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tv   Elizabeth Becker You Dont Belong Here  CSPAN  September 9, 2021 1:14pm-2:10pm EDT

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>> you have a shot at winning the grand prize of $5000. entries must be received before january 20, 2022. for competition rules, tips or just how to get started visit our website at . >> thank you for coming to this event with elizabeth becker. author of you don't belong here which is a gripping and fascinating and on down the account of three journalists who cover the vietnam war.
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one really happy to welcome you here on behalf of the program that i run which is the technology media and communications specialize asian at the school of international public affairs. the institute for the study of human rights at columbia, the journalism school and the working group on conflict resolution so we're all really pleased to have you here elizabeth and we've got students, alumni, working journalists and other members of the columbia community in the audience . so thanks everybody. and elizabeth, i think you are probably going to start by showing some slides, did you want to say anything before you begin? >> only to say it's wonderful to be here. columbia is such a special place for me. i've already introduced my son-in-law was a professor here and my daughter completed her graduate studies at journalists school here so it's a special place and thank you for having me . so yes, i'd like to start a brief presentation with this
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is a book you don't belong here. the three women who i profile on the three women who rewrote the story at the top. a french photojournalist who like the other three arrived on a one-way, paying their own way to vietnam. she flew from paris to saigon . she had zero experience as a photographer. she's in her mid-20s. it was 1956. she was a essentially a high school dropout. yet by her own work and her outsiders view of certified humane look at photography, she took amazing photographs and became the first woman to win the george book award for photography and the robert
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the gold medal award which is the thing for a young reporter. the next woman down is francesfitzgerald, an american . she is the most privileged by a longshot of my three women. she's a blue blood wasp background. intellectual, family of wealth and prestige. her dad was a cia director. her mother was a democratic party activist and socialite. she arrived on her own, no job. with a couple of ideas for freelancing and she ended up taking a completely different view of vietnam. the vietnam war, looking at the vietnamese point of view, the vietnamese history. the landscape, the culture and the people and what the war was doing to it . her work eventually led to writing fire in the lake, the
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vietnamese and americans in vietnam which was won every award possible. in ki1972. it was 31 years old. the bottom is not planned, k-12. family intellectual, born in newzealand and raised in australia . she arrives again on her own with her typewriter, no credentials to speak job. yet she too as an outsider worked a very different path as a combat reporter, she became a great combat reporter. burrowing into the society of the cambodians and the vietnamese. telling a story that had a human dimension at the others and her contributions were recognized in the prize named after her, the k-12 award to the asian journalists was the
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greatest determination and courage in journalism. next slide please. catherine, the french photographer. my book did not deal with a lot of analysis of gender this or gender that . i tell the story by the women they lived big lives. katrina was already accomplished pianist and an accomplished parachutist when she arrived in saigon. and she was the only journalist it turns out male or female, photographer or writer or reporter who was applied to jump with the hundred 73rd brigade and the only aerosol in the war. look at her. she's barely 5 feet tall. she weighs 87 pounds. she's equipped, her equipment
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almost overtakes her. she's gotthree cameras around her neck . my husband who is an accomplished parachutist and veteran says she can't believe she could jump and the cameras didn't fly in her face. but she did jump. and next slide please. while she jumped she these amazing photographs. kathleen taking photographs with all three cameras while she's jumping into a combat zone. she lands and she writes in her diary that it's the softest landing she ever had and she compares it to jumping over the in the countryside. needless to say that photograph has been reproduced everywhere. nextslide please . this is one of her iconic photographs. she as i said is small. she's tiny, whatever you want to use. she used her size and her
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almost acrobatic abilities to get as close as she could to her subjects, even in the middle of combat. this is a 20-year-old medic named glenn wiki. this is one of the great battles you can see the desolation on the battleground . one of the great battles and she is crawling in the mud and close enough to take these other pictures as he tries to save a soldier and the soldier dies. she cries out in anguish which is what you see their and she picks up the soldiers rifle and goes to try to kill the vietnamese on the other side who had injured and killed his comrade. it's so close that the medic couldn't believe she was even there. he said where what she, i didn't see her. she was this close to him. next slide. that's sort of her mo.
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there's a soldier in the classic position of waiting, alert . at ease. and you can see it in his eyes. he is in the way these posturing. she had a gift that the great ap bureau chief said i hadn't seen since world war ii. her photographs were stunning and they were on the cover of things like life and look. next slide please. and of course, the civilians. she was adept at catching that moment. as the battles proceed and policies forced soldiers out of their homes, the generations that lived there, they had close to nothing. they're on the road. their barefoot. not sure where they were
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going. next slide please. this is frances fitzgerald. as i said, she came with a lot of privilege, a lot of connections and that was used against her. people well, he's got it made. she's got her money, she's got all these connections and she can just get easy stories but she didn't. she did the opposite. she will do the hardest kind of reporting and the kind of reporting no one else was doing . she went, she would go to the battlefield not by a long shot as the men but go to the sicilian hospital to see how the sicilians were taken care of so her privilege life she had never seen anything like what these people were going through. the hospital, the smells, the noise and she reported it all . she wrote it down. then when she was trying to tell the story of how this was all this damage and her
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was not helping the american cause, she did things like spend a lot of time and one village alone to write a long piece for the times. call the life of a village. next slide please. and because i showed you all of katrine's pictures i wanted to read you a little bit from that magazinearticle . this is 1966. the united states has only been at work for one year and already she was zeroing in on the problem . she writes, from our helicopter the land was sculpted. my history is constant as the motion of water in the military villages isolated by war, the american south vietnamese armies were radioing the trucks in the airplanes.
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have altered the villagers sense of time and space. the very numbers and the vast power of their machines as distorted the human proportion and the scale of possibilities . though the village is still full of parts. they help the farmers pushing them over the edge. and onto the roads to swell the tide of people watching wave upon wave out of the seas. in combination with the viacom they have poverty, terror and suspicion but above all they have brought uncertainty. one year into the war. next slide please. as i said, she wrote the book back in 1974 one the pulitzer prize, the national book award, and the bangkok history award. no book about the war, vietnam war has repeated that accomplishment. and as i said, she took the, she filled a void. she showed americans what the
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war look like for the vietnamese point of view. something for which she was rewarded. here's an example. the map of the vietnamese people cemented the push, no more and no less then presenting the americans how to serve the commoners who came before them. it was the men who focused that resentment. the fact that many vietnamese in the city and one of the american contingencies had wanted them to intervene tonot only for practical reasons but for theecological ones . they wanted the americans to be these all-powerful barbarians that they could take responsibility for the war at the same time they feared american domination buy one of those range reversals , that the wind makes for self consistency both the desire and the fear merged in the expression of fear that the americans would lose. the more americans spend
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their best efforts and lives in vietnam, the less influenced they had to reform their moment insouth vietnam . with both men and material resources they americans were enforcing corruption and destroying the tissue of vietnamese society . stunning work. next slideplease . and here's k-12, the australian . you can see from just her manner she brought in on the story that people, she gave her full attention, hurtful intelligence. now she arrived thinking she could cover the australian army. the australians had the same rules against women covering on the battlefield as the americans did but the s australians actually enforced it . and the americans had to convince not to enforce the
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vietnamese for many reasons, one of which is a few of them before kate including petry had convinced them to just suspend it. let the women stay in the field as long as they didn't cause any problems. and as it turned out that extension became permanent and these women effectively opened the way for women of the future to cover the war. but case made her name first of all always, she was a freelancer just as frankie was, just as katrine was but kate made it in 1968 in january as the beginning of the offensive which i'll remind everyone was a turning point of the war. january 68, the president of the united states, lyndon b. johnson and general westmoreland, william westmoreland who was in charge of the troops in vietnam, everyone had seen a
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light at the end of the tunnel. they could see an american victory and instead on new year, the vietnamese both the vietnamese and north vietnamese launched a countrywide south vietnamese wide uprising attack, and attack and to the horror of americans thback home if concluded taking over one floor of the us embassy. kate was a freelancer and one of the first ones there and she wrote a dispatch thatmade her name . she said the embassy look like a butcher shop. her dispatch reporting and even her photographs were on the front pages around the world and she finally got a job with the united press international. and she showed a flair for the humane approach that we would now call human yerights
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which the other two did as well. that was very much the outsiders point of view. less even in combat it wasn't all that bad and next slide please. here's an example from her, this is a upi report of a wire service. that means she write it in a day. this is old-fashioned time where you, she probably dictated this or maybe she was in saigon but she writes this very quickly. this is called life and death of a helicopter through. it came in, 1968. from kate, there are times when the vietnam war makes a reporters fingers shake. while holding a pencil. my counsel wobbles if i write this story of two young helicopter gunners i do really. i saw them go through a war many times, now i had seen their bodies come back.
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and the days before that thursday i rode with them as they flewout again and again jungle . they lived the ordeal in those military words, close fire support. it was a special routine. it started each time with a pilot coming up, the door gunners visors sliding down over their eyes. i over the greenwins , tears at your close and flattens your face. the impersonal army report saying the helicopter crash and burn all four crewmembers killed in action. i promise you you don't see many articles that brought tears to your eyes in the first three grass like that . next slide please. we've already gone through. next slide please.
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>> kate was so good that when the united states invaded cambodia in 1970, spreading the war to that country she was named deputy bureau chief of the new bureau. within a few months for euro chief was killed and she was named the bureau chief for self. this was extraordinary. very few women were even in vietnam or in cambodia as full-time reporters much less as a bureau chief. but because of the culture of the time there was no press release. nobody wanted to point out a woman was doing it case was as cautious as anybody else. it was so rare for women to be doing what they were doing they figured if they kept their profile low nobody would notice and they would get back . in those days in fact most
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women were still being relegated to the women's sections of newspapers . kate her luck ran out in 1971 , she was captured by the north vietnamese in cambodia. she was captured in and held for 23 days and while she was held in was falsely reported that her body had been found and she was declared dead. her friends and family were obviously as morning. her sister course didn't believe it and she held out all whole but while everybody was worried that he was dead in fact kate was undergoing a tremendous captivity. the food was lousy. they had to eat what the north vietnamese soldier eight which was bare-bones rice and gruel and tea and she walked a lot.she was
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sick, the medical care was awful and yet she still kept her sense of humor and they all managed to memorize a lot of what they saw and figure out how to take notes. i thought one of her best things from her memoir which she wrote called on the other side a and 23 days being held . here's what it was like when she was interrogated by her north vietnamese captorwho believed she was a spy . what was a woman doing on the road? here's how it goes.d why did you choose that particular morning to go down highway four, the north vietnamese asked? kate said i wish i hadn't in the way. on the other hadgiven me the first opportunity of my life to meet you . that was my job to see what was really happening. we find it unbelievable you would get up go down the highway which is very dangerous alone in your car
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just looking for the truth . she answers that made it sound pretty silly. looking for a rare flower on the battlefield. everyone knows there is no truth on the battlefield except getting killed, getting out alive and the in between of being named. sometimes i think my job is treating myself truthfully. next slide. but she got out. she became a legend overnight . the australian country went crazy. every newspaper had huge headlines that look like the end of world war ii. kate is freed, kate is wonderful. after she finished her work she flew back to sydney to be with her family for a short break and she and her brother
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, her brother who was a journalist at the time brought her to be forever all nail club in sydney and she crafted. here she is taking great delight in being the first woman ever to have a drink at the correspondentsclub . she eswent on to continue work and was in hong kong when i arrived. next slide please. through a mutual friend kate met me at the airport. here's my press card and to make sure i got on the right side and in my backpack i had frankie fitzgerald book of course, fire on the link and i literally was following in their footsteps. but i was covering a different war. next slide please. this was cambodia.
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looks a lot like the pictures you saw. this is a different kind of buddhist than you had in vietnam. it was more homogeneous. it was a country completely unprepared for war. it had been neutral throughout the vietnam war from 55 until 1970 when the war did break out, the previous ruler had tried to keep it neutral, playing one side off against the other and finally it broke and as i said the american invasion started. the north vietnamese refused to leave and instead spread out and by the time i got there the war was frightening. the paris peace accords had already been signed. and the american air force was freed to bomb cambodia so
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i watched the bombing. i covered the bombing of cambodia and kate came back from hong kong to teach me a lot about the road and so i literally lived the kind of life these women did. i came on my own, had to find a job. lived pretty poorly until after a few months i became the russian post stringer which is a contact reporter on the ground for newsweek. in those days there were very few full-time staff reporters in cambodia and i think you can count them on one hand. washington post needed someone like me and that's how i broke in. this is one of those sad pictures that epitomizes a lot of the war. there was corruption in cambodia as well so the government is replete with
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young kids wearing sandals, or pay grades. and d like the others, i went through stages of wondering if i could handle all the sexualharassment . i wondered if i could turn the other cheek when it came to miss believing, wondering iewhether or not i was everything that was happening to me was, i could still prevail. i remember one of the worst things was when i did startto do well , some anonymous reporters wrote parity about me on reuters stationery where they stated quite openly that the only reason i was doing well is because i was using myfeminine wiles .
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that's part of the era i was in an era she was in. next slide. these women came when the women's liberation was barely a movement back in the united states. they were if anybody showed that they had actually believed there was institutional obstacles to women's advancement, then we, they made fun of you and said you were looking for a crutch. so that's one of the reasons, that's the one theme i have in my whole book is this outsiders, that these women wrote the story of war and it's not because of x or y chromosomes . it's because they had fresh eyes. they had different ways of life and they expanded the conception of war. that there was a more humane
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way to write. but especially to write about the countries of the war was taking place. that's who they are and i look forward to your questions,thank you very much . >> thank you so much for the presentation. one thing i really enjoyed is seeing the photos and the texts because you give a flavor of how compelling and dramatic their coverage was. i think in a way the story that you tell is really an extraordinary story and it you're always so modest about what you've done you really told you the first time a piece of history of women's in journalism. and as you mentioned we all remember martha gellhorn and a few big names but i myself worked in vietnam in the 1990s. i read tons of books about
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vietnam by many of the journalists. the david halberstam's and i actually didn't know any of this at all. so the story you're telling i think is really phenomenal and important and it makes a huge contribution. another thing that you convey so thoroughly in the book is the incredible trauma and stress that these women suffered from. that they took the call, the emotional and psychological toll thatit took on them . and another thing i have known is how terrible the men were to them . how jealous they were, how they tried to undermine them. how they tried to get them fired. we bought a lot of the male reporters were pretty awful when we were in vietnam in the 90s but there are real villains in this book as well as heroines. obviously the famous hp editor, i didn't know how
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supportive he was the destruction that many of them, the male journalists and one of the other interesting things about the book is you antalk about their love livesand that personal relationship . and you know, some of the men that these women were involved with and not come off very well. i want maybe say who because people should read the book. and another thing i just wanted to add was that everybody i know who has gotten a hold of the book has credit in about two days. ipoured through it and i see people in the audiencenodding . it's seriously research but it's an unbelievably gripping book as well. so really great for your storytelling and just yeah, the story that you told and the way that you told it. >> just to add on the love life, they also have their
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family. they write to their parents and write to their friends. so i wanted a full life because that's what i always find missing from any war memoir but also to understand the toll that it took i had to include what they told their parents and i remember when katrina was just beginning to realize that the male photographers were trying to get her thrown out of the country she wrote back to her mother and said they are masters and so forth and she said mom, here women are viewed either as a wife for a horror. and these women were trying to be professionals and there's not a lot of space there. thank you on you. >> i think we're all bursting with questions laura had one as well. should we start with laura ?
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>> congratulations elizabeth. it's a wonderful book and i encourage all of you to pick up your copy if you haven't already. i was wondering if you could speak about the process in your sources because it is such a gripping narrative and a page turner and there's so much rich detail". can you speak a little bit about the sources here on what you uncovered or, he challenges in getting access to the course material, can you expand on that a little bit? >> the problem, first of all i had a huge advantage. i knew where to look and i could read the material and no what was important and what wasn't. so to start their i had a thin leg up. it took me a while to figure out how i was going to do it, no question. once i did a lot of research about everyone, about the
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whole context, about what the laws were. i had to do an entire contextual before i could narrow it down to the three women . and then once i threw in, i knew the photographer. kate well was clearly the combat reporter. hasn't shoulders and of course there had to be katrina leroy for the tiger fee. one person said these three were outstanding and so then what were my source materials? i loved out on this one too. kate well left everything to her sister and brother and her sister was beside her all the way. she had a really tragic childhood and her parents
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were killed when she was 18 so her sister was family. the sister had everything in a storage unit. so my husband and i flew to sydney and i spent lots of time with rachel, the sister and i found that stuff and rachel says no and she says it was wonderful. i interviewing rachel and her brother jeremy, they wanted their sisters story told, every aspect so the hardest stuff they never talked about, they knew kate story needed to be told. it was preceded by saying kate died in her early 50s and katrine had died about the same time in her early 60s. she had no family to speak of and her mother died shortly
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afterwards so it was her friend and god bless friends of the great photographer, robert pledge and dominique, they collected money to make a foundation, the french foundation for catherine leroy to collect her papers and it was scattered to the winds but they still discovered stuff and they made it all available to me. the wife had done some video s interviews of her contemporaries. when she died so i was able to use those as well. then frankie is alive, she is an incredibly smart, astute, reserved woman and she had early on given her papers to boston university. she gave everything.
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i mean, it was a gold mine and she couldn't remember what she had given. whenever i ran across thing i didn't know and i'd ask her a question she would answer. so she had such a respect for history. that she never steered me wrong. there's one point where i was stopped because it was so boring writing about her writing a book i mean what is more boring than writing a book, going to the library and coming home so i thought aidid you have a boyfriend there? she said oh yeah, alan lundstrom the novelist so i found alan and i had some, he's just fabulous. suddenly that section is alive so a lot of it was that but as i said, it really helped that i knew the people they knew. i knew their friends, i was, i did not go prepared at all. i came as an insider and
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sometimes i don't like the narrator who's just basically offscreen but knewwhat was going on so that helped . does that answer your question? >> thank you. shall we, i'll read mckenzie has an interesting question in thechat . she's asking when you learn that more about the stories of these women was this largely validating your experience of barriers during her time as a reporter, were there any surprises when you wereresearching this book ? >> yes, the best example i think his country. she had it worse because she was a photographer in the field all the time. you could be a war photographer without being in the field and that was the greatest challenge to masculinity. to see this small woman, this just running circles around the men because if this is
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supposed to be male territory and these are the head of the press led a group of other journalists, and military spokesman n who created a, what they call the black file, a military dfile to discredit her and take away her press credentials which meant she had to leave the country. and they accused her of things like being course, being vulgar, being unwashed. being pushy. being arrogant and those are the general description of any journalist but they use that to take away her credentials and it worked temporarily but she fought back and after that, she was very determined to do well. i was shocked. i had never come even close to that although then i remembered that like one of ne
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my best friends in cambodia, a woman who helped bring me up there because she was there u. she wrote and, she did an investigation and wrote a piece about how the us was illegally helping in the bombing of cambodia and she was thrown out. just like that. about a week or so later sydney shepherd of the new york times wrote about essentially the same story and nothing happened to him. oh, he wrote a great story. so i was witnessing already the very different experiences of women and men, sometimes institutionally and sometimes professionally . >> lydia had a question next and she's having technical difficulties so i will speak for her. and lydia is jumping up. she says hearing you speak
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about the harassment women faced then and do today, female reporters in social media, do you see esany advice from the women you write about? >> i'm not good at lessons, i have to say. i left them out oof the book . the one thing that was amazing and i used kate. she was everything inside. she was a diplomat. she wanted to loget a career, she knew how to avoid the worst of the guys but she figured a way around all of this. but then it hit her like a lame right after the war when she should have been recovering from all of the trauma of the ptsd. she was appointed to singapore, but instead of being able to continue her
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career, her boss demanded she become his mistress. she refused and he filed a complaint on another chart. and she quit journalism. the opticals that she thought she had figured a wayaround , so she quit journalism for 10 years and didn't come back and then what she did is she going to a different press. so that's one lesson that kate learned. >> kate is going to ask the next question. >> thank you elizabeth, it's been such a great talk. so reading through the book i'm gripped by how much sexism and politicization as you described on the web fitzgerald.
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and also you as well experienced that in cambodia and i was curious to know what were the ways if there were any that you took to try to take care of yourself and preserve your mental health and if you knew anyways that they supported each other or just their work they had to find an individual manner to accomplish that. >> we work that conscious of what was going on. we didn't say where going to x, y, and z,it just happened . we left it, so when i found amazing was that all of ushad trouble taking vacations . and all of us, it's amazing. we had a horrible time leaving the war because we were so dedicated to that story and those countries that we almost wrote the same words, all of us.
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i had to come back. i had to come back and then when you left us i couldn't take it anymore. it was very hard to get over it . so i know that i went with her when i got home and iknow the others didn't . i know that country roads she couldn't cross the street in paris without flipping out. it was only when she got assignment to go to new york to cover a music festival called woodstock that she could relax, she hung out with the bats who were there and i think that was sort of the beginning of her somewhat recovery although it wasn't complete. but we were not cognizant of all that. >> i think you're right, some m of the men i worked with in vietnam are still suffering from ptsd as well as physical injuriesbecause of course journalists get shot at . i remember when i would come back, i never covered anymore thank god i remember when i
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would come back from leaving new york iwould like to wait with myjet lag and think i can't do this . i'm not good enough . they're going to find out. i think it's common for women to have imposter syndrome and be sure thatthey just got lucky and that's how they got their job and they can actually do their job . >> it's a way we undermine our self sometimes. >> i must say these three have a confidence level that i admired a lot. they just did not fall forever. they each had, that was not their problem. >> that's fantastic. i know you're going to call on the next person. >> it's been referenced a little bit today in our chat but i'm curious. there were certain sections from each of these three women and i think the best was the american cases where
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legislation, the women were not allowed to be war reporters and then athey made special exceptions and they re-invoke that. it seems they went back and forth but allowing women to report and i'm sure moving into the future if you have any insights on, did they use this as test cases where there like we can esnever do something like this again like these women have proven this these women and others have proven that these laws don't make any sense. that this reporting is just as good if not better and more diverse than what wehave in the past . how to be, how did those kind of rules informed the future landscape. >> after vietnam, there's no more banning of women. after vietnam women were forever on the battlefield so that was over. it took other countries a little bit longer. but the next time the united states went to war, was 1991
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gulf war. and by then, the women had arrived. they were correspondents. they had wages. they had equipment. they you know, they didn't think they got the same access as men but they were workforce and that's remain even australia dropped it so i think it took a while but all countries now allow women on the battlefield. but you know, the problem now is that the battlefield itself has become more dangerous for reporters, male or female. it's now possible in many respects that you could say that journalists are targets. look at the story of marie coleman. she wastargeted . and journalists are targeted and they arecaptured , kidnapped for ransom. and there killed. it's a different problem
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entirely but after vietnam, those women didn't realize it but they effectively ended the ban on women in combat they didn't tell the story for 30 years. they kept it quiet because they were afraid the remote host . and it was only 30 years when they did a collection of personal reminiscence and a lovely book called war-torn that they actually told their story. it was that scary that it might be reimposedbut it was never reimposed . >> .. you think things -- is going to help change or is it going to be a splash in the pan? >> thank you.
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it's inevitable. it reminds me of the beginning of the stageser of the women's movement where serious work on getting rids of institutional barriers was reduced to they are just burning bras and it leads to this movement more than a #, women do not have to go through that sexual harassment in order to be a professional whatever they want to. there's no question is serious. >> is it misused? i'm not going too get into that but it's a central. >> i think we all feel -- we were talking about this in class lastta week how important the meeting movement has been and when we talk about sexual
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harassment and abuse, they like to talk about what they facebook as people have pointed out, harassmentnt, journalists and black women black women journalists is very serious and now of course because ofrs socil media can happen in so many different places as well so your book is talking about an earlier version in some ways. >> oh yes, no question. hannah sent out -- >> i have zoom on my phone, not my desktop but thank you for being here sharing with us. i'm curious the vietnam war in so many ways was this new work
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for the united states was engaged in, a new kind of journalism, photographer and video of battles for the first time reaching a lot of people and shaping public opinion of the war. today it's almost the opposite problem in some ways, if you look for it, there's so much video coverage there seems to be, you can be overwhelmed by the content of the horrible things going on in the world and i'm wondering what you think from your perspective and as a journalist, they kind of humanized the stories but what you think today needs to be done or if you think anything needs to be done to continue to tell these stories in a cutting age way or do they need to tell them
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better or include more voices ot you think about the future? >> i'll answer from a slightly different angle. one of the reasons the vietnam war was well covid was because the american public was hungry for details. we were at work. whenever the u.s. is at work, you get saturation coverage. now the worst are not, you don't see americans fighting anymore, nobody can keep track of who's fighting inin syria. the russians were doing this and so one of the problems you described, you don't know where to find it permit the fact that the americans are the focus and the u.s. is the kind of country where if it's not america we are not interested in fats a general
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problem with foreign coverage, particularly the last four years of the trump administration it seemed like foreign use was lost. hopefully. >> with the biden administration there's this space we can keep more part of the world but i think the problem we have is the american public and media, everybody to focus even when the u.s. is not and that's the way i would phrase it. >> thank you so much. >> do you have any final questions? >> i was just checking. a cosponsor is here so i wanted to acknowledge nina and thank you so much for coming and putting this together. it's important for journalists
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to feel journalism school is involved with their events so it's great you are able to join and help promote this event. a really fascinating discussion. we have copies of culture and all of you are welcome to drop by and pick one up and i went to thank elizabeth and cosponsors and everyone for coming and for all the great questions so congratulations again, you've had lots of reviews and we couldn't be happier about hosting you. thank you to everybody. >> thank you all for coming and for asking portable questions. it means a lot. ♪♪ >> weekends on c-span2 are an intellectual piece. every satellite american history tv documents american stories and sunday's book tv brings the latest to nonfiction books and
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authors. funding for c-span2 comes from these television companies and more including comcast. >> you think is just a community center? it's way more than that. >> comcast partners with 1000 community centers to create wi-fi enabled so students from poor families can get the tools they need to be ready for anything. comcast along with these television companies support c-span2 is a public service. ♪♪ >> weekends on c-span2 bring the best in american history and nonfiction books this weekend marks the 20th anniversary from 9/11 terrorist attacks. saturday 9:10 a.m. eastern on american history tvs american artifacts, flight 93 national memorial in pennsylvania, hearing the story behind the hijacking and passengers who attempted to take control from terrorists heading to washington d.c.
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2:00 p.m. eastern on the presidency, president bush's oval office address to the nation on the night of september 11 at 5:30 p.m. eastern, former white house chief gary walters recalls events from the white house walls after terrorists crashed into the twin towers and pentagon. sunday 2:55 p.m. we will continue our look back on 9/11 with historian garrett in his book the on the plane in the sky, oral history of 9/11. 4:15 p.m. eastern, lawrence wright in his book the looming tower, al qaeda and the road to 9/11. watch american history tv and book tv every weekend on c-span2. find a full schedule on your program pride or visit
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>> is c-span's online store. browse to see what's new. your purchase will support our nonprofit operation and you still have time to order congressional directory with contact information for members of congress and the biden administration. >> greetings from the national archives. it's my pleasure to welcome you to today's virtual panel discussion led by lisa, author susan from linda from nina and cokie, the founding mothers of npr. one of the founding mothers of today's book is sadly not with us. cokie roberts who died in september 201920 national public radio in 1978, spent more than 40 years in broadcasting. as a political commentator for abc news npr, she won countless awards, she was inducted into


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