some of the ideas of what america was. he is more good? are these institution of the military and the family, are these gender norms actually helping or harming and they come to the conclusion that no, these institution and these ideas should be challenged. they should be revised. in some cases discarded completely. in some cases that is not popular among lots of folks. some folks push back if they know that is too radical.
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but they are okay with that radical label that they are okay challenging all of those things. >> it was explicitly. you let so many people on this journey there so many of their stories one of the passages that really stayed with me is when you met a man in new york city. manhood gone through many things including being in solitary confinement. any him, what would you tell yourself and he said, to love yourself. and you realized that so many
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other you have met in your reporting would answer that question exact same way. what does that reveal to you? >> just at the end of conflict we are it is about, if i had not -- mcveigh had advice myself would be the same thing. i wish i would've loved myself a little bit more earlier. one of done with everyone is that conversation saved me a lot. as a very similar one than what i had with another trans woman in arizona. she had to leave mexico because she was korean is think about this idea average
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life expectancies or dividers old. so i met when she's in arizona and there are these parallels in new york city were all to love herself and to embrace herself after everything she's gone through is rough. it sounds so corny but truly is it comes down to that, what i think, i always think about now because of the politics and the rejection of the term latin expert always come back to the same thing, is this a native term? because all the pushback and rejection. then i think what do we have in common as one? we are many different identities. we have many different accents, stories, nationalities, what we have in common? it is that someone in our
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family trees somewhere among all of these characters somebody migrated to this country so that the younger generations couldn't lean into the freedoms that are parents could not find elsewhere. i comes down to love. if we just love each other a little bit more and embrace each other a little bit more, i think it would go a long ways. so yes it showed me like it comes down to finding the empathy that he think we do have is a community. that's very easy to forget it's easy to look the other way. i think about that a lot. one of the passages that really lingers after reading it, we are going to get to some audience questions now. i have a great respect for your work in your advocacy.
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i am curious if you could speak more about identity more specifically is this a shift away from i am mexican, cuban, puerto rican, et cetera. as the sort of an approach? >> i think everyone should identify however they want. but i think we are trying in this moment were trying to refer to ourselves as a collective community, i think in this moment it is the only word in the vocabulary that i at least attempt. [inaudible] it is a very u.s. centric word. i think it tells a story of what it means to be let in the next in this community in this moment with the political shifts and changes.
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and so i part of there's something about that image, there's something about the image of a mexican being a black cuban being sued trans person from arizona, being next to indigenous folks in south carolina being next to a liberal there's something about that image that irritating to a lot of people. so i think that is when i'm trying to work towards. why are we sort of rejecting that embracement? i think that forces up to see things we don't want to see. it forces us to look beyond the nationalities. to look beyond that mexican, cuban, to what is that mean? what is that look like? and in that sense forcing us to talk about things we should have been to document decades ago. we have another question.
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our selecting on the research and think about all the people he met along the way. what is one story or character they would most love to see reflected in a fictional world. a novel because this person's profile. [inaudible] make that is a good question. [laughter] there is a couple places. i don't know of some of the work that i look at like the 20s the novels would be that great turned into contemporary plays or novels, or performed or movies anymore. they are so historically
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specific. i think, if we are looking at a biopic or something like that, and there has been some documentaries written on someone like gus garcia might be really interesting. and it is a tragedy really. it is a tragic story. i think it would be an interesting story to be told. i actually think, wrote an article that will be in the right directors and writers hands would be a really interesting movie. so george washington gomez tells a story of a family down in jonesville on the ground which is brownsville and so his father is killed by texas rangers. but his father's would proud of the u.s. so he swears of his brothers
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to never tell his son he still by the rangers. in sorbed george washington gomez, he only goes by like george in school. he starts learning that in school he's one person. talks about the kind of double consciousness way. in school and classes george and at home and in these different things and everyone always tells them is supposed to be a leader for his people is going to be this great figure that's going to bring about social change. and at the end of it actually becomes this by. he gets a law degree and comes back. but the u.s. government respect to be a spy and spy on the community they're afraid of them during the war they might sympathize with the germans. so they're kind of afraid of what happens in world war i. so they sent him to be a spy. they come back and see old
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group of friends of turns of these new activists in this restaurant. we should change something he tells them iq mexicans will never be anything more than mexicans until you change. and then at the end he like walks out. that is kind of the end i think they did call michael mann the. [inaudible] something like that. i'm just talk about tragedies now. [laughter] not uplifting stories. i think that would be really interesting story to see or tell. what about you? >> the people that come to mind are the incredible bad in the rio grande valley. i think about my time and politics and we are trying to talk about abortion and reproductive rights, and i remember in the new york office would be like to not say that were in texas.
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you are going to lose latino votes are not going to vote for you guys if you say that. i remember going in and just go door to door in among themselves there are organizing women and their talking in a way in a freedom and a language that again going back to the stereotypes is like 50 -- six -year-olds like 30 old ladies, they are talking about these taboo latino issues in a way that was mind blowing and incredible and extremely progressive not in the political world business sense they are three steps ahead. i just loved following them around, how do you have these sort of underground meetings. i would just love to see what that organize looks like now. how someone like that is in the formula. could really go a long way.
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and i think the evolution of the woman felt closed and slowly talking about things that are taboo for so much of her life. to capture what that freedom looks like. your identity changes on the way. >> tate has a few questions. how do you organize virtues the places you visited? and who you spoke to? were some things are not your originalists or if so what we compelled dude? or are planning to the future, where and why? >> yes so a lot of it, looking at these clinical battleground states that i had visited the past. campaigns of politics.
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going back through those places and women in the states talking to people we never talked to like when i was in politics. that was a little bit of the beginning of the mapping. cab into texas a hundred times like how did we always leave out. the majority of the state sprayed the way i found most of these stories was through social media. my strategy before going in as i can going to texas i want to talk to these folks one of my missing? people would literally became this massive whiteboard of people connecting to others. that this friend who talked to this talk to her about this, a lot of it was honestly through people connecting me to their friends. in asking the question of what it my missing? what am i missing? what am i missing?
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a lot of the chapters came about organically that way. >> a right level more question. do you find it surprising when people say oh my god, i cannot believe insert let next year voted for him. and so how do you respond to that? she says i give them your book. [laughter] met yes. it should not be surprising. i think historically latinos have voted for republicans between 27 -- 30% have historically voted that way. that in and of itself should not be surprising. i think part of understanding latin axis understanding we too can be racist. we too can perpetuate racism. and we too as erin has pointed out has done an incredible job, we want to assimilate to whiteness. that says a lot about our history and or pattern, what
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we have been educated to do. i certainly was not surprised. think it's also interesting the majority of the heavy latino immigrants across the county have started to shift to the right slowly, but they are. i think that is part of this whole exercise is understanding where that comes from. yes. but thank you for giving them my book but there's a lot of other books. [laughter] >> well, that was our hour, thank you so much to both of you for joining us. aaron's book is called homeland ethnic mexican longing since 1900. it is one of the most informative books that i have read on my identity of latin american thank you. this book called finding latino at the voice hood
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defining identities. i am the creator and host a podcast about belonging, about the life in legacy, how she is a vessel for understanding the issues of race and class and american latino identity in the u.s. thank you so much it has been so fun to be with you all. and i'm going to cherish this conversation. i hope people found informative and i hope to see you again. : : :


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