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tv   Jose Marti and the San Carlos Institute  CSPAN  July 2, 2015 12:33am-12:49am EDT

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mostly hair and calcium hair protein and calcium and worked against some arsenic compounds. so whoever discovered that was a brave person to try it out, but apparently it did work to some degree. these are the central feature of the atocha. here we see a group of silver ingets recovered from the atocha. they were really the core fwargo for the ship. there were over 1,000 of these loaded on board each one averaging i'd say about 70 75 pounds. very heavy cargo, stowed in the lowest part of the ship, used as ballast. they are so richly marked. we see on the surface of them the shipper's marks. we have receiver's marks. the person who was to pick it up in spain when it arrived.
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mint marks where it was made, a serial number telling us when it was made. we have carat marks dates, assayers marks and then this all corresponds to a written manifest. so we know who exactly these marks correspond to. and we know who was shipping it. why. and who was to pick it up. and it's, again this tremendous history about the economics of the time. the artifacts that we have from the galleons of the atocha and margarita, we have a little bit of everything that was on these ships from amazing treasures that we know were on there but also the dishes the medical gear, the weaponry the tools. all these other things that took, that were required to keep
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a little community functioning out in the ocean. they are all here. when people come here and see our exhibits on the galleons they see things from the early colonial period that they wouldn't see anywhere else. so many thing have survived on these ships that you don't find elsewhere and you get this really vivid look at how people lived on board a ship and what they were doing and their social structure and the economies. i mean it's really just an amazing look at what life was like in the colonies and at sea in the early 17th century.
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for the cuban people this is the most sacred place outside of cuba. this is a historical landmark of such proportions that i always like to say that eternal cuba lives here. we're only 90 miles away. yet this building stands as a symbol of freedom, a monument to the cuban people, a monument to their period perseverance of their freedom. the san carlos building was designed by one of cuba's most famous architects. francisco centurion. he combined the beauty of architecture with the powerful
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message of history. it's proclaimed the cuba that he envisioned, the cuba that would have first and primary goal guaranteeing its citizens basic human rights, the rights of freedoms that he felt that all children of god should have and that no government could deny. so when the hurricane of 1917 knocked down the san carlos, the republic of cuba chose its best architect, francisco centu rimpb on to design san carlos that this was a great cuban home the spiritual home of all cubans. he left the balcony and the arches under the balcony that you see in the facade of san carlos exactly as they were in
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the previous building. marking the place where marti had spoken. he said that base would be the base of the republic that marti envisions. san carlos is like a monument, a living monument to the perseverance of the cuban people in pursuit of that dream. when you enter the building then you find yourself almost surrounded as if you were in a large cuban mansion. building incorporates many elements of cuba's architecture. the high ceilings. the mosaics in the walls. they were brought in from spain. the floors, the black and white tiles, it incorporates the elegance. the beautiful white marble in the staircases, marble that was brought in from the isle of
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pines. so this was the site to bring people not only to understand history but to appreciate the elements of cuba's architecture the beauty of this building from an architectural point of view is fantastic. it's only greater element is the principles and allies for which it stands. that's really the beauty of the san carlos institute. it was founded in 1871 by cuban immigrants who came to key west and they established the san carlos as a place where they could put together the dream that they have for their homeland. the cuba that they envisioned. what they envisioned was a cuba that would have as its corner stone respect for human rights and respect for the dignity of the individual. it was founded as an educational and patriotic center. the basis of that was that the
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founders wanted to imitate here in key west what the san carlos seminary in cuba stood for, the san carlos seminary was a place of academic excellence but also the place where father felix first proposed the idea of cuba's independence and so they established the san carlos as an educational center. the children of its founders, the founders were mostly humble tobacco workers who worked in the tobacco factories in key west, they were very rich in spirit. and what they passed on to their children was a sense of pride in their cuban roots, in their language, in who they were and also a sense a vision, an aspiration to have a homeland that would one day be free and that you have at its corner stone respect for human rights and dignity of the individual. that's what they envisioned the san carlos became a center of
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education, also a center where in the evenings the elders would come to prepare for the independence effort against spain. cuba was the last of the spanish colonies in the americas. and so the cuban people were eager to be independent. the ten years war was the first effort by the kbans to free themselves of spanish rule. it was led by a rich landowner who freed his slaves and sold all of his properties, sugar mills that he owned and he dedicated all of his assets to the cause of cuba's independence movement. it was a war that the united states basically helped the exiles to debilitate spain.
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cuba was an island not connected to florida's mainland. in 1880 key west was the most populated city in the state of florida, total population around 20,000. and they were mostly cubans. spanish was the language. the industry was tobacco industry. they would bring from cuba tobacco leaves, raw tobacco leaves and roll them in the tobacco factories and that way they were able to sell the finished product as a domestic product in the american market avoiding the custom duty. that was the rationale for the tobacco industry in key west. spaniards tried to demoralize
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the exile cuban community by the great fire of 1886. one night in 1886 pro spanish forces burned down the san carlos institute and several of the tobacco factories in the city, trying to instill a moral blow in the cuban exile community. the response was exemplary. the next day a cuban civic leader gathered the kpildexiled community over the mashes of the san carlos institute and told the exiles are we going allow our dreams to die here? and the exiles said no. so they all put their meager resources together and responded by building san carlos not on a side street we'll build san carlos on the main street in key west right in the center of
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duvall street. they purchased this land where we are today and they rebuild the san carlos and then key west was the culmination of these efforts. it was here that the tobacco workers recognized marti's leadership. marti came here in 1892. jose marti is cuba's legendary patriot and poet, a man who when you talk about giving yourself totally to a cause, example that comes to mind is jose marti. the exile community in key west for the defeat of the ten years war they wanted to go back and start another war immediately and get spain out of the continent. marti said take it slowly. wait for the right moment. wait for the moment when we can
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launch a military effort that would actually have possibility of succeeding. and that created a bit of conflict in marti who was seen as a person who spoke and who wrote to fight versus the old community in key west that was ready to go and continue the fight that never ended successfully in 1878. but marti had respect for human life for the value of each individual was such that he didn't want to put anyone at risk in an effort that didn't have a chance to succeed. and then when he finally found that the moment had come, he set the example by going to cuba and he was the first to die. he was killed, may 19th of 1895 in cuba in his first battle.
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and his death marked the rest of cuba's history, how different cuba would have been had marti lived. the united states at that point when spain was very, very weakened and almost at the point of collapse, the united states came in with the rough riders and it was the final push by the united states and eventually pushed spain out of the continent. and this is very important. that war, when we look back that war had incredible significance for the united states. for the first time in really established the united states as a world power a world naval power. and it gave rise to teddy roosevelt american power and intervention around the world. in fact when cuba became an independent republic in 1902, many many of the key west cuban
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population returned to cuba most of them did, to be part of the formation of the new cuban republic that they envisioned. unfortunately, that republic came to an end in 1959 with the communist take over by fidel castro and the atrocities that have taken place since. that government remains in power to this day. and it still is the dream of the cuban people to have a cuban republic that will put into practice the allies that were formulated here at this san carlos institute. there's a lot of talk about norm normalization between the united states and cuba and we all dream that a normalization of relations would mean a bringing of freedom and human rights to the cuban people. i am concerned that all the talk
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is about an open cuba instead of a free cuba. a cuba that is open for american businessmen to go there and to make money instead of concern about the rights of the expandcuban people and the cuban people to enjoy the basic human rights that every human being is entitled to. all that i hear with this openness is we're going to be able to go and to do business and that will being a great if americans could go in there and do business with any cuban who they chose to do business with. that's not the case. that's not the case at all. you go there and you play by castro's rules and you are told who you can do business with. and for the most part it's the members of the castro elite natural will become the business partners of the amer


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