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tv   American History TV  CSPAN  March 22, 2015 9:34pm-10:01pm EDT

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rights at the beginning of negotiations , that is off to the side. were not even negotiating over the causes of this war. the british for their part are going to come back and say, any treaty has got to include a buffer zone in the northwest for native americans. this is not out of any deep rooted beliefs or effort to advance the cause of native americans, it is that they want a buffer zone for future invasions of canada. they want the native americans to be the first-line of defense. they soak up any american invasions, which gives them time to ship over troops and get organized. what does this buffer zone look like? 1/3 of ohio, all of michigan wisconsin, have of minnesota all of indiana and illinois. the american commissioners were a bit shocked. it would also include half of the massachusetts territory that
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would become maine. it would also mean no american military power on the great lakes. we can't agree to this. and so after two months of negotiations going nowhere great britain is going to quietly drop it as well. they're going to abandon their native american allies in october. so than the british say ok, we are not going to create a buffer zone, but now the negotiate treaty means whenever anybody held at the end of the war, they keep. bad for us, because we have not seized any part of canada. good for great britain because they have this whole part of maine, and they have these forts along the niagara river and up here at the michigan territory. we say no, nothing doing. not going to work. they're going to drop back in november.
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august, september, october november. four months, no negotiations, no compromises. finally, the last big issue is british navigation of the mississippi river and american use of the fisheries off new england and newfoundland. american and british negotiators cannot agree on that either. they say, we will just leave that out of the treaty. both sides aren't compromising. the remaining sticking point they put to the side. why do they drop these issues? what is great britain retreat from their demands? -- why does great britain retreat from their demands? here is a british view of a sketch of the regions [indiscernible] here is great britain, here is james madison being led by
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napoleon, and who is this? it's the devil. nice. that is the british view, that the americans are under the thumb of napoleonic france, and satan. the british aren't interested in negotiating. here is the american view. the british are insistent on a native american buffer zone out on the western frontier. that will not fly. they see the british actively using native americans to resist westward expansion. there was no thought that the native americans might be actors for their own benefit. two things that will help turn things around is in september two major battles are fought that are both big american victories. baltimore in september 1814 is
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going to say the third largest city in the national anthem. at the same time, another british invasion is stopped on lake champlain. the british are invading in new york and maryland and both massive invasions are stumped with major american victories just two weeks after the burning of washington. what this means is that fighting is going to go into 1815. the british will say, they were holding out. they were hoping the news arriving from america would come up with another major victory where they could then stick it to the american negotiators. it did not happen. if we had either burned baltimore or held plattsburgh, i believe we should have had peace on our terms. since that did not happen, and they put the issue of
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mississippi and the fisheries to the side, they basically come up with a treaty that does nothing but end the war, and return american and british relations to june of 1812 as if the war had never happened. same as before the war. none of the issues that led to the war are addressed. so if you are america, is this a victory? yes, no? did we survive? yeah. is that a victory? yeah. there is this thing that wasn't invented recently. it's called political spin. and so the democratic republicans are going to start spinning what the war was actually about. pulitzer prize winning historian alan taylor said it best, having
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failed to conquer canada or compel british maritime concessions, the republicans redefined national survival as victory. munro assured the senate that our union has gained strength. our troops, honor. and the nation, character by the contest. he concluded, by the war we have acquired a character and rank among other nations which we did not enjoy before. pay no attention to impressment and free trade. they are going to spin this. we did not buy the farm. that in and of itself is a victory. the treaty is going to meet with opposition in great britain. why weren't there concessions from the americans? we should have made them give something up. it is unpopular in great britain , wildly popular in the united
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states because it means the war is over and we did not lose it all. here you see the different signatures. here's john quincy adams, henry clay. so, we signed a treaty on the 24th of december. you can't send it out on social media. american and british representatives each with copies of the treaty deparle and then on january 2. they try to get into the chesapeake bay to go directly to washington, d.c., but ice and bad weather mean they have to go up to new york and overland. the treaty does not arrive, and they both sailed [indiscernible] february 14, the treaty arrives in washington. 200 years ago, today. on the 15th, madison is going to review the treaty.
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on the 15th he will give it to the senate and say, make this happen. on the 16th, the senate is going to ratify it. madison is going to sign it later on that afternoon here at the octagon house, and the very next day, a ratified copy of the treaty will be given to anthony baker. he was the british representative that came from london in washington, d.c. war of 1812 is over. right? right. the octagon house. that's an old photo. i've got to get an updated photo. this is really cool. this is a baltimore newspaper. baltimore, saturday, fairbury 1815. glorious news! orleans saved and peace concluded. literally at the same time the treaty arrives and is ratified and signed, news finally arrives
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overland about the eighth of january, where andrew jackson won the battle of new orleans. we not only get to celebrate the end of the war, we get to celebrate going out with a bang. and having both of those things arrive at the same time means that it's very easy in the american mind to say that one gave way to the other. we won the battle of new orleans, and the war is over. we stuck it to the british. did we give anything up in the treaty? no. and we won the last three major battles of the war. this is great! now, what's really cool is look at what is underneath the headlines. 'tis the sparse -- star-spangled banner entrance -- in triumph shall wave. it has become incredibly popular, and they are using that
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song to kind of sum up how they feel about the end of the war. so a lot of historians, like don hickey, will say, the war was not a success because the treaty did not address the issues that brought about the war. however, while the treaty did not address those issues, subsequent relations between the two countries did. britain is going to avoid impressing americans during the 100 days. it comes up leading up to waterloo. the british have to be very careful not to impress america. in 1817, great britain -- or member, canada is still a colony of great britain. great britain and america will demilitarize the great lakes. they are trying to avoid any reason for tension along the border, and again [indiscernible] said it best.
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unable to defeat impressment during the war or at ghent, the americans instead prevailed by pressing postwar confrontations along the detroit river. by abandoning impressment and leaving the indians to their american fate, the british gave the united states a belated victory in the worth 1812. -- war of 1812. you can make the argument we spin the treaty a little too favorably, but as you look at postwar relations between the two countries that reinforce that sense of we stood up to great britain, we came out with our honor intact, now we're at the big boy table, and they're taking us seriously. that did not happen before 1812. that is the treaty of ghent. questions? yes, ma'am. >> at the end of the american revolution, there was a treaty, treaty of paris 1873.
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we acquired that big chunk of land. how is it that the british think they can actually use that exact same land as negotiating points regarding the buffer zone? the treaty is both sides agree to it, and they were violating their own treaty by offering negotiating points to the treaty of ghent. jim bailey: i think they figured third time is a charm, right? after the french and indian war the british basically true a line through the ablation mountains and said ok, no westward settlement from this line. the american colonies ignored it. ok, fine.
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after the end of the american revolution, the british say, we want this buffer zone out in the northwest. we said, no. again, the treaty of ghent was saying, let's try again. the idea being that especially after the revolution on the war of 1812, this buffer zone is to guard against future american invasion. when this war ended it was generally thought on both sides this was not the end of it, that there is going to be a future conflict. what is interesting is that because the treaty was simply ending the war, both sides could claim victory. both sides could ignore the fact that the war had taken place. nobody really loses. if nobody loses, that tends to take a lot of tension out of your relationship. ironically, when the war ended
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and everybody thought, this is only a temporary truce but the way it ended actually helped preserve peace and allowed for those future agreements to the point where 200 years later we have the longest undefended border in the world, and we're observing not only 200 years since the end of the war, but 200 years of peace between the united states, great britain and canada. good question. >>any other questions? ok great. thank you very much. [applause] >> you're watching american history tv, 48 hours of programming on american history every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter at c-span history for information on our
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schedule of upcoming programs, and to keep up with the latest history news. >> monday night on "the communicators together we met up with "wired" magazine reporter at the consumer electronics show in vegas. he gave us the latest in tv technology. reporter: led and a led set refers to the backlight system. led backlight to color liquid crystal display. this one is actually using the individual led particles as a source of light. they can be turned on and turnoff independently. within led set you will always see some sort of light sweeping through their. to my eyes, this is pretty amazing. this is 4k led the two big buzzwords at this year's show.
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this is sort of the holy grail of tv. >> monday night at 8:00 eastern on "the communicators" on c-span2. >> each week american history tv's "reel america" brings you archival films that tell the story of the 20th century. 70 years ago on march 7, 1945, u.s. army forces captured ludendorff bridge. leading to the first allied bridgehead across the rhine river in germany. the bridge at remagen and is a two-part 1965 u.s. army film telling the story of the battle. the big picture episodes include interviews with president eisenhower, general omar bradley, a german commander, and representative ken heckler, who witnessed the event as an army historian.
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>> as we started across, the only thing in my mind was to get off that bridge. the germans had attended once to board it, and failed. i felt sure next time the bridge would go. we tried to move as fast as we possibly could. however, the leading elements were being shot at by snipers and other people on the other side and they were moving more cautiously. >> hitler through in everything he had in an effort to destroy the bridge. he fired the deadly v2's against the bridge. he mobilized a couple of big 17 centimeter railroad guns to fire in their big charges.
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most of all, he thought he could destroy the bridge through underwater swimmers. there was a special group of swimmers that had been trained in vienna, all under 29 years of age in perfect physical condition. they went into the water several miles above the bridge and swam underneath the water, armed with charges that they were going to put against the bridge. however, they were picked up by real powerful american searchlights mounted on tanks that were sweeping the river during the night. these swimmers never did reach their objective, and they were captured by the americans a mile or so below the bridge.
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narrator: the action of the people at the scene of the capture was beyond praise. every man in the whole command approaching that bridge new it was mined. they knew all the other bridges they had seen were blown down into the water at that moment. of course, the ludendorff bridge was mined. after that, a moment's hesitation, local commanders -- indeed, i think the general, who had the entire combat team, they rushed the bridge, went across and there was an attempt to blow it up while they were on it. there was a faulty fuse or something else at the time. the attack had been so sudden and so unexpected on the part of the germans that the thing was a
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complete success. we had losses too, but they were minor as compared to the great prize that we won. ♪ >> all weekend, american history tv is featuring columbus, georgia. the city of columbus was named after an italian explorer, christopher columbus. c-span cities tour staff recently visited many sites, showcasing the city's history. learn more about columbus all weekend here on american history tv. jeff seymour: today we typically think of hybrids as the cars the combination of electricity and gasoline, but if you ask somebody but hybrids in the mid-19th century, there went to talk about ships. this is a hybrid. it is a combination of sale and steam power.
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it has got large masts that carry large sails on it, and it also has steam, and the chattahoochee of course is named after the river right here, any css chattahoochee was a regular, run of the mill gunboat, and she was operating up and down the river here. as for as we know, the chattahoochee is the only gunboat, plain fighting gunboat that has survived to this day, and we have only got the stern section, maybe 1/3 of the section here in the museum. it is only a portion of the ship, and we try to interpret what the ship represents in terms of entirety of the naval efforts of the confederacy, and of course it is something that was built right here on the chattahoochee river, and again steam engines, the propellers, things like this are all coming from columbus.
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this is what columbus is able to produce during the war. actually, the chattahoochee was not the best built ship. she started out a south georgia plantation owner by the name of david johnson, decided he was going to build a ship and donate it to the confederate navy for the war, and a place called saffold, basically a landing spot, he began construction on it, he hired laborers, and that was the biggest problem, finding enough skilled laborers to actually work on a ship at this spot. -- of this size. eventually the confederate navy took over operation of the construction of it and they completed it and put it into operation in january, 1863. in june of 1863, she is just north of chattahoochee florida and her boiler exploded.
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several sailors were killed and injured, and the injured are brought back to columbus, and we ended up having 19 sailors killed because of that, and that is really the only real action that she saw, a boiler explosion. the confederate navy went down to the fight, razed her, brought her back to operation, which leads us to the battle of columbus, and they just sent her downstream and blew her up to prevent capture. there are three captains of the chattahoochee, and the first is casey jones, and that may be familiar to some people. he was actually the captain of the ironclad virginia the day that she fought at the battle of hampton road.
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in late 1862 he is transferred to columbus, and he is the first official captain of the css chattahoochee. and he stays in command here for about a year, and then we have two more captains after that. the crew is a strange combination of individuals river rats from port cities, from columbus all the way to appalachia. it is very multinational. anytime you have the opportunity to preserve a ship, it is -- first of all -- a very expensive undertaking, and most people do not make the connection, especially the modern era. we can get in a car and drive almost anywhere, but in the earlier days, most people when they traveled far distances, they have to travel by water. and this simply represents the basic transportation need of an earlier period.
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we certainly hope that people understand the links, the extent that the confederates are actually going through to be able to conduct a war against an industrially superior opponent. this is the story of columbus, the story of the south, and the story of the war, how the war developed and was eventually won by the north. we also want to get a sense of local history. this is a real aspect of local history. this is a ship that was built right here on the chattahoochee river, built by local people coming together for whatever reason, but completing a project for a greater goal. narrator: throughout the
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weekend, c-span is featuring columbus, georgia. learn more about columbus and other stops at itiestour. you are watching american history tv all weekend on cspan3 . announcer: with live coverage of the house and senate on cspan3 we complement that coverage by showing you the most relevant congressional hearings and public events. on weekends, cspan3 is home to american history tv including six unique series, visiting battlefields and key events of the civil war touring museums and used worksites to discover what artifacts reveal about america's past. history bookshelf presidency lectures in history with top college


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