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tv   The Presidency  CSPAN  December 18, 2016 2:40pm-4:01pm EST

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follow the transition of government on c-span as president-elect donald trump selects his cabinet and republicans and democrats -- prepare for the next congress, we take you to key events without interruption. watch live on c-span, on demand on, or listen for free on the app. next on the presidency, a conversation about franklin d roosevelt and how he used the language to bolster his world war ii policies. georgia state university toss with paul's bureau, director of the fdr presidential library and museum. fdr, including the date of infamy speech following the pearl harbor attacks of december 7 19 41. december 5 anniversary of that attack is this week. is just over an hour.
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paul: tonight, we have a really fantastic guest and friend of the library. she is a communications professor at georgia state university, has written nine books -- mary: probably more than that. paul: that is how many i counted on amazon, including "finding americans: the good neighbors" which is a book about fdr. she has written books about carter, reagan, presidential rhetoric and language so tonight she is going to offer us some really important insight into how fdr used language, the content of his speech is broken up into several categories. there is, what he is saying and the way he is saying it. you learn a lot about his intentions and skills and
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ability by the way he says things. before we get to our first clip, i want mary to say a few things about her research area and what brought her to this and why she is a world expert on presidential rhetoric. mary: fdr, in particular is an important president for me. my father was on the island of corregidor in 1941 on december 7 and was eventually captured, put on how ship and syntel for he spent time. my mother worked on george marshall's staff throughout the war, so i grew up with world war ii in ways that think are probably a little unusual for someone my age so it is meaningful for me to be here and be allowed to do this tonight. they asked me to curate the clips, which means i got to choose the ones that you will hear, so what i try to do was walk you through the process of
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how we got into the war, prosecuted and then how do you make friends with people at the end of the war, so that is what i'm hoping to do. paul: we have to start with march 15, 1941. this was one of the most frought periods in american history because the war in europe was raging, the battle of britain had brought england literally to its knees but america was an isolationist country. at this point, the majority of americans do not want to get involved in the art and if -- war and if you're found himself having to navigate pacific with -- specifically keeping us from giving materials to the british and it had to deal with winston churchill who was desperate, literally pleading to roosevelt saying, if you do not help me, great britain will fall.
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this radio broadcaster of it at the correspondence dinner in washington dc. do you want to say anything before we start? mary: it will be interesting to think about who his actual audience is. he is theoretically talking to the press, but it that who he is really talking to? i think that is a question that you asked me earlier, and i think the other thing that would be fun for you to listen to with this speech is to hear what he does with size, who is big, who is little, what is bit, what is little, think about what he is doing with its size and amounts in the clips you were here. paul: let's bring the lights down and let's listen to franklin roosevelt, 1941. pres. roosevelt: the big news story is this, we of the united nations realize things have come to a front end to meet the danger, we must go into action. [applause] president roosevelt: we know it was bad enough in the first war. in nazism is far worse in this. [applause] nazi forces are not seeking minor modifications and maps, they see fit instruction of all elected systems of government on
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every continent, including our own. they seek to establish systems of government based on all human beings by an individual ruler
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who seeks power by force. these men and their ties followers call for a new order. it is not new and it is not order. it [applause] but order among nations presupposes something enduring. some system of justice under which individuals over a long period of time are going to live. humanity will never accept a system imposed.
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these modern tyrants find it necessary to eliminate them one by one. the nations of europe and ourselves did not appreciate that. paul: you can hear. mary: he is still talking. that was a pause. pres. roosevelt: 1939 well into 1940. [aplause]
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pres. roosevelt: the enemies of were wrong in their calculations. they were wrong because they believed democracy could not adjust itself to a terrible reality of the world at war. they were wrong because of its respectful rights of man. they believed that democracy because of its will to deliver peace to its makers would not mobilize even in its own defense. they know now that democracy can still remain democracy and speak and we conclude an ounce of adequacy for defense. [applause] pres. roosevelt: from the bureaus of propaganda to the axis of power, the prophecy: the
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constancy of our country-- a job accomplished not by overpowering but by disrupting unions. this union with its morals and disintegration from within. those who believe that no little of our history. america is not a country which can be confounded by the defeatists and manufacturers of panic. it is a country that puts his problems in the open. paul: sorry about that. it is very interesting to see he is trying to convince the
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american public of the war in europe is really a war on democracy, not a war between european powers. talking about size. it is a juxtaposition of size. mary: he talks about humanity. it is not the united states but the united states speaking for everyone. when he was talking about the nazis, is a small group try to run a lot of things. he wants to take the democracies out one by one, so things that he wants you to think of as manageable become very small. it is a small number of people that can be attacked but it is
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about big things come humanity, democracy and faith and freedom. what he is starting to do is lay out his wargames that will become much more explicit. paul: at this point, charles lindbergh, who is one of the great heroes of american aviation, was very, very aggressively pro-nazi and anti-intervention. you hear the line at the end about the danger within, internal disruption. he is talking specifically about charles lindbergh. talk about that. mary: charles lindbergh, there was no hero in the world like charles lindbergh at the time. lindbergh himself had gone to germany and had seen the german war machine and came back believing that we could not beat germany. that england was toast and we should stay out of it and try to negotiate a separate peace which roosevelt himself found to be an unconscionable and completely --he used to refer to lindbergh as the "little nazi." he did not like him very much. he's face often with an organization called america first and he ends up into one, iowa giving a speech in which he
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says, there are three groups that want us to go to war the jews, roosevelt administration and great britain. that speech destroys lindbergh's credibility because of the spread widely as both wrong and anti-semitic and then of course shortly after that, pearl harbor happens, and at lindbergh at that point volunteers to serve in the american military and roosevelt would have nothing to do with it. he ends up volunteering and going to serve in the pacific, but he is never charles lindbergh again after the speech. paul: there is one line in here that i went to to talk about, when he is talking about the quote unbeatable defenders of britain. mary: you know the churchill line. paul: who is he talking about? mary: he is talking about the raf and the battle of britain. people in the united states prior to the battle of britain were very suspicious of britain.
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they have been felt as if they have been fooled into the first world war with congressional hearings, and so there is this sense that we had somehow been tricked by munition makers into going into war in the first place. when the war drums started beating, there is a lot to overcome for people that started thinking perhaps we should fight hitler. the battle of britain is incredibly important to get americans to stop thinking of britain as an empire and to start thinking of them as worthy of defense and the two things most important are both popular culture rather than political. there is a movie that comes out that shows all of the citizens of pretend getting into their row boats and say the young british men and after a broadcast on the radio from britain and he always begins with saying he is in london and he tells stories like this one
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terrific story or there is a british shopkeeper who gets bombed and he puts a sign on his door that says "still open." and he gets bombed again and the targets blown off and he put the sign this is "open 24 hours." [laughter] mary: that kind of spirit that gets disseminated widely around the united states starts making americans feel like they should in fact help defend britain and the battle of britain was enormously important. paul: we have a lot to listen to the second clip. you this was to separate from the 1941, the day after pearl harbor. i hope some of you have seen the great exhibit that we have. we show the whole speech. we are going to play the whole clip. it's only a it is important to little over six minutes long. hear in its entirety. you often hear the middle part of the speech that shows his amazing rhetorical skills and he is making changes to the speech literally on his way to the capital because he keeps getting news reports of additional attacks and land that has been confiscated. do you want to say anything?
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let's turned on the lights and listen to pearl harbor. pres. roosevelt: vice president, mr. speaker, members of the senate, the house of representatives, yesterday, december 7, 1941, a date which
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will live in infamy, the united states of america was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the empire of japan. the united states was at peace with that nation and at the solicitation of japan was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the pacific. indeed, one hour after japanese
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air squadrons commenced bombing in the american island the japanese ambassador to the united states and his colleague delivered to our secretary of state a formal reply to a recent american message, and while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or a bomb attack. it will be recorded that the distance of hawaii from japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. during the intervening times, the japanese government has deliberately soft to deceive the -- sought to deceive the united
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states by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. the attack yesterday on the hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to american naval and military forces. i regret to tell you that many american lives have been lost. in addition, american ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between san francisco and honolulu. yesterday, the japanese government also launched an attack against malaya. last night, japanese forces attacked hong kong. last night, japanese forces attacked guam. last night, japanese forces attacked the philippine islands. last night, the japanese attacked wake island and this morning, the japanese attacked midway island. japan has therefore undertaken a surprise offensive, expanding throughout the pacific area. the facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves.
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the people of the united states have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation. as commander-in-chief of the army and navy, i have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. but always, remember the character of the onslaught against us. [applause] pres. roosevelt: no matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the american people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory. [applause] pres. roosevelt: i believe that i interpret the will of the congress and of the people when i assert that we will not only defend ourselves through the uttermost, but will make it very
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swift that this form of treasury -- treachery shall never again endanger us. [applause] pres. roosevelt: there is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. with confidence in our armed forces, with the understanding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph, so help us god. [applause]
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pres. roosevelt: i ask that the congress declare that since the unprovoked -- truly -- and dastardly attack by japan on sunday, december 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the united states and the japanese empire. paul: that is a powerful speech. what was the point he was trying to make?
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mary: there are two points,
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obviously. the most important one is the characterization of the enemy, right? a lot of work gets done in his adjectives and adverts. it was treacherous, these are not people who are fighting fairly from end, so the enemy are clearly people that deserve to be beaten, right? and then there is the characterization of the united dates, which is overtly christian but it is our righteous might, we are going to, do this so help us god. it is a very clear he is setting this up as a christian fight against the forces of darkness, and he actually gets a little bit lucky in that germany declares war on the united states immediately after this because he does not have a way to declare war on germany because germany has not attacked us and he has to deal very
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carefully throughout the war on the pacific versus the european theater and which one will be first and how that will play into his overall strategy, and so you notice your he can only say hostilities exist with the empire of japan, which is an empire, right? it is not a democracy, it is an authoritarian form of government, so he can cast it as democracy against the authoritarian which you also do a great deal more of in the other four speeches. -- war speeches. paul: those of you that have seen the exhibit, you will know he was by himself except for his close aides, here he hopkins when the phone call came through at 1:47 sunday afternoon telling of the attack and then he immediately has to start bringing the other leaders and to tell them. about three hours after the
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attack he goes into the private room with his secretary and dictates the first draft of the speech, which is pretty amazing, she describes it in her autobiography, you go into the side room, takes a long drive of a cigarette, looks up at the ceiling and it dictates the entire speech in one take. right from top to bottom. like he is reading from a script. she types it up and she brings it back to him, and of course he makes the most famous edit in american history he crosses of the word "history" and writes in "in infamy." the second part of the story, when his secretary of state shows up, he has a 17 page speech that he wants roosevelt to give and it is on the wall. you can see the whole 17 page speech. it is ridiculous. you can tell just from looking at it that roosevelt never read it because there is not a single edit any whole thing. roosevelt cannot look at a piece of paper without making an edit. why does he want to deliver this very short, condensed speech versus the 17 page litany of excuses on all of the things japan had done wrong?
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mary: what he does is condense those 17 pages into the things japan has done wrong. what he does is amplification. he could have just sat in the last 24 hours, japan attacked us, but he does not do that. he does not do that, he says japan attacked this island, this island and there is a building out that in which the audience, which has its limited information says, this is really bad. in that incredibly tight moment, he makes the only case he needs. he does not need the 17 pages. those kind explanations can come later. what he needs is for people to understand his urgency and the necessity for the declaration for the rest of the thing -- so the rest of the things can happen. what his aides doesn't 17 pages, he doesn't almost 17 words. the guy knows what he's doing.
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paul: there is an amazing moment of tensio release of europe into a play or seeing a good movie there is a moment of release. after the litany of the attack of malaysia, the philippines, etc., he gives the great line, through our righteous fight will win throughout the victory." that is when you share the audience exploded. that is the first time you hear them cheering and clapping because he is both about to that moment and then he delivers that thought which is basically what the whole speeches about. that is the only thing he really cared about. mary: he makes the threats clear, but he is also reassuring the american people that we are
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in grave danger, but we are going to win, right? which is a tension he has to balance for the next four years. paul: we are going to jump ahead a couple of months. this is the february 23, 1942. this is the map speech. this is one of my favorite. it is extraordinary piece of theater and leadership and inspiration. they have told people all of the country to go out and get maps of the world, to follow along with the president as he gives this speech. things are not going well. the nazis are having victories everywhere. the japanese are continuing to be undefeatable. there has been the battle of the coral sea. nothing good has really happened, and the most important part of this speech is trying to convince the american public
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what a global war is. mary: and as so we are not going to play the part of the clip where he actually walks you through the geography of the war because we do not have time for that, but the way he does this is through what we call analogy. this is like this other thing, and if so what he does is analogize this war to valley forge in 1776 and then what he does is he makes that the global world feel like it is also very close. listen while he does that. pres. roosevelt: my fellow americans, washington's birthday is the most appropriate occasion for us to talk with each other about things the way they are today in things we know they shall before the future. general washington and his continental army face of formidable odds and defeats. supplies and equipment were lacking. in a sense, every winter was a
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valley forge. for the states that existed, this commonly and selfish men, jealous men proclaimed washington's cause was worthless and he should ask for negotiated peace. washington has provided the model for all americans, a model of moral stamina. as it had been charted in the declaration of independence, the brave men who served with him no no man's life and fortune was secure without freedom and free institutions. the current struggle has brought
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us increasingly calamity in the world. this war is a new kind of war, different from all other wars in the past. not only in the methods but in its geography. it is warfare in terms of every island, every sea, every air lane in the world. that is the reason i have asked to spread before you the map of the whole world. follow me in the references for the circling battlelines of this war. many questions i fear remain unanswered tonight, but i know you will realize that i cannot cover everything in one short report for the people. the world nations have become endless battlefields on which we are constantly being challenged by our enemy. we must all understand we face the hard facts that our job now is to fight distances that expand all the way around the globe. we fight these distances because that is where our enemies are. paul: the parallels he is
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drawing with george washington have both historical significance and personal significance because he is putting himself in the role of -- mary: washington, right? he is at valley forge and he needs the people to stick with him and also of course if he wins, he gets to be washington. which is kind of great if you are president. paul: it is a pretty remarkable analogy there to try to draw people in to feeling like we can and we will will and it is our destiny to win this war.
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mary: this is why it is important when he talks about the significance of the moral stamina and a learning from that example. will he also notes that washington did this for eight years and at this point they have been doing it for a lot less than that, and so there is a sense that if you only have the moral stamina to hang with him, that it will change inevitably. and if so, one of the remarkable things about roosevelt's wartime communication is he does not sugarcoat the bad news. as he walks people through this speech, there is a lot of bad news and he tells it frankly and fairly honestly and pretty clearly, things are not going well. and so when he starts talking
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later about how things do start going well, people will believe him because he is also laying out a sort of basis of personal credibility and trusting the american people to bear with him on this, which is a kind of her markable act of faith in what citizenship is. paul: it is also interesting is a visual strategy, the reason he wanted people to have a map was because most people do not understand or russia was, where china was, where these things work. but if you look at a map, russia is really big and china is really big and the british empire is really big, so it looks like there is a lot more part of the world that are on our side than against us. who is against us? this tiny island of japan, this bootheel of italy and germany. this covers a bigger part of the globe come begotten nations, in
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terms of resources and population. he wants people to feel we can win this war because more of the world is on our side. we have to keep going because we have a lot. so, we're jumping ahead a few months. this is april 28, 1942. what is interesting here is that he is talking specifically about the home front and what the home front means. the context is, we have had the battle of the coral sea, but we have had one tiny moral victory that the doolittle raid's have managed to take off in military mission and dropped bombs in tokyo, essentially knows it difficult damage but listen to his reference in it when it comes up. anything else? mary: i will do the statistics later. pres. roosevelt: relatively lost control of a large portion of the philippine islands but this whole nation plays tribute to american officers and men held on so long on the peninsula. to those graham and gallant fighters still wear the flag flies and fighting effectively and against the enemy on other islands.
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the malan peninsula in singapore are in the hands of the enemy. the netherlands, east indies are almost entirely occupied although a distant flayer continues. many other islands are in the possession of the japanese, but there is good reason to believe that their advance has been stopped. new zealand and much of the
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territory will be taken for offensive action and we are determined that the territories that have been lost will be regained. the japanese are pressing northward advance with power. they have been opposed with great bravery with small chinese forces aided by american flyers. the news in burma is not good. the japanese made cuts into the burma road, but i want to say to the people of china that no matter what advances the japanese may make, ways will be found to deliver airplanes, ammunition to the army's of the general. we remember that the chinese people were the first to stand up and fight against the aggressors in this war and in the future, is still unconquerable china will play its proper role in maintaining peace and prosperity not only in eastern asia but in the whole world.
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for every advance the japanese has made since they started, in their frenzied conquest, they have had to pay a very heavy toll with warships and transport and planes and in men. they are feeling the effects of those losses. it is even reported from japan that somebody has dropped the bombs on tokyo and on other principled centers of japanese war industries. if this be true, it is the first time in history that japan has suffered such indignities. although the treacherous attacks was the immediate cause of our entry into the war. that event found the american people prepared for world war on a worldwide scale.
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we went into this war fighting and we know we are fighting for. we realize the war has become what hitler's originally proclaimed it to be, a total war. not all of us can have the privilege of fighting our enemies in distant part of the world. not all of us can have the privilege of working in an ammunitions factory or shipyard or in oil fields or mines, producing weapons out of from material that are needed by our armed forces.
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but there is one front and one battle where everyone in the united states, every man, woman and child is in action and will be privileged to remain in action throughout this war. that front is right here at home in our daily lives, the daily paths. here at home, everyone will have the privilege of making whatever necessary, not only to supply economic structure of our country, fortified and secured during the war and after the war. the price of civilization must
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be paid in work, sorrow, blood. paul: the thing i love about this speech is his thought that not everyone can be privileged to fight the enemy on foreign lands. not everyone can be privileged to work in an ammunition factory, but you can all be privileged if you sacrifice and home. this is a brilliant piece of rhetoric. mary: it is a wonderful thing. he does a lot of important things and that he makes it clear that it is a total war. he talked about china, which he is already, this early in the war, envisioning as one of his four policeman which becomes his vision for the united nations. throughout the war he talks
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about the united nations, although he does it in lowercase and we will see it later where he talks about it in uppercase. i want to read this from one of the biographies about roosevelt and it gets a sense of exactly how much productive capacity was involved in the americans effort in the war. between 1941 and 1945, united states produced 300,000 military aircraft's. in 1944, american factories built to 96,318 planes, more than a yearly total of germany, japan, great britain and the soviet union combined. henry ford and honest plant produced to be 24 every 63 minutes. rosie the riveter, oh my god. that is not part of the quote. by the end of the war, united states and manufactured 2.4 million trucks, 630,000 jeeps, 88,400 tanks, 5800 ships and 40 billion rounds of any nation. -- ammunition. what was happening on the home
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front with ammunitions and sacrifices going to make sure that is metal, rubber and those things people need it was not a small task, and if so it is speeches like this that helps give people the will to grow the victory garden, to live with the rationing, to do the kinds of things, and some of the stuff is beautifully displayed in the museum. i hope you get a chance to see it. paul: yes, the industrialization, the arsenal of democracy was one of those remarkable displays of leadership because roosevelt started this industrialization
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in 1938 when he sees what is going to happen. he understands how hard it it is going to be to get america into this war and he knows they can start producing this material, shifting the factories over.
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it does not happen overnight. this is a long process. will to england, china, even a certain points a soviet union cut our enemy the soviet union, shipping the tanks because of the industrialization and because we were not involved, our factories were able to operate at this extraordinary peak capacity. mary: we are on to rome. paul: the next two are very, very interesting because of the ways they connect. this is june 5, 1944. the war has been, the allies have taken north africa. they have come into italy, terrible, bloody, nasty fight. the russians have started pushing the germans back. there is a sense that the third reich is really starting to collapse. the end can be seen and roosevelt goes on air. mary: what is really interesting about this speech is, there are a couple interesting things, but the first thing you hear is the way he makes plays significant. just like he used valley forge as a place, roosevelt was very fond of using placement as a way to make arguments about symbols, and so he will talk about what rome symbolizes because he does not talk about it in strategic terms at all. the second thing that he does is, he makes it clear that it is not about the italian people, but it is about the italian leadership. and so, he is already thinking ahead to not just a feeding people on the ground, but how do you manage to turn enemies into allies? how do you execute a peace? you can hear him thinking about those things in public. paul: the subtext is much like the way president obama gave a speech while the rate to get osama bin laden was going on. while fdr gives his speech he knows the allied forces have launched the d-day invasion. he knows that is going on while he is giving the speech.
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let's turn off the lights and listen to it. pres. roosevelt: my friends, yesterday, on june 4, 1944, rome fell to american and allied troops. the first of the axis capital is now in our hands. one up and two to go. the first of these capitals to it is significant that fall has the longest history of all of them.
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the story of rome goes back to the time of the foundations of our civilization. we can still see me have monuments of the time when wrong, the romans controlled the whole of the then known world. that is significant. the united nations are determined that in the future, no one city and no one race will be able to control the whole of the world. in addition to the monuments of the olden times, we also see rome as a great symbol of christianity, which had reached into almost every part of the world. there are other shrines and other churches in many places, but the churches and shrines of rome are visible symbols of the faith and determination of the
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early saints and martyrs that christianity should live and become universal. and tonight, it will be a source of deep satisfaction that the freedom of the pope, the vatican city is assured by the army's of the united nations. it is also significant that rome has been liberated by the armed forces of many generations, many nations. the american and british armies found a fair side our own north american neighbors, the canadians. the fighting new cylinders from the far south pacific, the courageous french and the french moroccans, the south africans, the poles and the east indians all of them fought with us on the bloody approaches of the city of rome. the italians, too, forswear in a partnership and axis which they never desired, have sent their troops to join us in our battles against the germans on their soil. paul: two interesting things, the use of united nations but how the italians, who until this moment have been our enemies are
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now joining to battle against the trespassers. mary: which i think is the only -- it is this kind of lovely active rhetorical demand where he pulls a magic trick. the enemies are secretly your allies. he did much of the same thing with the soviet union, so there is a precedence for it. paul: talk about what makes this united nations different. mary: first off, now you will see in the speech text they are capitalized and what he is clearly thinking ahead to is when he says, the united nations are committed to the idea that no one nation or one brace, they
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are seeking or imagining a world in which nobody dominates, but that things are held in balance by the cooperation of all of the human refer to as the civilized he would've referred to as the civilized nations. after him, britain and the soviet union would balance themselves in europe. the united states would manage its own hemisphere. [laughter] controla would help asia. what is remarkable about this is not only does it kind of happen, but there's this really important region of the world that is invisible in this vision. he doesn't talk about the middle east at all as a factor going forward. spothat particular blind becomes kind of significant in world history later on. reason thepoint, the united nations is now capitalized is because come in his own mind, the united nations
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will be like the league of nations had been come on organization. prior to this, it had been the coalition that had been fighting this war. but now in his mind, very much, it is an organization. it is the united nations. i think it is an important moment of change. speech.ivering this the gliders have already taken off. the boats have already left the dock. he knows what is about to happen. he has spent the last several days at a small farm in virginia, near monticello, that is owned by his closest advisor, paul watson. he was technically his appointed secretary, but he is really his military advisor and one of his closest friends. he had been staying there with his daughter and her husband. was a journalist who had brought a newspaper out in seattle. they were drafting what is perhaps one of the great
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speeches or moments in fdr's presidency, which is the d-day prayer. talk about this before a player. we play it. >> this is one of my favorites. this is not on the syllabus because it makes me cry. so they look it up and it makes me cry. the thing that is most extraordinary about this prayer is -- well, it's two things. first, it is a remarkable declaration of american warring. secondly, it is given at a idea howere he has no this is going to end. he kind of thing she knows, but all he is completely sure of, when he gives the speech, is that thousands of american soldiers are about to die. that the fate of the world hangs in the balance. if we lose this battle, the
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allies are driven off the beach, which they easily could have nazi germany would control europe -- >> for the for seeable future. >> my fellow americans, last night, when i spoke with you about the fall of rome, i knew at that moment that troops of the united states and our allies were crossing the channel in a greater operation. it has come to pass with success thus far. and so, in this poignant hour, i ask you to join with me in prayer. sons, prideod, our this day have set
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upon a mighty endeavor, a struggle to preserve our republic, our religion, and our civilization. and to set free a suffering humanity. straight and through. give strength to their arms, starkness to their hearts, steadfastness in their faith. they will need thy blessings. their road will be long and hard , for the enemy is still wrong -- is strong. he may hurl back our forces. success may not come with rushing speed. but we shall return again and again. and we know that by thy grace and by the righteousness of our triumph.r sons will
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afraid by night and by day without rest until the victory is won. darkness -- men's souls will be shaken with the violences of war. are lately drawn from the ways of peace. they fight not for the lust of conquest. they fight to end conquest. they fight to liberate. ariseight to let justice and tolerance and goodwill among all the people. they are and of battle.
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-- they year and for the end of battle. they returned to the haven of home. some will never return. embrace these, father, and receive them thy heroic servants into thy kingdom, and for us at ,ome, fathers, mothers children, wives, sisters, and brothers and brave men overseas
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whose thoughts and prayers are ever with them. help us, almighty god, to rededicate ourselves in a renewed faith in the in this hour of great sacrifice. many people have urged that i call the nations into a single day of special prayer, but because the road is long and the desire is great, i ask that our people devote themselves in a countenance of -- in a continuance of prayer as we rise to each new day and again when ofh days spent, let words prayer be on our lips invoking that help to our efforts. strength, too. strengthen our daily task to redouble the contributions we make in the physical and the material support of our armed forces. stoked tor hearts be travail toe long bear sorrows that may come, to
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impart our courage unto our sons wheresoever they may be. faith., lord, give us give us faith in the, faith in our sons, faith in each other, faith in our united crusade. let not the keenness of our spirit ever be dull. let not the impacts of temporary matters, atemporal fleeting moments, let not these the chair us in our unconquerable purpose. with thy blessing, we shall prevail over the unholy forces of our enemy. help us to conquer the apostles
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of greed and racial arrogance is . lead us to the saving of our country. and with our sister nations into a world unity that will spell a peace ine, a vulnerable to the scheming's of thatthy men and a peace will let all men live in freedom, reaping the just rewards of our honest fight. done, almighty god. amen. >> one of the things that is very interesting, when you hear a lot of fdr speeches is biblical in christian references. he never uses the word jesus.
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he talks about a higher god. but first of all, this is part of a judeo-christian tradition. eliminate any religion, if you believe in a higher god. talk about his use here specifically of this broader spirituality. mary: he was never particularly interested in talking about theology. he understood himself as a christian and a democrat and both of those in broadest possible terms. his administration was incredibly inclusive for the time, especially on religious grounds. as we talked about earlier with the lindbergh example, roosevelt did more than any president to that point to eliminate anti-semitism. he put more people of the jewish faith in his administration than any president prior to that point. he was often criticized for this. people talk about the jew deal. but what is marvelous about his
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use of this here is not only is it quite ecumenical, but for a man who was often considered to be lacking in humility, there is a real humility to the way he says, my country can do these things, my country is powerful, yet thy will be done almighty god. there is a recognition of power and inclusion, and indeed humility in the way he references god throughout is a -- throughout his administration. paul: i think it shows vulnerability. he has suffered through war, hundreds of thousands of casualties, american casualties, millions of people dead. he is a sick man. his illness is starting to get the better of him. i think he feels the weight of his decisions. he feels the weight of sending these young boys into battle.
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all four of his sons are in active duty. he feels this personally and i think that comes through. mary: i think he is praying for his own children as well as the children in the nation. paul: we're going to take some questions. we have a microphone. and also comments and your thoughts on the speech, the use of language, on how his use of language varies from some of the use of language by our more contemporary politicians. one of the things i find most interesting in his radio addresses is the way he talks, my friends, joining you now, muy -- my friends. trying to make you feel he is committed getting with you individually. he would often say when he would do his fireside chat he would envision one of his neighbors sitting across the table from him and he would try to talk to
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them as he was doing the speeches. what differentiates his speeches from any who came before. there is a microphone right up here. mary: just go lineup. paul: you're a former director, you have got to have something to say about this. mary: go to the microphone. paul: get it started. >> [inaudible] mary: thank you for putting me in that particular firing line. [laughter]
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i think the most obvious change -- and it has been real obvious in this election -- is roosevelt was very clear about issues of decorum. when he took on his enemies -- and he did so with great gusto -- we ought to do when of these on roosevelt and his enemies. he took out lindbergh. he was fearless. in talking about money changes in the temple. the fascinating thing about when he did this is he almost always referred to enemies in the abstract. they were economic loyalists, they were moneychangers. they were not particular individuals. he never named lindbergh in public that i can think of. paul: people knew who he was talking about though. mary: he had a very strong sense of appropriateness and occasion.
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i would say at least one of our presidential candidates lacks that sense of decorum. [laughter] paul: well said. next. >> at the beginning of the show, i expected it to be followed up with joe kennedy. and i did not hear that. paul: joe kennedy was very much an apologist for nazi germany. he also felt that england was going to lose the war, and he encouraged roosevelt not to get involved. he was an ambassador for great britain but did not really support great britain in their battle against nazi germany. but there are many others as well. his six cousins -- teddy roosevelt junior opposed america getting involved in the war.
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teddy roosevelt junior and lindbergh were a team. they would do speeches together, arguing against american intervention. there was a powerful cadre of people who really disagreed with roosevelt, thought he was doing absolutely the wrong thing. the teddy roosevelt name was powerful name. in teddy roosevelt senior was very popular in this country. a great war hero, all of those things. kennedy, roosevelt, lindbergh, there was a whole slew of people who were adamantly -- some of them quite elegantly -- arguing against him. mary: he never used names, but he used surrogates to great effect. roosevelt never attacks lindbergh but he has a decent do it. he had gotten a letter earlier -- he is lindbergh, so he gets medals from everybody.
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he does not get to -- he is -- after the events in germany and the low country, people are asking him why he is not giving the medal back. he says i have a truck load, do not give any back. roosevelt never says a word. his surrogates is out there going out there saying that it is so interesting that lindbergh has resigned his commission, which he had done from the american military because he is so annoyed at roosevelt. he resigned from the american military, but he did not give his nazi medal back. isn't that interesting? i'm not accusing him of anything mind you, but it is so interesting. and so he had his surrogates out doing that kind of work all over the country.
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and roosevelt did not need to. he eventually removed kennedy as ambassador. i don't think he ever made a public statement about it. paul: you have a question? >> yes, i think the speeches that roosevelt had given are great examples for anybody else that wants to move a group of people in thought without beating them over the head. but in the preparation for the speeches, was roosevelt the primary writer and editor of the speeches or did he have a cadre of people -- today they have 50,000 people who want to write a speech for them.
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how much of an influence were other people into his ideas in his speech writing? mary: yes to all of that. he had a strong role in writing his own speeches and also sam rosenman, who also edited his public papers, now those are just sort of produced by the government. but he edited the 11 million volumes of roosevelt's speeches. roosevelt had the last word on every major speech, and it is so great that you asked me this because the roosevelt library now has what we call the master speech files online. you can see every draft of every speech roosevelt ever made. they are online, and you can actually see where roosevelt edited them in his own handwriting. all you have to do is jump on a computer and go to the master speech file. paul: they are listed by date, so if you want to look at any specific thing you're interested in. the earliest speech we have is from 1898, he is 16.
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he is going to lawton -- no, endicott peabody is his headmaster. he gave a speech and this was fdr's rebuttal. endicott peabody had been arguing the case for america annexing hawaii. 1898, 16 years old, franklin roosevelt goes through this whole explanation why the united states should not annex hawaii, making reference to the fact that although it has a nice harbor -- pearl harbor, b be in -- which would be an excellent place for coal refueling, but it would cost the american navy $100 million to build a fleet big enough to protect hawaii from the japanese empire. 1898. he had a global perspective that very few americans had at that point. his mother had traveled
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extensively, his mother's family were in the china trade, his mother had lived in china. very unusual. he traveled to europe extensively. he loved germany. he thought germany was the greatest culture in the world. he was fluent in german and french. he had an enormous global sophistication. the master speech file is great because any event that happened, we have his speeches on. starting in 1930 or so we link the speeches to the audio recording of the actual speech so you can see the transcripts of the different drafts of the speeches and actually look at the speech. >> on the primary speeches that roosevelt gave, not all the other ones, did he create the first draft for which that is the basis for working on it? mary: you can correct me if i'm wrong on this, but i think he talked about it with his staff and then they produce a draft which he worked with. paul: the really important speeches like pearl harbor, that was him 100%.
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there are only two significant sentences that were added. one sentence was added by his vice president, henry wallace. those are the only two significant alterations to that speech. that is almost 100% roosevelt. the other thing that is interesting about his speech writing process, the first inaugural address is something they worked on for months. the phrase, "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself" does not show up until the seventh draft. we think of that as the heart and soul of that speech. it shows up very late in the process. it is a big argument about who actually came up with that, but many people took credit for. there is dialogue going on with his closest aides. he had several writers who worked closely with him.
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mary: and women like grace tully and other women who worked with them were often his ears and would make comments to him as well. paul: and eleanor roosevelt commented on many of the important speeches. would give him comments. any more questions? i want to thank you all for coming. let's hear a big round of applause. [applause] that was fun. what should our next subject be? mary: if you're going to come back to one of these, what would you want to hear roosevelt talk about? >> his enemies. >> his relationship with stalin. paul: he was convinced his personal charm would overcome stalin's psychotic nature. but there are not a lot of speeches about that.
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>> [inaudible] paul: that is fascinating. his buildup of why america should support britain, freedom of speech. mary: the atlantic charter. paul: great stuff. >> [inaudible] mary: roosevelt believed in decorum. churchill, not always so much. roosevelt knocked on churchill's door, and churchill screams, come in. churchill is, in fact, naked. roosevelt is like, i am so sorry. churchill looks at him and says the prime minister of great britain has nothing to hide from the president of the united states. [laughter] i don't know if that story is
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true, but i love it. >> [inaudible] paul: some of those speeches are fantastic. that first speech he gives as president on the banking crisis is really an extraordinary speech. you can see how his philosophy changes as they try things and they don't work. then as the supreme court starts interfering. i think that would be a fascinating one because you actually see an arc in his speeches on how his own understanding of the economy evolves. it is quite interesting. mary: will rogers said of the first fireside chat that roosevelt explained the banking crisis so well that even the bankers understood it. [laughter] paul: all right, thank you all very much for coming. we will see you again next time. mary: thank you. [applause] [captions copyright national
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cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] you are watching american history tv, 48 hours every week and on c-span 3. follow us on twitter on c-span history to keep up with the latest history news. >> this week and, on american artifacts, we tour a national archives exhibit called "amending america." here's a preview. >> hi, my name is jennifer johnson. i am a curator at the national archives is em. >> i'm christine black, a public education outreach specialist and co-curator of "amending america."
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>> right next to me is a case showing the more than 11,000 amendments that have been proposed to the constitution. one of our challenges was that the bill of rights actually lives in the rotunda, which is a different area of the museum so we decided as a team to have a banner literally lead visitors from the bill of rights to the o'brien gallery. and on that banner is a more than 11,000 amendments proposed in congress. >> the bill of rights is the first 10 amendment to the constitution. so we decided to open up the gallery with those first 10 amendments at the constitutional amendment in 1887 in philadelphia, when the delegates were talking about the bill of rights. they took a vote on whether or not they should include one in the constitution. this document right here, which is the voting record from the constitutional convention, shows that, when they took a vote,
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which is about two thirds of the way down the page right here, that the vote was actually 0-10 on including a bill of rights in the constitution. so the delegates to the custom to show convention did not think it was needed with the constitution. but then, after the convention is over, the constitution was sent to the states for ratification. and the states did not agree with the delegates at the convention, that it wasn't needed. >> over here is one of my favorite documents in the gallery. it is a draft version of what became the bill of rights. we usually refer to this as the senate markup. the senate took the 17 amendments that were passed by and changed them into 12 amendments that, after a conference committee, it was 12 amendments that were sent to the states for ratification and 10 of those 12 were ratified by the states. this document here is the ratification from the state of virginia, which was the 11th out
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of the then 14 states to ratify. that brought the amendments up to the constitutionally required bar of three quarters of the states to ratify. and that meant, when this document was signed, the bill of rights became part of our constitution. onthis document was signed december 15, 1791. that is the date that we now celebrate as bill of rights day. it's the 225th anniversary of this document that we are celebrating this year at the national archives with the exhibit "commending america." >> watch the entire tour at 6:00 p.m. antenna clock p.m. -- and 10:00 p.m. this is american history tv, only on c-span 3. >> c-span come our history unfolds daily. in 1970 nine, c-span was created
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as a public service by america's cable television companies and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider. announcer 1: each week, "american history tv's reel america: brings you archival film -- america" brings you archival film. this amuses narration and news footage to detail the methods of communist revolutionaries in china, algeria, and cuba, then shows how civil rights leaders are also communist. the film condemns u.s. presidents, the voting rights act, and more. he contains language and graphic scenes of violence and death that may be disturbing to some viewers. >> we the negro people, you know down here have gotten


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