tv [untitled] June 2, 2012 9:00am-9:30am EDT
basically what won him the nomination. >> almost immediately there was this power place between the populous and the republican party, neither one was going the yield power and it was up to lewel lewel lewelling to seaside what happened. all these men are there, populous are not yielding, beneath rer the republicans, food has to be sent up and down on ropes to the capitol building, no one's going home. van less than t valentine's day come, no one's going home. >> so really at the heart of the issue was an election dispute.
there were 12 seats in the house that were contested by -- that the republicans had said that they won that the populists were contesting, so today comes to convene in the house, and we have 12 people show up for 24 seats and that's not going to work and so they divide on party lines. basically it's a stalemate in the hourpse of representatives,o legislation is getting passed. there's this backlash against the populists coming out of this legislative war of 1893 that lewelling becomes a scapegoat for this and that was why he was not re-elected. he remains a populist at least until 1896 when james brown runs and wins the election.
after that he becomes more of a socialist. he's not accepted really by his former populist brethren and he can't go back to the republican party because he's the enemy now. so he kind of switches gears and goes more toward socialism and he actually ends up getting elected to the united states senate. lewellin's major downfall was the fact that he wasn't a good enough leader. i don't think he was able to be the voice of his party like he was the face of his party here in kansas. i don't think he controlled what his party did enough to really make some strong reforms that he had advocated for. >> and i also feel like it's part of listening to the moderate voice, that the extremes, no matter how passionate they may be, sometimes it's the moderate voice that wins over in the long run.
>> this weekend american history tv is featuring wichita, kansas, our local content vehicles recently visited wichita to learn about its rich history. learn more about wichita on cspan's local contempt vehicle on cspan.org/localcontinue tenlt. next month we'll feature jefferson city, missouri. coming up, dr. ira rutkow discusses how surgery changed the civil war. ira rutkow -- please note there are graphic grfs shown during the program. and some viewerings might find this disturbing.
>> you're welcome, thank you for coming, i'm getting over a cold so if i have a buffy voice, you understand why. i appreciate the opportunity to be here, chris has already taken away my third slide. so i will start with nib two. i want to thank you for inviting me. i have spent many months into multiple months working in the rare book room within the like briar. this this is a unique place, it's a wonderful institution and i look forward to its history. it holds a unique place in american medicine and especially in medicine relative to new york city, so i appreciate the invite. well, i guess i should say a
little bit about dr. latimer, this is the john k. latimer memorial lecture, as professor warren has mentioned. dr. latimer was a product of new york city, he was a columbia medical grad, he was a columbia medical school. he really was quite varied in his interests. he was chairman of surgery for almost 25 years and he really placed pediatric neurology on the map. aside from the professional what was including 375 scientific papers, he was really involved in several different subjects and most important were military weapons. as a very young man, he graduated medicine school in 1938, during world war ii at the time of the nurmburg files.
through his knowledge about them, he published this book, "hitler's fatal sickness." it engendered a lot of criticism, a lot of discussion. he hypothesized that hitler had parkinson's following a post encephalitis disease. having said that, doctor latimer was also a ballistics expert, he was the first nongovernment, nongovernmental medical individual allowed to view the photographs and transcripts from the kennedy assassination. and this is back in the '70s and he came out and he agreed with the findings of the warren commission that there was a
single assassin. the most interesting thing is this right here, he was a collector of historical relics, professional warren used some ice language about what he clerkted and what he didn't collect. let me go through a couple of them and then we'll get into the civil war. the first thing was he owned lincoln's blood stained collar from the night of assassination, which was later sold at auction. he also owned the cyanide capsule that became the cyanide capsule that -- he also owned napoleon's penis. he owned napoleon's penis that when he was receiving last rights, that the priest amputated his penis.
dr. latimer bought it in 19 -- he assure everybody that napoleon's penis was absolutely airtight. finally ethan allen sword. he was the very proud owner of ethan allen sword. ethan allen was -- american revolution in 1975. so in 1975, dr. latimer re-enacted ethan allen's sword and his charge on the fort. so that is the story of dr. latimer's ethan allen's story, i wish i had got on to know him, but i did not. i became interested in the civil war when i was a very young man.
i always write about the civil war throughout the years. and these are some of the examples of the most famous books about the civil war. bruce patton's trilogy about the army. this happens to be my copy, i looked at it the other day, it says 1962 inside. i was a lot younger. these are all fantastic writers, nobody can compete with their writing style and through the years and certainly as i went into medicine, i graduated medical center in 1975 and through my training in the '70s and the early part of the '80s as i was reading more and more about the civil war. it became obvious at least to me that combat and suffering and death were glorified and pomp and circumstance masked the deadly battlefield.
this in my mind -- this is 1989, he won the pulitzer prize. 1990 was ken burns' documentary of the civil war. well, for me, as a physician, and a historian. despite the brilliance of the writing, in my mind, something was always missing, an understanding of the brutality and medical realities of the war, i wrote this back about seven or eight years ago. surely it was a description of armed conflict ever to be considered faithful than the brutality of combat as well as the painful and physical restoration of maimed bodies had to be spoken about and written about. the description of a combatant's death following a surgery or the -- troops of warfare to
unsurface. having said that always needs to be answered. why did these wonderful writers who won all these awards, why did they not write about medicine during the civil war? if you go to the first book that's about 600 pages, there's two pages on medicine during the civil war. i can only give you my opinion, and that is that medicine, that those of us in the audience understand, is a very tough discipline to get to know, it takes us multiple years and many writers just feel uncomfortable writing about medicine. the result is they do not have a lot of input into the medical field. i leave you with this quote from richard skyrock. he wrote in 1962, if medical aspects of the civil war are
omitted the story is not -- we can glorify it, we can talk about all the economics and the politics and the social yolg and the anthropology, but ultimately it was a tough war for the combatants and we should always keep in this mind. having said all this, let's talk about medicine, i actually titled this lecture, the big bang theory. why do i call this the big bang? i'm not talking about the television show with sheldon, leonard and penny, i'm talking about the big bang theory as it involves the beginnings of the evolution of the universe, because i truly believe and dr. warren actually said an important phrase, he said turning point. i believe that the civil war acted as the big bang for
american medicine as we know it today. there was stuff going on before, and that's what we're going to talk about, but that big bang that created everything that we know today, that hospital over there just down the street, it all really started at the time of the civil war. and that's what i want to discuss with you. not actually the specifics of civil war medicine, but the impact of civil war medicine on the future of american medicine. so these are are just some individuals, these are 1830, 1840, your typical doctor. he's tied to the mexican war. and you can see over here, this gentleman is holding what? he's holding a saw and a bone and the old slang term old saw bones, i'm not telling you that it came from this picture, because it didn't. this was around 1842. if you read charles dickens pick
wick papers, i'm not certain where it started but i thoughts it was a great picture. we're going to start with two quotes, the first is like nathan smith davis. who is nathan smith davis? he was a very important man. sometimes the passage of time is like a big eraser, it just erases things, and in this particular case, he probably had been erased because of the passage of time and the in fact that he was prominent but did not write all that much. but nathan smith was a two-term president of the american medical association and founded the journal of the american medical association. he was a very astute individual of the american medical seecene. he wrote the great --
subsequently without harming of actions and true digging into professional character. key words professional character. what do we mean by profession? what are we talk about as medicine exists today? well, how do we define a confession? a confession back then is mostly ministry and law and medicine, those were professions, a profession is a group of people who have specialized education and training. however you want to define it in today's world. there's also the question of medical licensure, and we will get into that, but specialized licensure and certification. there's ethics, professionals have a series of ethics that they have to follow. and then there's just the entire concept of organization of the profession, national society, local society, all that go into
making up a profession. i'm sorry to break the news to you, but none of that existed in antebellum before civil war america. if you think of the words anarchy and chaos, any of the those words that you want to use that's a synonym of them? that was american medicine at the time of the 1824, no body of men are less influenced by espirit du corps than medicine. so let's talk a little bit about what was going on and how these men were educated, what they diagnosed, what they treated so that we understand american medicine at the time of the civil war.beginning of this
country's founding in the 18th century and the first two decades of the 19th century, there were what you call apprenticeships, that's exactly what you think they r if i were a doctor in 1793 in upstate new york, and some young man, and i use the word man throughout the lecture, because in truth there were no women involved in american medicine. the first md from american medical school was elizabeth blackwell in 1949, but in reality, putting political practice aside, there were no women to speak of going into american medicine prior to the civil war. these men, i would have somebody come to me and they would say i want to learn about medicine. and i would say fine, here are my books, your father needs to pay me 100 pounds and i'll take care of you. that was an apprentice.
if you read these these are the articles of indenture. this is exactly what you think, they read books, they listened to the doctor, the doctor would tell him what to do, very often they were like servants in the house. but this was apprenticeship, this was how americans learned about medicine. there was no regulation, there were no standards, there were minimal licensing. one thing they did, the apprentices, they would somet e sometimsometim sometimes augment their apprenticeships in anatomy, in surgery or whatever. this happens to be a certificate of one young man who went and attended lectures up in harvard. i only show you this because it's tough to see, right over here, i apologize, there are the initials pr and i leave it to
anybody in the audience who wants to tell me who p.r. was. but this was a full revered engraving, so this is very famous. and paul revere was an even graver at the time and this was one of the many things that he did. so these young men were apprentices and they learned and they did whatever they wanted. in the 1820s, mike mushroom s o a forest floor after a rain, they popped up all over the place. these medical schools were exactly what they sounded like. they were proprietary, because doctors began to realize they could make a lot of money, instead of having one-on-one, i could make a lot of money if chris and i joined together with dr. ruben and we owned our own medical school and now instead of having three apprentices i could have 40 in new york.
there was only one criteria to get into these medical schools and what do you think it was? it was money, money is what counted. if you could pay dr. rubening and dr. rutkows and dr. warren state, congratulations, you were about to become a dmplt so this is rutger's medical school, this happened into in the new york city on duane street. this is an interesting story because all of you know what rutgers is from what state? new jersey, it was chartered in new york, it was given a license in new jersey and it was totally mixed up and it folded up after two years. so these proprietary medical schools were all over the united states. in the 1860s, there were over 60 of them that were established, from maine to vermont to new york to kentucky and all the major cities, they all had two or three of these.
so the proprietary medical schools grew larger and larger and like anything else, you know, citizens united, they became great lobbying efforts. and the reason was there wasn't a government that was involved in medical licensure, the federal governments basically told doctors, listen, we don't want to be bothered. we have enough problems with politicians. so the county medical society, your own group can tell us if someone's good enough to receive a license. that's how people were licensed back then. so you had these schools, nathan smith talking about these schools, and a student applies for one of our clenl schools, the fact is we dare not refuse him or he would turn and and walk directly into a rival school.
these men would sit there in the upright chairs for six to eight hours of monotonous lecture, over and over and over again, day after day, and this would go on for months. they would listen to their preaccepters turned pentagon. the schools did not have much. there was no science, they might have a skeleton and they probably did not do anatomical dissection, so this was a paper mache model from ohio that was use ed to teach medical student anatomy. there's these little papers here, and that told you this is the lung, this is the shoulder and this is the brain. this is a paper mache anatomical model. so this is kris cox, kris cox
was chairman of the medical association's committee on medical education, chris cox, he was the surgeon general of the state of maryland. he was vice president of the ama and headed this committee. so he now, all the students have paid dr. ruben and dr. rutkow and dr. warren all this vast amount of money. this is what surgeon general cox had to say. it's a great quote. each role of -- endorse its professor as a man of distinction and he goes forth amid the sound of marshall music and richbow -- he credited an agent for life and death, endowed with all the paraphernalia of medicine, but destitute of the brain.
this is what was going on, and cox tells another story how in 1863, one of the premier proprietary medical schools, half of the graduates, 25 years, they wanted to fight in the medical department. and my 1863, they had to make an examination to be able to get into the party by then. not one was able to pass the exam to get into the army. this was the state of the american medical community. there wasn't a lot of discipline in the discipline. it did not exist. it was chaos and anarchy, but this is what the civil war changed. so let's talk about hospitals in this period. this is new york hospital early 19th century, that was the best of the best.
they were for the december opportuni destitute, for the insane, for the infirm, you went there for one reason, you went there to die. back in the 18th and 19th century, they avoided hospitals, hospitals were not something you and i would go to at the time. and this was going to change during the civil war and that's what we're going to talk about. let's just talk real fast about treatment anding thes, diagnoses were very different during the civil war, because they had no way to differentiate diseases. if you had lupus, or if you had lung cancer or hepatitis, you had a fever. simple as all that. pathology did not exist. they did not know about the d differentiation of diseases. there was one big mish mash of everybody being sick with no differentiation. benjamin rush, a very famous
doctor attend of the 18th century go into the 19th century, signed the declaration of independence. he came up with a thesis, that was not very originally, but it was his thesis and it was very well known who said that the cause of diseases was what he called stimulus. what did he mean by stimulus? he meant that blood vessels in the body were congested. filled up with fluid. and that there was only one thing that we could to make you and i better and obviously if we have too much fluid, what does that mean? you get rid of that fluid. so that is what's now called the green, the blister, the puke and the personal, heroic therapy. that's how heroic therapy came out. i'm not going to tell you about
it other than to say that it was not a lot of fun. it was called heroic therapy because of the potency of its actions, whether it was heroic, i would say it probably wasn't and caused a lot more harm than good. so, through this anarchy and chaos that existed in american medicine, we now have another group of physicians, doctors, maybe not mds, but doctor, who also wanted to heal. what did they do? very similar, these were not traditional practices, these were your sectarians, irregulars and unorthodox, cultists, they said that disease was the excess of cold in the body. they thought you needed to have hot things put all around you and into your body.
eclect eclectic, they were the physical medicalists and injected anything to do with benjamin rush. and the vegetarians and crackers. i just want to tell you a little story, you know that graham and crackers, they believed that if you ingested these graham crackers that it would stop sexual urges and not only that it would prevent master base and premarital sex. so that was their belief. i leave it to you to determine whether that's true or not. however i'll relate one little personal story, and this is the truth. in 1975, when i began my internship and residency, i was at boston city hospital as harvard was leaving and bu was coming in.
all i remember is that at every nursing station at boston city hospital and on every ward there were boxes and boxes of graham crammers. -- crackers. i was married at the time, but i was just telling you that we were eating graham crackers right and left as residents. and finally the home owe path, like is cured by like, minuscule doses of drugs. you had the md ds, the allopaths. you had this big mess of what was going on and that was american medicine at the time. every species of medical delusion and positions allowed to spring up and grow without any legal restraint, the public pressed that engine all power line likeness that are -- harolding every variety of
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