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tv   Lectures in History Pilgrims and History Textbooks  CSPAN  November 27, 2021 8:00am-9:11am EST

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historian carol buse he talks about frontier outpost after the war of 1812. later, john price, senior policy advisor to nixon gives behind-the-scenes look at the 30 seventh president's to mystic agenda. .. >> that's the national part of our heritage and a huge part of her history. what happened and how did we get from the fact of the coming to these annual remembrances i get thanksgiving and to the important place of them and political speeches, reagan's calling as a city on the hill because of the puritan called this inhale and the titans came
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here and so forth and how did we get from one place to the next in the way that we get there is through the work of history's of what we will be looking at today is after the united states becomes an independent nation, what happens to the development of historical writings, how do they take off and how do they focus on certain certain national narratives and what happens to maintain them and to disseminate them to a wide population and we talked last time and before about ernest and collective memory and about this idea that nations have a kind of what is called temporal text, this idea that particle it makes nation and nation, is the idea of shared memory and part of those shared memories is forgetting other memories, other aspects of history in order to code here are the kind of story. so we talked about this whole part of collective memory in relation to nationalism and here
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today we will see it at work and that is this lecture today but it does about. so just to review where we have come from and warmer head into next, we talk about american and definitions of it and just to review the sort of dual parts of it, these passive sense of american - conemaugh model, so in this definition the position assumes that the u.s. has in some ways achieved what other nations are seeking or that the u.s. is called to achieve and to model to others with other nationstate but not in a certain way to intervene, this is that passive model and the active model, the idea that the u.s. has been sent on a mission. position assumes that their calling it the spread of aggressions and this can be defined in any number of ways for some of the ways they define it as a liberty and government and capitalism, free enterprise and part of this idea is to see when those ideas get attached to
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american exceptionalism. but the cost is for these things to the rest of the world is of more of an active sense. and usually both of these senses can include a religious sense of chosen, that we are called, that is someone or some divinity has called us to this position or set us apart to be a model. so often is embedded in american exceptionalism. and what isn't until all the one hand it entails the kind of comparative so if you say that the u.s. is unique and what you are saying is i have looked in other countries and i compared the u.s. to other countries and in detail x detail or why detailed is unique solution comparative assessment always comes in american exceptionalism and more particular for our what was hard about today is usually embedded in historical claim and that is either implicitly or explicitly claims about american unique virtues or benefit
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usually entails claims about america's past and how we came to have those unique virtues or the distinct national purpose in the world and this is where collective memory comes to play such an important part in this part of american exceptionalism that we will be spending our time on today. the u.s. has this resolution it and declares independence and the treaty of paris and ratification of the constitution and now you have the situation, you have all of these colonies which were connected immediately to england suddenly connected immediately to each other, they are one nation. except that for a long time, they have not really seen each other as one nation and so now you have this problem which is how you formulate a national identity for all of these different cultures and say we are in fact one nation and that is the work of cultural
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nationalism. and is called cultural nationalism because it takes cultural work to build up a national identity and it takes cultural embedding in text and speech and civics rites, rituals to create his identity. there are three distinct ways that i will look at here, there is more that could be said but three speeches and the rise in the nationals right after the revolution and the beginning of the nation. that we can think about, first is the first idea of maps, we can know that work one nation if we are pictured as one nation and what you begin to see happen in the early republican in the early days of the new nation, you see maps show up everywhere and everybody keeps there are in the map of this one nation with one set of political boundaries over and over and over. they hang it on walls in the taverns and put on teacups and if you're surrounded of this map of your self in relationship to others, then you will begin to perceive yourself as one with all of these others and so the
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maps become one way of thinking about a national union it in a national identity. and of course part of what we are talking about as we see race with an imagined community and how do you imagine yourself in community with people you will never meet and people that you have never met an people you know very little about and yet you are suddenly one people with them. apps are one way to imagine yourself as one people. the other thing that happens is right so if you get the celebrations of the fourth of july for example in this begin to happen all over the place with civic speeches and so forth and so in a certain sense to practice your self as one people and it is everybody in all colonies they are in effect embedding the sense of themselves as one people united across colonies so the maps is one way and rite's is one way and then the last way again is the way we will focus on today, history you write the story of yourself as one people and you
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remember yourself as one people so maps, rite's and history are ways of creating a kind of a culture identity and so what you see happen is the rise historical society's most people don't think too much about historical societies. any of the plague is really important role in the early republic so first historical society was massachusetts historical society in 1791, and for our purposes which is partly what were thinking about the rise of the city in the hills sermon and how it went from - dragon so this is a society and remember how we talked about no puritan knew about the sermon and sunday. it was never printed, never remarked upon, nobody knew who gave the sermon and there is no record of it. they find it in 1838, were they fighting, and second historical
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society, new york, that's where it still is today the find their and they send a copy of it to massachusetts which is the first place where it gets printed and what you see happening in that basic development there, is something more broadly happening which is these are social bases founded to preserve american history in chalcedon and why are they founded right after the revolution in the constitution because what they are saying is the mark in history first of all is anything and second of all is i think that we ought to preserve and third of all is so important that all of the other nations will want to know our history so let's collected house it, keep it, publish it and that is why you begin to see these places abound in the other thing that happens with these historical societies we will see more of this later in the lecture. there is a kind of a sectionalism to them, boston and new york were not the same
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places in boston material, is not the same material as new york. so you see the early celebration of pilgrims and puritans and so forth in boston and who you think are celebrating in new york in the earliest days of the historical society. they have a big gala, and attempt to hold it on the anniversary of what. hamilton gets remembered in terms of everybody remembers the revolution for sure but one of the new york families go back to. medlin, the debt debt so the first big gala actually in 1809 to celebrate 200 years. in the coming of the dutch and so you see the way the historical societies have regional flair to them in new york historical society begins by celebrating the dutch in the first puritans as well but we
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are the dutch you know. in each place begins to emphasize his own history as part of the national story. we will come back to this term in the little bit but would you begin to involve here is what one historian calls sectional nationalism, my section is a sort of a central section of the nation for the nation and if you want to know about american national history, you first have to know about my section but we are the most important part in until you get that sense of sectional nationalism. by the time the founded in 1884, 200 of these societies have been open across the various states pretty actual and actually some of the biggest and strongest and most well supported ones were here in the midwest so it was wisconsin and iowa in such places they really wanted to collect another history and the state-supported these thanks.
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so what's the significance of these things were one of the things i said is a collective district but even in the idea that reagan it is citing the sermon and what you begin to understand is that these sort of unthought of an unknown places like historical societies are all embedded in the way we tell our nations stories and think about this, reagan cannot call america's city on the hill without an effect the sermon being found and how is it found, the historical societies keep it inside and printed. it is to say that the language of our american politics and embodies far more than just a set of beliefs, or policy positions and it also contains a whole history of these libraries, historical societies, archives, and so on. all sorts of individuals and institutions that have collected, preserved and passed on stories of our nations past. here's the other important part to think about. archives is much as they preserve, they also select pretty when these people went
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about finding archives a but this is important and this is not important. just to give you a sense of it, it really important early native american intellectual leader and preacher named malcolm right well, founding massachusetts historical society totally dismissed him and treat him with total disrespect so optimist papers never end up in the massachusetts historical society. they are located later the people come back and say, this guy is important we need to collect these papers. preservation is selection, just to remembering is forgetting so they preserve and they select and soak in the choices that they may, they should not only what we do say about america's past, but we but we can say about america's best because if you on top story, got to go find the text in the records pretty
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all you have is available is the text and records that have been read preserved. so this is the kind of significance of these historical societies and archives. it is one thing to say it and preserve it but then how does the public get to know anything and what you see is early on with these folks are doing is to say, but we will do is collect all of the records, keep all of this stuff, and later historians can tell the story so another was a divided these two things in these two jobs up they said 70 else can put it all together in a grand narrative is long as they will have the stuff and we will keep the stuff in the begins to happen. there's a new interest in history that gradually rises, 1790 - 1830, historical work including historical fiction accounted for a quarter of more of a peak of 85 percent in the 1820s in the 1820s and 1820s is when you see this real true birth of interest in american history.
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and then you have these new state laws so the state laws are not only that people have to go to school, but that women go to school, they have to study american history. so there's already this kind of push on the state level to study history. because of the state laws and burden of population coming up attend more student so this is a handy statistic, in new york alone the number schoolchildren grew from hundred 76000 - 508,000 in 1933, 17 years later. so that is an enormous growth of pure number of students and surprisingly the market for new american history textbooks, suddenly boomed. so gross sales of american textbooks from 1820 - 1855 increase from 750,000, 25 and half million. outperforming the nearest genre of books five - one, that is
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textbooks are the ones selling in early america. and of course that includes more than history textbooks but history textbooks are a big part of this genre. curated textbook, you've got to decide where you will start braided where does the story of america began to remember this is the question we asked them the first day of class, where do you begin the story of american what is the origin we looked at a variety of answers that a person could come with predict native americans, columbus, jamestown, mayflower, the deco right into the declaration and the revolution and remember each of these answers has an application about what you needed or mean by america, each of these answers, you start with the native of americans, you have a much broader sense of diversity, all of the people who had to live here, unbounded by any certain political geographies or boundaries.
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columbus means that america as we know it today, begins with europeans and encountering native americans of this discovery from the europeans america. the jamestown defines english groups and the declaration of course is the nation and we ask this question about how come the pilgrims and puritans are on this list at all for the story many times, herod everything to and yet when we come to think about this as an origin of america, it does not make a lot of sense. they're not the first people here are the first europeans here are the first english people here are english settlement here read so what makes them a kind of an origin .one of the reasons they become so influential in part it is because be used it to give america a sort of a noble
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identity or a noble cause. so we hear that the pilgrims came from freedom of daughter self-government or all three and because they came for those reasons, that's what america stands for ever sense. because that language could be given to the pilgrims much more easily than it could be given to say jamestown then jamestown could sort of moved aside or erased or ignored so that we could start with the pilgrims and be committed to these things as our essential identity. and what you see often happening is that you get this kind of contrast pretty but when the pilgrims came, it was unlike when the spanish came because with the spanish did was horrible but with pilgrims dead as they came and that's what defines america oregon state these people came to virginia but now those are people who were sort of bad. that's not what america stands
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for the true origin that happened with the real origin came a little bit later. so you get this way of talking about american history so that identity and the origin are mixed up in purpose. does that make sense. and the other reason that we get to talk about the pilgrims is because of the people who write the textbooks happen to be mostly from new england. in this case back to the kind of sectionalism built into national industry. by 1860, new england was only 1. population, but it was roughly half of all textbook writers. that gave them a key role in shaping the story of america that would come out. and this is going back to puritans themselves, they would frequently write history and history of themselves and of new england but this was a long tradition in new england to
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write histories of the 17th century while into the 20th century new england dominated the historical writings rated and when we talk about the pilgrims and puritans of us, because they have become mostly from new england in the 19th century and that is one sort of reason. so then you get these massive commemorations of the pilgrims, and we looked at the slides before so i will go quickly through them. these are just to remind you that the source of images, the source of poems, they begin to emerge on maps in the 19th century so felicia cummings landing of the pilgrim in new england and the last: holy ground, the soil first they tried the left and stand unturned and stayed to worship god so you get the sense in which the coming of the pilgrims began something totally new in the world. and with that newness was, had to do with religion and religious liberty in civil liberty and all of the ways that you can put together freedom in
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god read that began with the pilgrims and the puritans and new england, this is new. and you get these paintings and to celebrate them and we look at these findings before printed the sort of religious and religious dimension in light is shining on the mayflower or a more civil liberty version was mostly what each other, this compacted idea of self-government in the mayflower or the sort of noble and heroic and yet domestic agriculture sense of origins. and of course these other famous landings of the fathers, the father, our fathers and the beginnings of our people. and of course all of the way up to 1914, the first thanksgiving and images of a kind of tasteful settlement to be contrasted with others. and you also get these pilgrims society so what these new england's societies and pilgrim societies basically we talked about civic rights are one way
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to build a national identity is in christ can also be one with spread regional identity so you get new england societies developing in places like new york, charleston and all over the place, what they are is basically everyone for their weekly get-together especially if you're wealthy and you are male, and you get together and you celebrate the fact that you are from new england. how will you celebrate, you basically remember the pilgrims of that's how you celebrate it from new england is so they would have these elaborate feast in december to celebrate the landing and the mayflower compact and so on and so forth and every december they would get together and celebrate a new, and hear one certificate of membership in the pilgrims society. you can sort of a contrast and the wilderness, the development town in the native americans before, and the english civilization after and coming with pilgrims.
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so commemorations, become frail important and just to make sure that we are or it's not over emphasized braided there's lots of commemorations going on so think about what else is being commemorated in the 1820s, 1925, bunker hill in 1826, 50 years since the declaration of independence. and who died in 1826. >> john adams and. [inaudible]. >> so july 4, 1826, on the 15th anniversary john adams and thomas jefferson, old archrivals on the second and third presence, they both died. and you have all of the speeches celebrating of course the revolution from the declaration. declaration through the 1820s is a big booming business, speeches and memorials and
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commemorations all of the time and this is again at the building of a public history memorials and monuments are super important it is how people make their identity and remember it and all of these civic rituals and all of these ways of sort of building a cultural identity printed one of those commemorations happened in 1920, because of course 200 years since the lighting of the pilgrims. so one thing to keep in mind is up until 1820, the pilgrims were celebrated but mostly in new england and that his if you're in charleston's, you're like the pilgrims who. why is this important to me and in 1820, partly through the work of the sky daniel webster, the pilgrim start to become nationalized, they start to become a kind of a national story. in this speech that he gives that 1820, is one of the ways that begins to happen. so daniel, do you know who
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daniel webster is. have you heard of him before. so this guy was super important, a senator, is sort of anthony is that he signs off eventually on a law and in doing that he becomes a great traitor of new england and that of course leads to the cabin 1851, so that is sort of where he began in a died in 1852, shortly after that 1920s very much on the rise and very important senator pretty and a speaker in house representative and lawyer super important on various supreme court cases. he has known as sort of the great speech maker of the north. so if you have a big commemoration ceremony you will ask the best speaker to speak
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and of course he does his job. and what he does is basically he rewrites the history of america through the veil. what he does as he imagines the spread of their virtues and what they gave us etc. and transmitted from air to air to air all of the way from the atlantic to the pacific and he does both of those things in his speech. so he closes it by imagining the voice of acclamation of the gratitude commencing on the plymouth and transmitted through billions of the sons of the pilgrims of it loses its members in the pacific sees so he gives us incredible speech and one person comes away and said it was like his face was shining like the gods and like moses in my whole head was going to explode with a rush of excitement and john adams reach the speech and he said this is the best speech he has ever read and he says that is going to be read 500 years from now it should be read at the end of
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every year and what it should be reread and sent to all of the schools and of course he does end up getting sent to all of the schools rated one of the things that you have as well is the sense in which the pilgrims are the origin of america because as they say in the speech, the moment they arrived, democracy arrived with them in the moment they arrive, christian institutions came with them and so you see the sense of an origin as a kind of a pure origin. the moment of arrival is sort of a key step in keep beginning in the whole history of america and he of course catch is that forward all of the way. and what you see happening after that is this threat all all of the stuff through the education and education is an important life of how do you get ideas from the speaker and speech like webster's, too much broader population for the public. one of the ways you do that is through education and through textbook.
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in one of the first sort of histories of america even though it is the sort of pilgrim history of america, is webster braided you begin to see the speech center under the schools mainly in new england of the schoolchildren read it, memorized sections of it in the recited and this is how they come to know the history. and this is one of the important moments of transmitting his version of america to a broader population. but we will talk about for a little while now is a sense of the importance of education in this time read someone of the things that happen, it's really important to think about, the founding fathers, people like daniel webster and those folks, but they often say, even people like john adams and others, liberty and learning go hand in hand.
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that you basically you will not be able to maintain liberty in a republic if the people themselves are uninformed. so this is the idea called and informed citizen you got to have an informed citizen and if you don't, the whole experiment will collapse rated i'll give you a vivid example of that. there's a guy named ebenezer and he goes around the south and is collecting records here and there and everywhere. and what he is doing is a sort of working with jeremy to collect the archives while he writes a letter and continental congress he said we have no archives card and nothing to collect these papers and no place to house them or publish them or keep them and if you help me out, i will go to that work in the continental congress considers his letter and grants in $1000 which was a lot of money in those days to go
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through this. and it also says to all of this sort of state representatives along the way, how the sky out and make copies of the records and their hand copied by the way in ebenezer is going to make these things annie's copying them out by hand. it is 1778, the american revolution is not yet over in the treaties of 1783, so basically the midst of the war itself, the continental congress is like we need to give a federal grant, historical archives to keep these papers, that is one of the things they are thinking about. when the massachusetts historical society it sounded, and started as a public utility like gas, so they are thinking about the stuff is public utility as essential benefits and absolutely necessary for the maintenance of liberty and liberty and learning went hand-in-hand for these people. and the other thing that we
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don't know is whether the phalanx got from the continental congress through ebenezer, yes so where is the money coming from. they take this on her and they say this is important and we need to support this, all right so here is basically webster's points to that effect and he said that we confidently trust that by the diffusion of general knowledge, and good and virtuous sentiments the political fabric may be secure as well against open violence and overthrow as against the slow mature undermining of the consciousness. basically everybody doing whatever they want. webster is a wig, that's important and webster is away good, does not exactly trust the mass population and so here you can see the sort of mentality of
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saying look, we've got to have leaders but also informed citizens and we can't just let everybody go off and do whatever they want. that's a sure way to end this thing in disaster. so one of the questions to think about here is to what extent that applies and to what extent do you think a cognitive informed citizenry is necessary for the maintenance of liberties or democracy or any of the rest of it. and i don't want to spend too much time thinking about this because it's a very broad question and is a kind of question that leaders often think about. and there's lots of different ways to think but if there is a general kind of sense of what you guys talk about i would love to hear some of this immediate cost that you have in relation to the question, can democracy survive without informed citizenry and if it requires that way is the information needed and should be should
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education include history and if so what kind. sort of immediate thoughts that you guys have or reactions to these questions predict. >> we kind of talked about how they were essential and that govern and how they consent to government and part of that is education about what is going on and like in the sense. [inaudible]. and the education about how people can stay in a democracy and with that comes from in the development of american democracy and that's what we were talking about. >> like civics or how does the bill come along. or basically, how you go about participating in the saying that we have called the declaration,
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yes. >> education is important in the democracy and to the point, the verses that. [inaudible]. there is something going on here this working we need to be able to recognize what that is and why is working at and what we decide. so there's a lot of talk about the constitution and certainly people think . [inaudible]. in the constitution and a lot of things that the constitution with the liberties and freedom and he talked about the checks and balances in separation it on federalism and all of these things. >> a sense of the constitution and - >> to thoughts about history and certain things so i think given
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like the timing of of the american revolution, they were founding war but nobody ever talked or thought they were in so that the fact that that was so important to them they wanted to preserve certain aspects of the history shows they would want to happen it like enjoying all of this stuff. and we still talk about that today, it's repeating but today's things are seen differently and people are on the phone and that is what they base their decisions off. so there's like this idea that we have to keep the history alive. >> and in thinking about the ways that we are very aware of misinformation and the idea that i'm on facebook and.
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[inaudible]. that really does by real experts and so forth but this idea that information and misinformation to go hand-in-hand. will this is true back then as well, thinking about how do you trust source of may be one of the things that people need to be educated is how do i know when to trust a source. how do i know when to trust what i am hearing. they went through that kind of scrutiny. yes, david pretty. >> people understand that if you want to be an informed person, then you must take responsibilities to be informed and read many box, many articles, sit down, and severe coffee and start reading. really this is your way out his reading.
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and if you don't do the work, it is all talk pretty. >> so what it's about to an individual responsibility, being an informed decision and the kind of systems or structures that we can have a place so as to inform people as they were growing up and becoming a citizen in the station, like what the structures are in place and think about this simply in the era in which we are talking about, school has become state law. so you have to go to school to learn some basic things and they are beginning to think about what what are those basic things that everybody has to know. will as you pass the laws and you send people to school you gotta begin to think about what should they be learning the schools and these are the kinds of questions they are shaping at this particular moment. >> what we are talking about is what i dished deserves to be taught, american history and. [inaudible].
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by people understand american history like you just accept that people know where i don't know anything about the structure. but inform's industry is for voting and electing people into office upon that is a make policy decisions. in the understanding of what is happening, were deciding in our opinion unlike what to do with his country that we should know about. and history is just our own history. >> educated a lot of thoughts about her misinformation or our lack of knowledge of responsibilities and intervention that had been made in the middle east just understanding the cultures there in the various things that they have. and thinking through what you say about one of the ways to think about civics, someone thing we could say is everybody should hundreds an understanding or can government and you can
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also say everybody ought to be able to think about the civics in general by looking at the varieties of ways that government works because that might actually enable you to have some scrutiny of the american civic system. we talk about the kind of influential roles he had the historian of the puritans in the mid- 20th century both he also wrote about education i want to use his sense of this tension here to think about one of the tensions that sort of underlies some of these questions that arise about what should be done so one of the goals of education in american societies often is the diffusion, that is of making assessable and bringing knowledge out to people rated to communicate it to people and train people up in education is a diffusion of information it in a profound use democratic conventions, the school should
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be so conducted is automatically to produce exactly what america wants. so they want more workers, the school should be the place to train his people to be more workers. the sense in which the schools produce when america needs or wants, the diffusion. he said that in tension with his other underlying sense of what education is basically about witches the sense of which education exists not just to pass things on or to produce whatever it is society sent in a need to produce but to find out what we did not know in doing so education is also basic task, the stowing reputation upon and reputable ideas that could not otherwise ignore an essay educators do not just replicate society, they often change it. this gives back to the question of is one thing to say that every student should learn american civics to participate in the civil society. it is nothing to say that every american should learn a set of
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americans is civil societies next to others to scrutinize the best white the government should be run. the first of those is kind of a sense of confusion, we need to train of citizens in this society and the second is a sense of discovery, we need to figure out what is the best possible government nothing of greet from the scrutiny. however much we might honor. and i think that's one of these senses as well and all of this because of what we are talking about in this current and moment in the early 18 hundreds, is this idea of the increase of schooling it to increase of education, the rise of textbooks in this general sense of what of those textbooks going to include and what are they going to educate people on and how do they produce kind of informed citizenry that they need. that brings us to emma willard, anyone from new york. anyone, no. it is a shame. so, this is great because i
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expected that and i want to introduce you to her so who was she, she was this very innovative teacher, school conference on the women's education and textbook) she was so famous in their own day, first all the textbook she wrote sold over a million copies which is a good payday so even though she founded the school in troy, new york right near albany. today called the emma willis school and so this mega school, what should became most known for wasn't textbooks in her history of the united states was reprinted 53 times over 45 years and translated into german and spanish. she was so well-known that when when she died in 1870, her death was reported and she had obituaries in chicago new york philadelphia and several other cities and towns printed everybody knew her.
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and in fact are ideas for female education, she wrote a plan for female education which you presented to the new york state legislature in it and trent 1819, the plan. and that is what galvanized that and eventually led the school she founded in troy, but she had to do the final ever in fact in columbia, they found a seminary called a similar entered seminary school and her model and all of us like she was active in trying to get one published in greece as well. so she was internationally famous as well. and they went there to read all of her papers and all of her letters and the stuff the major great archive of her papers there. and when you walk into the library at the school, this is just single copy of all of the different editions of the books he wrote them all by emma willard entered willard in this cabinet it's a one insert argument for female education and i want to credibly the
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argument real quick and then show how it relates to that era. the argument was basically a female education would not only make the nation great it would make it last and willard called on countrymen to establish the women's - national glory and basically she was saying that if you leave women only the tinto arson homemaking or whatever, you're basically an educating half of the population you're leaving half of the population uninformed. we need to fall have fully informed citizenry including the women what the arguments revealed which we need to think more about is first of all there were a lot of people still in the 1820s, worried about whether this american republic would last all they had was a republics of history and all
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those republics had not lasted so mostly where they were thinking about where how do we make this last as long as possible before does not last anymore. i basically but she would is you make it last longer by educating the women and by making fully informed citizenry. as a lots of people sought education is absolutely essential to make the republic blast. now, she is influential in the model of the women's education spreads throughout the nation through her people to found schools themselves all across the country and so that's one of the things to know about her mother not going to dwell on that. i wanted to alter sense of history and how she goes about writing history one of the more famous things that she does, she brings a textbooks visualization. so think about the textbooks that you guys had in high school or whatever, you remember like they had these giant maps of
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america. they have colored parts for this kind of colonization and colored parts for that kind of group. in basically the sense of developing history through maps and she starts that. what you basically want to say is by the visual and the students can grab so much more of american history so much more quickly, in fact she so committed to this idea of just grasping the visual history of america, that she tries to figure out how can i make a single image that will be the whole history of america up to the present day. and this is the image she comes up with, a tree pretty so couple things to notice about the street, first of all you see that the right and is the same d of imagery you've got on that membership in the plymouth society, this sort of so-called native wilderness, englishtown
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settlement. the sense of that kind of colonized development that she wants to tell. what is each branch of the tree then do for her. when it does is establishes a turning point. you will see in the next like that a lot of this tree basically maps onto the table of contents. and what she wants to say is that if you know the turning points of history, your 90 percent there, the rest is simple and basically you know the key moments, everything that else happens is you know, and what are the key moments. here is columbus' discovery, 1492, this is the passion, the beginning of exploration in and
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it is the 1620, the landing. what is missing from the tree. what is not there. we will talk about the south. this is not a turning point in history so even though it is the first english settlement in america, for her it is not a turning point, it is not a thing that every people has to remember, the beginning of jamestown and instead whatever people have to remember is the beginning of plymouth. the mayflower braided so would you give between here and here, 1578 and 1620, the text book as a whole bunch of accounts of basic explorations and discoveries including the spanish and portuguese and the english and others. so basically jamestown is disruptive into this kind of finding of america and found
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america and you begin america with the pilgrims. and that is how you can build into history all of these turning points that allow you to move chronologically but insert origin at different moments and now i told you before that i was going to give away my example in a given away a couple of weeks ago, 1643, does everybody remember now the confederacy is, so important that everybody remembered it in the 19th century, the turning point, the confederacy and nobody remembers today. what happened in 1643. we talked about this a few weeks ago love confederation came together. [inaudible]. >> so for new england colonies come together and sitting 43 and they say we will unite for common defense and of course this becomes in the 19th century, one of the key turning points because it is one of
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those moments of unions between the colonies prefiguring are looking forward to a much broader union of colonies that will come in 1776 so people are celebrating 1643 in the 19th century and today we don't remember it all and this is how we think about the marine cultural memory, changing over time and it does not static. collective remembering is a dynamic thing and some things are remembered when generation and forgotten in another generation as an important. so here you see the table of contents, and i just wanted to show you here because this again draws out this is not just of confederation, but also the important to emma willard of contextual history, the compact of these very important texts get written over time. but why is 1620, important teapot in american history,
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mining pilgrims at plymouth after having found on board, the mayflower the first written political compact of america, the first written political compact of america and if you call something first, you can innocence a race anything else that happened before pretty aggressively calling something that first. and also what is essential is it's called the wrist and compacted that is what matters and prefigures a written political social compact that will come later to find the nation and these are how the stories of the nation are being written. so to review, what do these teapot origins allow her to do, each can be a possible beginning so effectively but it allows her to do today, yet a moving cron under chronologically through american history but here the moments to dwell on and here's the origin of each of these key
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turning points pretty and columbus himself, the first epoque and all of these discoves in jamestown is in the air of discovery but not in the era of the first political compact. that starts with the pilgrims what is she say about these programs. when they come in this what she writes about them, no part of the history of the united states might say of the world, that the eyes of philanthropist breast with more interest in on the accounts of the little devoted outcomes and into the touching appellation of the pilgrims and they possess a much higher cast of moral elevation than any who have before but the new world is a residence keep in mind how often we've seen this. stay with us electricity. so this idea of moral elevation, they came here unlike anybody else. everybody else came for gold and these people came for god and that is the basic sense of
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congress in the hope of game was the former sunless and the love of god was there and their institutions, holds a germ of that love of the libertine i want you to think about this for just a second braided the germ of the love of liberty built into this idea a sense of germs or seeds the mature predict we will see that again next week. this idea of germs in a nation is what it is in infancy and ages grows or matures into what would it was planted as began as an those correct views of the national equality of man fully developed in the americans constitution and this is the origin. so you can see the way she is establishing that. and very famous for introducing maps and here you can see how it works and this is her introductory fab. but the wealthy about this map is it is called the first map and the first map.
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and so the introductory map is basically that pretty so you can see the way in which this kind of history makes native americans as a backdrop against which the story begins, just part of the setting like this is just the setting the introduction and this is what the world looks like before it began. and you can see the way in which this kind of history maps well into the beginning of genesis rated does anyone know how genesis begins. the spirit hovered over the void and god said let there be light, the sense in which there is a void or vacant plan or emptiness just waiting for order and something to arrive and that is how a lot of these 19th century histories of america are
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written. see you get an introductory map and economy chaos turbulence water to a certain sense of all of the native americans trying to move all over the place and there's no sense in any of these native american tribes own that part of the land. or that you would even be evicting them or taking over because this is just void and movement. so this is an important map thinking about how these histories incorporate native americans as a backup so that the first map begins here, this is again begins with a written test. minutes and set on the map and this where you get the coming of the pilgrims and the second map, you get mayflower compact and up there greeted the arrival and you get gradually more more settlements on the east coast so you get the pilgrims landing at plymouth and the notice here, so
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between the maps, you've looked at how she erases jamestown from the history more or less talks about that but only in the sense in which they are not accounting pretty and with that also means they're not going to appear on any maps, there are not there in 1578, 1620, they are already there but what is she say, and this is actually written in 1619, close enough sheep paints a dutch ship with negroes purchased by the colony of jamestown. so it appears on any map in the history, it appears associated with slavery which is why she does not want it to be attorney point in american history because it is an attorney point you cannot not talk about slavery. but if you say the pilgrims came here for freedom, then you can first of all ignore the fact that they had slaves which they did.
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and second of all, you can say and hold slavery business is not part the essential identity of america, and haven't down south but the real's appear with this morally elevated crew of people who came. so these histories are created in a kind of a national story this is important cultural work in creating that sense of national identity. incidentally, was just listening to lectures about the american revolution which i do when i run sometimes, a very nerdy that way. but there's talking about the draft the declaration of independence versus what eventually happens at this very famous elimination and charges that can get having force them into slave trainings and people in congress to feel tender about that especially folks in georgia don't really want that in the declaration of independence.
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so they take that stuff out but when jefferson said is that it was not just southerners who wanted that removed, northerners wanted that removed because they aren't the sea merchants making so much money in the slave trade. so when we think about slavery in the southern institution it, we are forgetting the fact that is very much in northern institution in particular through these merchants, but also in the fact that it existed in puritan new england. so these maps go on and on and then you get to this point and you can see, let me just give you this sense, a lot of mess between here but i just want to give you the sense of the gradual ordering. so if you think about again if you go back to genesis what you have is the void and then by the end of creation, order and then look at these maps pretty here's the introductory map and in the first map in the second map, and a series of other maps.
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you have this gradual sort of development of order out of chaos. in the sense of history. this the constitution and of course one of the notable features of this map is where is the western boundary. so you get the sense of a map that is not yet done being written. and you also get the sense that build into these puritan roots and as the pilgrims see you, and needs to continue, needs to continue to expand and the expansion is sort of a natural to what it is. so with you, the morally elevated purpose of freedom, liberty season etc. etc., the natural thing for it to do is expand. and you see that built into webster's speech and was so interesting as in a certain way the rhetoric takes over the
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speaker. because the whigs were not necessarily expansionist, the democrats were but not necessarily the whigs braided in fact annexation of texas, a lot of new englanders were opposed to it, if you give to us pardon them to give too much part of the slain power, was just to give an in culture, there a lot of people opposed to our questioning the idea of american expansion. yet when they turned to this writer entered rhetoric of the pilgrim origins of why they came this morally elevated rhetoric, but they see it spreading to the pacific because i would you not want that so good thing to spread and that's what it has to do, as a sort of natural trajectory. so that brings us to the big prize in american history, bangkok price and for this guy george ben, who wrote in volumes
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of u.s. history over the course of 40 years pretty and was one of the danger especially the beginning, the major authority on american history. his account of the pilgrims was very much like - gives you a sense of what is happening to this america as it's being developed. ... incredible origin story. what that ignores is the fact that pilgrims are working out church and state relations over the course of many years. there is nothing automatically formed when they land. they had to work it out but
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working through these messy developments does not offer you a clean break. last week you are reading rogers about exceptionalism. one of these is clean break. the past is the past, this is something totally different. you're getting a sense of a clean break, the sense in which the moment they stepped ashore everything was set into place. all that could be done was for it to grow or mature or spread. you get this, through scenes of gloom and misery the pilgrims showed the way to those who go for the wilderness of the liberty of conscience. think about we read reagan's farewell address, how many echoes were built into this language, 1834. in the history of the world many pages are devoted
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commemorate the heroes of the city and provinces to overthrow an empire. a colony is better off with a victory. citizens of the united states should rather cherish the memory of those on the basis of democratic liberty, the father of the country, the men who have the first drop of soil in the new world scattering the seminal principles of american freedom and national independence. notice by the time of bankrupt this is what the pilgrims are. republican freedom at national independence. they are the origin of that. this is the way in which the pilgrims become nationalized into the story. we will talk in two weeks about other documents to think about that aspect of willard's map which is how we get from that story to the spread of that story. what is the difference between american exceptionalism and manifest destiny and an idea such as that. let me ask if there are any questions about this that you want to talk about.
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>> just to review these important points. it takes cultural means to build a history. history doesn't just happen. it has to be written by somebody, spread in some way. that could be speeches, memorials or textbooks or any number of things. doesn't just happen. there have to be cultural intermediaries. of the cultural intermediaries are from a certain section highlighting the importance of that section to the nation becomes a crucial feature of that. if all the historians were to do that what would american history look like. most of these were from new england. the importance of the mayflower, becomes crucial to the whole thing. any questions or thoughts or
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comments about all this history business? yes? >> do you think the domination of the pilgrim narrative over jamestown was conscious effort or do you think it happened naturally? >> the idea of local pride. new england is not only losing population but political significance. four of the last five are from the south. they are not getting the political significance they feel they deserve. in a certain sense they could give themselves national - presidents come from down there but the nation comes from up here. what they stand for comes from up here. there is a conversation.
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what is specifically called the virginians, that is about virginia. i think there is something conscious about the idea she doesn't like what she did down there so america stands for that and that is not a nation you want to stand for your self. if you could talk about moving on from it and say that happened and it is not that crucial. the origin is up here. >> ardent supporters of slavery, consciously left out the jamestown area because it is that? >> these counterfactual's are thinking about what if the south had this cultural history in the north didn't, how would
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it look? hard to know exactly. the fact is one of the reasons it became such in my mind a fascinating culture is they wrote everything down. they were insistent about writing including their own history and within a decade they have a printing press because this is crucial to them. they have a college and a printing press within a decade of getting here. this hasn't happened in the south so one of the reasons it is so much more written and if you are looking for the sources, started with the articulate beginning and sort of conscious what he is doing when he says virginia doesn't matter. they wrote it down. that is chronological in the
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sense he thinks about it because - any last questions or comments for today? okay. i did to have a little time to hand back your papers and wrap it up. we will get into tocqueville next week. >> did you know you can listen to lectures on the go? stream it is a podcast anywhere anytime. you are watching american history tv. >> looking at this date in history. ♪♪ >> little john junior who is 3 years old this day respond to a request from his mother.
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as the cortez crosses the bridge over the potomac river there is a distant review of the memorial building dedicated to another martyr president, abraham lincoln. now the last goodbye to john f kennedy. [playing taps] ♪♪ >> the flag the cover the cast that is folded. it is passed from hand to hand.
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♪♪ >> it is received by the widow. mrs. kennedy ignites eternal flame at the head of her husband's grave. john fitzgerald kennedy reaches the end of his earthly journey, those who leave into the green hills of arlington cemetery. >> follow us on social media, c-span history, more of this date in history coverage. >> the new podcasts about books, we look at industry news and reporting on the latest
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