tv Frederick Law Olmsted and College Campus Design CSPAN December 26, 2021 3:15am-4:00am EST
>> thank you. [applause] >> beginning on american history tv a conference on frederick law the founder of american landscape architecture to mark the 200th anniversary of his birth. coming up you hear about his influence on the landscapes of colleges across the country including at stanford and duke. up next landscape architect lori ellen talks about the design of college campuses. >> good morning i am the
presidency of the national association for homestead park. i am delighted to welcome all of you today to the campus design. overall the last 18 months we have felt mighty grateful whose parks made our lives lovable, it's indeed wonderful to see everyone together in this room today. this podium as part of the 200th the national and local celebration in 2022 of the bicentennial of the birth of frederick homestead visionary reformer and founder of the profession of landscape architecture. the national association is proud to be the managing partner of the celebration working with nine other fantastic national partners across the country. as you can see here we invite everyone to join us in the year-long celebration and exploration of the olmstead legacy. we have a national website homestead 200.org international
founder. we have just released a special online exhibit frederick law olmstead lands gate for the public good and partnership for the garden foundation. you can see some of the extraordinary panels outside today. we are urging communities, parks, libraries to download this exceptional exhibit inside or out during the bicentennial year. we also ask you to follow us on social media. this program is the first of an opportunity in person and otherwise around the country through 2022 that you can find on a national calendar. it caused 47 of the 50 states, we can literally find olmstead landscape from coast to coast. speaking of individuals from around the country i want to give a shout out to our audience today. mike from atlanta member of the
200 outerbridge committee, mike and his daughter rebecca were responsible for the great documentary olmstead americas urban parks which we are continuing to encourage communities to show around the country. working with georgia tech mike is also supported widely and thoughtful discussions about urban planning which we will also be featuring as part of our olmstead 200 programming. i also want to welcome roger a trustee of the moral homestead, as you know we are coming live from the nation's capital justin of the figure and the u.s. congress and a contemporary moral open to be in force behind adoption of what is known as a college act of 1862 which set aside federal lands to create colleges, president lincoln signed the bill, we are delighted that the bicentennial has been reason for
re-correcting the world and the world homestead which is a celebration partner in the olmstead's. we see this as a park maker and that he was, one of the goals of the bicentennial is to explore the many other aspects of his multifaceted career. today we will be year-end on campus design in the wake of the civil war american universities emerged as important national institutions, olmstead believed the physical environment of learning buildings and grounds played a significant role in the success of education, he planned campuses and cornell in the successor of the firm under the projects of institutions including harvard, gallaudet and johns hopkins. today practitioners and scholars will discuss olmstead campus planning a look to the future how the principles can and form
campus design today. we have an absolutely stellar lineup of speakers kicking office to this morning with teacher offer and renowned architect the founding partner based in philadelphia and his career is multifaceted and extraordinary as olmstead. we're honored that she is sharing the olmstead 200 on every committee, he has overseen projects of the washington grounds, the park in your city the barnes foundation in philadelphia in the park in oregon, his awards are near us, recipient of the 2012 medal of arts from president obama the 2011 american society of landscape architect meddle in the douglas metal of america. much like olmstead, lori's experiences before he finally settled a landscape architecture, he was living in new york city as an architect where he would give walking
tours of the park. i came to the conclusion that central park was pretty damn good he said. it was an interesting and wonderful place. full of ideas. as luck would have it his architecture firm would to participate in competition in the book as part of the assignment he produced a rendering of every trail and path and tweaking every stone and relay in the park. but after doing so he came to the conclusion that central park by the american artist. from that time lori has headed the olmsted office in landscape education in the olmsted in campus design. we are honored here today to have him kick off then posting them. welcome.
[applause] >> good grief thank you very much. that was very nice. >> it is nice to see you all and nice to be here. >> i thought i would have a second by myself appear. i am buried in this machine, many images. >> there we go. >> it is nice to be here thank you for the over generous introduction. when we speak about the olmsted landscapes were really speaking of work that occurred over a period of 100 years and led by these four men principally but
with the assistance of army of others, partners, associates, consultants, collaborators and can sold since with the public and private. collectively what we see here, i hit the wrong thing. and supposed to go back. >> we talk about these guys, here we have frederick homestead junior and the senior on the left and we have john charles olmsted and then on the right is rick frederick homestead junior. collectively with their partners and their associates into people who died prematurely this office was in business successfully from 1858 to 1960 over 100 years
as a remarkable for a design firm. with a strong identity and such brilliance. he said to listeners seven space pages in the master list of project compiled by scholars of the national park service with the library congress, the first of these pages is shown on the left, what you can see if you read closely one of the first projects was the university of california berkeley in 1864 and the university of alabama 1956. for my account between 1865 in 1900 the superintendent by a fellow senior and produce plans and designs for 36 college campuses, these included the university of california berkeley of 1865 massachusetts university amherst 1967, trinity 1872, stanford 1876 and 1890s
the princeton, smith, between 191960 after homestead senior's departure it was more prolific creating schemes and working out 180 campuses, just between 191950 alone after the first world war by institutions that included brown the university of chicago, williams, the university of washington, johns hopkins, ohio state, the university of pennsylvania, new york university, baltimore, and dublin. it is incredible the list of famous and less famous institutions they were in west point, dozens of land-grant colleges that you will hear about nader, among these were wisconsin, michigan, i, iowa, kansas, oregon, the list goes, there is an enormous range from working in schemes that become iconic which it does it stanford and duke witchel hear about from kathy and mark two projects that
are more modest and rather formulaic. at the very best this demonstrates as a diverse plan best known members of the homestead senior i concern where gender as social in the given in place and situation. how was it list partner and his colleagues and sons to the decades of the civil war how was he able to invent a new landscape a new paradigm for educational environments that is emblematic of american higher education enable made it around the world sense for university campuses and to answer this i think we should probably ask what did he know and when did he know it, it is commonly understood that learning in modern universities was not
monastic settings. first being established by saint clement which began and set the pattern for many thereafter as you see in mainly these were composed of looking closer to architecture in an isolated world in these settings. these also involved, did not go forward, these also involved in a number of european urban settings as well such of oxford and cambridge as you see here. regardless of their frequent role they engender communities that became towns in some cases cities they set a pattern for a town which is one of conflict. the two english universities in particular after most influence
of elements here in america. these were divinity schools and they had enclosed courtyards mostly they also developed areas adjacent outside for recreation scientific experiment especially in botany and horticulture. something that we see here we see the college up oxford and the botanical garden as examples. the earliest investment is higher education when the english colonies were divinity schools and not those monasteries they were founded in rural villages like cambridge massachusetts on the edge of town of connecticut and farms and scraps these images are new haven commoners on the left and three chapels it was built on
the outskirts of town in the first buildings were later built. and did you see on the right cambridge comments and harvard's earliest buildings. the like many later began a single building surrounded by trees and grass and unpaid lanes. as they grew the buildings increasingly camping this on the communities we are looking at early plans of harvard. the buildings are range closely enough or convenient communication and separated for protection the differentiation of purpose. they're small enough to finance and build without too much difficulty. like el and princeton, harber began as a divinity school across the charles river next to a village next to boston adjacent to the chapels. it grew up as an unplanned arrangement of buildings around
open yards populated with trees. the early schools harvard of 1836 william and mary in 1636 and william and mary 1695, princeton 1795, he possessed might be the a loose fit formality. unlike oxford or cambridge were there majority of intellectuals and politicians educated these were composed of georgian cards. arcades and towers . . .
new haven, out since the step you can see the plan on the left and the view on the right the will as the group of buildings form yale call and became eventually one side of the earliest ããsoon enough there were buildings built behind to the north of them and the ãproceeded once more is to remain of princeton on the left. just four, titled to accompany the earliest of our buildings and colleges. this combination of elms come out long and from the arrange buildings also characterized american villages and towns for
the next two centuries as well as offering the basic building blocks of rapidly percolating divinity schools. there were a couple of rare exceptions to this ad hoc approach to academic planning, however, there was still resuming college in schenectady on the left and then you see the schedule jefferson university on the right and charlottesville, both employee buildings left by arcades forming coherent grouping toward the distant landscape is that both as a central feature. built between 1812 and 1814 the postcard on the left is from 1909. he was active here like ãã following the revolution some scholars think he was run out of the country provide benjamin trolled along with jefferson ã
ãjefferson replace the central dome chapter so much a public library assuming religion is the heart of the skin and mixing residential and teaching spaces and cutting scale pavilions housing faculty and students together. whatever the truth regarding the pedigree, jefferson's famous academic village summer later in 1817 shares ããcampus with appreciation for the planning of the designs of gladio simone cm, campbell. one other early model of collegiate development in the colonies used was that of the irving sort, the earliest example being the college of philadelphia founded by benjamin franklin in 1754. unlike all the earlier institutions it was not a religious divinity school, neither was jefferson's academic village and consisted of well mannered three-story georgian medical and science buildings are located amid row houses shops a busy streets in the center of the city evolving
quickly into the first true american university. one other early institution was a college that evolved in columbia university in new york which began lower manhattan in the buildings in the upper left by 1838 it had already moved one step forward to 14th and madison into the gothic revival structure you see on the lower left and this is the one that homestead would first have known when the rapidly expanding city look like it does in the print you see on the right. if this was the state of cause development in america at the time of frederick olmsted's youth, it was his experiences or knowledge of it? this is a famous photo you must know and frederick olmsted is in the lower right and that is his brother older brother john, just above him on the right side. not a lot is documented except for his shifting about new england after his mother died and that although he didn't enter college like his older
brother and when he might have because of a very severe eye element that again several months in 1943 he visited his brother john and stan at yale where he participated in a life of lively group of young men who seek who would become a very prominent citizens later and in some cases clients and friends. but dammit a lot happened to him the next 20 years between 1843 and 1863 when he produced his first campus plan. he was apprenticed as lansurveyor he spotted of the spirit with his brother and yell at 1845 they went on a sailing ship to china and back and went off to europe in 83 traveled to england, france, belgium, holland, germany, ireland and scotland and he returned and became a farmer and became heavy began corresponding with all sorts of people, one of whom was andrew jackson founding. he began writing, by 1855 as an editor of putnam's monthly he was soliciting cereals for
publications. he became involved in the abolition movement and traveled to the slave states established in publishing his findings he returned to europe again in 1856 at that time he visited the french riviera in central europe to stop that again in 1858 as you all know he collaborated with halberd rocks to reduce the competition within green's ford plant for central part of instruction that interrupted by the civil war at which point he worked himself into a state of collapse organizing medical facilities to poison the logistics of the wounded as the head of the sanitary commission for the u.s. following that situation he took his family to california, that point he married his brother's widow and adopted her children and then later they had some of their own. he went to california to organize and plant facilities for a mining company in the sierras and encounter yosemite
involving efforts to preserve it. next when the comstock company collapsed financially in 1865 he returned to new york in part responding to the foxed outcome of prospect park in brooklyn on the continuation of central park. but not before becoming involved in the planning effort for the college of california in berkeley across the bay from san francisco. earlier in 1861 while he had been in new york prior to the civil war he paired a plan for the hartford retreat for the insane which inevitably led him to consider considerations about the relationship between individuals education, community, health, and the environment. what might be termed an informal grouping of cottages on structures in the trees north of strawberry creek. several of which you can see here. the emphasis was upon a rural enclave of the domestic nature.
it was removed from the big city across the bay and it was to join a small residential community. after he returned to east, david out of the central green which is in the drawing, with the distant view on access to the golden gate this is following we all know that bernard maibach and john galen howard blew it out all the way and they were both trained in paris and abandon his skin under the patriot suit rehearsed ããthe only remaining elements are of strawberry creek and one curb drive along the north. in 1866 back in partnership with locks in new york, while also serving as an editor for the nation, he completed three campus plans, one for the
massachusetts agricultural college in amherst, another columbia institute for the deaf and dumb, known as gallaudet university.and one for the university of maine in colonel ããwhich could be used as a parade down memories of recent war being very fresh at that time, which slopes down to. his plans for colonial institute for the deaf and dumb, no gallaudet, exhibits a number of developing ideas one
observation that "american college buildings have been generally placed in plan with an equally consistent regard to make the greatest public display possible, they are in this respect pagan as the english are gothic and christian. despite this tendency on the part of the trustees and architects to show off, you can see in the plan that he developed for the small cottage in a very urban context her desire to produce a heavily planted boundary with central interior open green at a series of smaller spaces with the system of major and minor paths. additionally, residential structures are into the edges, in this case for faculty and staff. in other instances for students as well. he repeatedly spoke about design responses to health
requirements, in one case, institution for the mentally ill, seemingly more pressing than for other academic grounds he wrote " the most desirable qualities in home grounds for retreat for the insane are probably those which favor inclination to moderate exercise and tranquil occupation of the mind, the least desirable those which induce exertion, excitement, heat or bewilderment. which one could see expressed in the sinuous paths of the multi layers of spatial composition. from 1872 to 1873 following the plan he made with locks in the city of buffalo in the park system, he collaborated with his friend hh richardson and the site plan and buffalo and assignment for the insane.
applicable domestic plan on building his oriented fresh air separated for fire prevention, ventilation and social comfort that was engendered by the breakdown and scale in the arrangement. you can see here that there is a garden for women, garden for men, interestingly enough a thing called pastor pleasure ground. i love the idea. interesting phrase. in any consideration of his educational campuses, it's appropriate to review his work through the health facilities at least before that i'm aware of because they were extended studies in making with an
emphasis on tranquility and help for specific purpose they were created and removed from the chaotic times a day interestingly enough, the buffalo asylum has recently been transformed into a hotel and the grounds are in the process of being refurbished and interpreted to explain their history. returning now to academic projects, the homestead firm at the lawrenceville school in new jersey and princeton from 1881, for several decades, his 22-year-old stepson john charles homestead who joined the firm in 1875, like rick later worked for his father on this campus and many of the rest. he referred to it as a new institute for living, once known as organizers a series of pavilions or large cottages around a circular or sock over will walk with planting forming separate enclosures of the central space being smaller than that of a public park. this essential quadrant as a large-scale school, like most
of those that follow, it's not rectangular. these images are from charles beverages super book frederick longs that designed an arc architect landscape interested in creating a village ensemble is evident. in addition to a conference and provided a number of smaller spaces where students could be responsible for the upkeep of those spaces and to learn aspects of gardening and elasticity, which he wrote about. he emphasized it was a goal for students. this project was a close collaboration with the firm peabody and stearns for the architecture and boston, they went on to collaborate on a great number of projects after that. i'm not going to say much about stanford university because kathy will give you a full
presentation about that later. one can't give any kind of overview of homesteads campus contribution without mentioning stanford it's one of the most iconic works and as much probably as jefferson's academical village in charlottesville. it's a superb example of collaboration with the architects, at least if not the client. olmsted was a genius at working with others and as its planning, logistics, all the parts stanford campuses is an exemplary of the vision of architecture and landscape is intertwined and being complementary and inseparable. you might also note that the title box reads fl and jc homestead architects, by this time the firm had evolved and his son was heavily involved in producing and managing the work. there are two things i wish to say regarding stanford, the
range of his campus planning, what is to note that homestead senior's interest in the particularly of its regional and topographical context is a salient concern in all of its planning and later out of his sons and his departure from his own predilection for loosely organized arrangements of separate structures placed upon lanes and clearings. in his corresponding correspondence regarding charity college to the president in hartford in 1832, he earlier explained way acquired ringgold "the quadrangle is expedient for an inter-client and an abundance of light air consistently with a sense of retreat for the outer world. kathy will say a lot more about that in the brilliance so i'm going to move on. i will say that in 1884, nine years after he joined the firm, john charles homestead, jc as
he was sometimes referred to, became a full partner. he was sunwest when he was young dispensers of the geological survey crew in the rocky mountains and then attended college classes in botany and science, he was a brilliant natural designer. some of his drawings were earlier misidentified at a time for being those of hh richardson. he rapidly took on considerable amount of work in the practice. like his father, jc spent many days, months, even years on the road, especially in the american west. this is the plan done by homestead and elliott when charles elliott was a partner. for washington university in st. louis in 1895. it was done largely under the design leadership of john charles. falls the departure of homestead senior from the firm and predicts the 1904 st. louis world's fair honoring the
louisiana purchase after which they modified the earlier integrated with subsequent fair and their work for us afterwards. here's the foundational plan for ohio state university in columbus ohio. with recent photos of its giant gray oval working across the country often was limited consulting contracts john charles of the firm relied on a simple formula for the general layout of some of the agricultural campuses promulgated by the morrow act and lincoln's first administration. here's a familiar central tree-lined oval accompanied in an academic and administrative buildings of agricultural scientific athletic and local armory even set behind or flagged off in different directions from that central organizing space along service drives. at osu on the prairie unrestrained expansiveness blistered led to what must be the largest of all american
collegiate spaces. across the west as university sprang up, homestead is called on time and time again for assistance for a period lasting until his death in 1920 it was often john charles who went out west to work with them. here's what the substantial buildings by colorado state college, dave from philadelphia architect lining a familiar oval where one can still find a considerable number of albums planted throughout the 19th century including this galley of american elms.is a less well-known result of their work is at oberlin college captain square this instance the central campus green doubles as the town, with the college's divinity school, one of three castable buildings that face onto the little space. is a superb example of the father's desire of embedding reasonably intimate school and modern scale building into a
tranquil semi rural residential and community. following the success of the chicago fair, the olmsted's were involved in several other booster events the alaska yukon exposition of 1909 took place on the grounds of the fledging university of washington on the outskirts of seattle. was laid out largely designed by john charles with the flock of architecture led by the beaux-arts raiment devon gold. very much under the spell of the recent chicago exposition with emphasis on neoclassical architecture and baroque symmetries. when jc had first gone to yale ããled to the first plan that you see with this prototypical
autozone and if you a handful of buildings around the perimeter. denny lewis and clark halls. next he produced a more formalized development centered on a classical green hippodrome quadrant parallel to the slope of the land. after the fair he went to the university of washington a sequence of designs to transform from its early scheme that you see on the upper middle drawing to its transformation into an exposition and then back again into a college campus with a new very complex geometry in response to ãregional context. this dramatic geometric shuffle led to the rain and the fog lifted and suddenly there was mount rainier.
on the spot he realigned the central axis of the exposition upon the moon and subsequently organized a major portion of the university with its arrangement. in the pacific northwest it followed on the earlier plan for the lewis and clark centennial exposition portland oregon in 1905. read college which you see here. this scheme follows several of his father's earliest plans with just a row of buildings along the tree line of lehman facing a broad agreement sword or meadow. later in oregon state it was nestled against the residential community but employ generous dream tree-lined oval to serve as a transition and buffer while organizing the building 's around a sequence of more intimate quadrangle's that were
introverted. as in colorado and ohio, placing the agricultural livestock athletic facilities peripherally await where the countryside conversely, the homestead plant for the university of oregon in eugene despite its habitual organization around a major agreement, common space also utilized its proximity to an attractive millrace from the willamette river. as much as his father had done in the earlier scheme at orono in maine gave specific character in the aspect of nature as the alternative to the inevitably urbanizing residential perimeter in all of the directions. meanwhile, the younger son, born in 1870 after the family returned to the east coast, like jc earlier, was sent off as a teenager on the geological survey party in the mountains of the west and after studying the sciences and apprenticeship during the construction of the chicago exposition and working
on the site of biltmore and asheville, he too then joined the firm rapidly becoming a partner as well as as his father and child elliott died shortly thereafter.as rick's father can be thought of as developing the practice of the landscape architecture, and older brother manage the remarkable growth and flow of work for several decades, frederick olmsted junior was instrumental in developing the profession, the codification his educational instruments and various bodies to guide and direct the public realm creating the first academic program for the study of landscape architecture in harvard in 1901 of the founding members of the aso aid, jc was his first president. rick became one of the early commissioners of the national commission of the fine art which grew out of the mcmillan commission he'd been a key member of and was the principal architect of the organic act that created the national park service writing many of the key portions of the congressional bill for his passage in 1908.
jc can be seen as handling having a broad influence in the last as as well as brash characters. junior like his father moved comfortably in institutional circles especially in the east and participated in a number of development plans for older institutions, such as this largely unfulfilled unrealized plan for harvard on the left and the plan for princeton on the right as it began to expand beyond handful of early structures, facing nassau street and the town. throughout the careers, all three olmsted's commonly collaborated with prominent architects and institutions throughout the country. while the father once wrote of his difficulties and french educated architects pointedly referring to many trained as the echo of beaux-arts and what he deemed their stiff design habits and arrogant overbearing manner and brought about it quite clearly all three forms close and long-lasting friendships with a new
brilliant architects. this scheme was familiar across a quadrangle base party which you will see again. may have been largely executed by local architects in baltimore but the advisors on the planet are the former being superb and not worthy architects who worked on numerous projects with the olmsted office dam plotter worked with them at princeton, wellesley and colorado, among other things. fl oh junior coming along later was comfortable working with architects in the city beautiful movement. that followed the chicago exhibition and collaborated well with them a superb example being that of the two completely different superb campuses in collaboration with ããthe beaux-arts rain dependent graduate who was also
the printable designer for tron bars not where the philadelphia establishment office. you will hear more about these projects from mark later on. i will finish in a minute. [laughter] finally, what were the essential ideas underlying the immense body of work? beginning the early experience of plans at yale elmhurst and elsewhere he pointed out to the trustees at columbia new york university in new york which had already had to move twice by the time he got involved, he
consistently advocated for proximity to residential neighborhoods he aimed for incitement of tranquilizing and creative voluntary exercise. not unlike the wholesome domesticated notions he saw in the liberal arts enclaves he understood the bridging will class a desire for education and engagement in society putting enormous pressure on young people and believe that the brief period through childhood and the entry into careers and commerce is one that called for an environment that allowed for equally tranquility and stimulation in the environment in which the college experience occurred should both shelter them and encourage engagement with others in nature which he rightly saw as the source of health and life.
these photographs from homestead campuses in two different regions of our country centered image of unique landscape composition and type unlike its ancestors that became identified with america with our colleges and universities. something that is admired and envied around the world for its humanity and idealistic idealist application of community freedom and beneficial relationship to nature and its elements. transcending one of fl oh seniors more pithy remarks. and if a man is not to live by bread alone, what is better work doing the planting on trees. i'd say he planted campuses, thank you. [applause] ......