tv NATO CSPAN June 3, 2017 7:15pm-7:46pm EDT
activities. >> at 9:00, eric buckland talks about confederate colonel john as mosby. -- s. mosby. >> a couple of times lee complained that he was fighting into many small groups. this decentralized way he operated the not make sense. he needed to mask his forces and take one big target. that went completely against everything mostly was doing. he could have 3, 4, 5, 6 different combat patrols out on any given night. >> for a complete schedule, go to c-span.org. 70 years ago at harvard university, secretary of state george marshall outlined and economic relief plan to help europe recover from the devastation of world war ii.
wordedl was eventually the nobel peace prize for what came to be known as the marshall plan. next on real america, a half hour u.s. army film from 1964 wordeddocumenting the destructn europe following world war ii, ongoing clashes between communists and non-communist forces, the creation of the marshall plan, in the formation of nato. ♪ >> 1945. as western armies sweep across germany, voices on the radios speaking english and russian.
until finally those ally in the struggle come together. europe and the world, and unforgettable moment. if only they continue to act in the spirit of that moment, what a europe, what a world by then could've emerged. ♪ runs thef the elbe, river rhine. the river of the gods and romans, christians and pagans, freedom and slaves, a river with a history of strife. it runs for the heartland of europe, the continent so long 22 i -- so long toward that only dreamers like charlemagne could dream of it as a peaceful place. ♪ >> but in spite of the
bloodshed, most of it so recent, one europe is at last becoming a fact. born out of the very dragons teeth of war. harvest from the seat of europe's own destruction. 1945, and the end of another european war. who has won, when in fact all have lost? more civilians died in fighting in, by the millions. but they always were spared the aftermath. much is gone forever. and what is in its place?and the aftermath , near existence. an undamaged roof made a palace. a loaf of bread, a banquet. one long line of with -- what a europe to grow. what a europe to grow up in.
pridek market or even was for sale to the highest bidder. iraqi and of self-respect and human values hearkened back to the jungle. but it order that the wheels could turn again, some had to put their faith in others. they had to trust and sit around the same tables defined the means of putting europe and the whole world to right. it was evident the europe of 1939 was gone forever. the annexation of the baltic states, the huge advances of the red army place enormous areas of eastern europe under soviet domination. marshal stalin was probably the midi yield over a table that which he had seized in battle. nevertheless he agreed on free elections. amid the ruin of countries such as poland, they were held.
belfry they were was a matter of opinion. with communists already in key posts, it was no surprise things what their way. if anything else was needed to make the victory certain, there was always the presence of the secret police and a number of soldiers of occupying red army. war orles exhausted by hardly likely to resist such coercion. for all their energies were engaged in putting one brick back upon another. europe where destruction have been lighter, morale was much higher. regimentation has then accepted only because without it winning the war would not of been possible. theis the end of the war, essential freedoms of democracy burst out with new vigor.
there was determination to see to it such a disaster would never happen again. tha -- there was the realization to become with insecurity europe must be united. but how could these europeans be united when they are also different? he was the blood of many races, not to mention different line which is. they might smile each other, but his neighbors they have nothing in common. sometimes the frontier was a natural barrier, who more often than not it was merely an invisible line across fields of trees. an invisible line and an attitude of life. yet even in the time of occupation, there were those who realized already what must be done. >> it is not the movement of
parties, but a movement of people. it must be all for all. europe can only be united with a heartfelt wish and vehement expression of the great majority of all the people, of all the parties, in all the freedom loving countries, no matter where they dwell or how they vote. fort was all very well winston churchill to make speeches in 1947. he had self-respect. he had enough to eat. he had a place in which to live. europe was the theater in which the plant such things. unity was down on the list of priorities. it was supposed to extend from united nations. their lack of progress with such that when delegates from east and west set down the other,
focus was so thin that even they were -- how could there be a record one east block every move in its direction? when the east block every move in this direction? in the economic chaos of the postwar period, communism saw its greatest triumph. whenever there was dissatisfaction, they could fan the flames a revolt. revolution, the ends justified any means. in countries like czechoslovakia, bit overcame the obstacles. at first communist leaders pay lip service to democratic principles, treating the veterans with respect he deserves his head of state. but then they looked up left-wing populist feelings and
to approve taking drastic measures to obtain not just the power imbued by the votes, the total control of the democratic zech state. -- c soon the president was forced to retire and died brokenhearted in virtual exile. in the parliament, the new leaders made her debut with enthusiastic demonstrations of support. then in an exhibition of irony, they stood in silence to pay homage to an absolute number that is a number -- and absent member. state after a fall to his death from a window, by accident, suicide, for murder, no one knew.
for the communists it could not account for a better moment. if infiltration failed, there was always the threat of strength. while the wartime allies had demobilized, they had retained their armies. --re was a powerful in an attempt to gain control theyvinyl phosphorus, offered to renew a treaty with turkey only if they could have basis. -- bases.the turks call the bluff, they offered to renew a treaty with other neighbors in greece for not so lucky. in greece, the communist staged open revolt. a desperate struggle in which the government only kept control after bitter fighting. an already or impoverished people were given to the limits of hunger, suffering and despair.
the method of settlement might be the guns, public it were guns without bread? -- but what good were guns without bread? europe's problems stemmed not just from the recent war, but many from the neglect and indifference of centuries. guns againste malaria, which sapped the strength of whole peoples? what good were guns against tuberculosis, rickets, squalor and felt? what of their hungry fathers, mothers, grandparents? now is the time to lift the stone and reveal the horse related -- horrors that lay beneath. far from your's shores --
these wereores, people never proud human suffering exist without protest. they gave for my wealth, the greatest in the world, but this is no way to track from their christian content. -- intent. marshallgton, george may know the principles of the plan that will later their his name. >> the whole situation is critical in the extreme. there is no doubt whatever in my mind if we decide to do this thing, we can do it successfully. there is no doubt in my mind the whole world hangs in the balance with what it is to be we are endeavoring to put forward here. truman forresident the marshall plan for european aid before congress. >> i am here today to report to
you on the critical nature of the situation in europe. and to recommend action for your consideration. i believe it must be the policy of the united states. >> in europe, the response was immediate. -- statesmann met to figure out where american aid can be applied. the marshall plan took the regard of politics, only human need. but for the communists, human need with their stock in trade. such a plan could only protector -- to track their own means of economic revolution by chaos. talks were followed by the delegates from communist holding in czechoslovakia. could notdissenters called halt to the greatest humanitarian step in history.
cargo began to move across the atlantic. food, green, raw materials. it was not just a matter of feeding the hungry. from chicago, illinois, to france, a giant stele production. anointed with french mills on their feet, but to make them among the most vital. truly the power of the new world had come to redress the balance of the old. in paris, the organization for european economic cooperation was established. a council of 16 nations whose task it was to ensure the marshall plan a was used for the best possible advantage, to rebuild a shattered economy, and reestablished inter-european trade on the basis of strength. by their agreement, holland could import three quarters of the cotton needed for textile looms.
by the recommendation britain could receive the carbon for the all-important automobile industry. us could friends bring into her points -- france bring into her maintain vineyards at their best. there were tractors and other equipment for turkey to bring agriculture into alignment with more fortunate labors. steel for the shipyards of italy. over and above revitalizing european economy, the marshall plan with its funds and technical assistance, vast areas of italy, whole islands like sardinia and cyprus became battlegrounds in the fight against the malaria mosquito. everywhere health teams went out to battle. for thousands, such undertaking meant the difference between life and death. a new hope for europe was red in
the eyes of children. -- read in the eyes of children. but it was mere sentimentality. revolution first. the marshall plan is but a scheme to gain control of europe. so down with the marshall plan. down with the marshall plan. strikes, unrest, and even sabotage. learned by -- alarmed by the soviets, statesmen of western europe came to develop common defense. only a handful of nations signed the brussels treaty, but in terms of european unity, it was a historic step. and the continent owes much to their foresight. the treaty brought tried and
tested warriors to france to make the first tentative plans for meeting force with force. there was little military strength in which to do it. the next hotspot, the city of berlin, occupied by a french, british, americans, and russians. ever since the failure to establish reelections throughout the whole city, berlin's situation between east and west had grown steadily more uncomfortable. now the soviets felt strong enough to take action. their efforts to starve the western population were frustrated as all the world knows by the same berlin airlift. commission -- in a few short years of peace, the soviet era of domination had spread ultimately over europe. how could the brussels power alone hold? of warr old europe, talk
yet again. what hopes now for the marshall plan? it wasn't surprising that the europeans read their paper with cynicism and despair. then they read how 12 nations in washington side what came to be known as the north atlantic treaty. and if they had doubts about the new organization, nato, the need for it was proved at once by the communist reaction. was driving a rift between east and west. this was an affront to all peaceloving peoples. they permitted the -- paraded, and peace was their slogan. was this the piece for which so many had died? and int of stalingrad
the streets of paris? was this the aftermath they envisioned? ♪ and so the peoples of western europe hundred the new step, and decided -- pondered the new step and decided it was the only way. playback the atlantic pact. they saw there were worse things in war, and to avert war was to be prepared for it. so europe to the move toward defensive rearmament very calmy. in spite of all the threats when nato's commander dwight d. eisenhower took his post, planned demonstrations came. in a temporary headquarters in paris, the military staff of the alliance began the task of building the continent. all deleted not realize it, they were taking the first steps toward a western unity that was
to extend far beyond the military. soldiers of many nations working together in peacetime for a common cause. ♪ nato's strength moved at the same progress of the marshall plan. progress mingled with the goods into european ports, where treated weapons and other ndmaments, goods for peace a goods to safeguard that piece, -- that peace. as well as the soldiers and airmen fromnd goods to safeguard that across , canada and the united states, here this time to prevent the guns from sounding. month after month the buildup continued. the war to prevent war. old europe took it all in stride. ♪
overseas in this critical days, there was plenty to see. farmers from the midwest for instance, who came whether to see whether french firm products were all they were cracked up to the, and found they were and then some. but for all visitors, whatever their mission, one thing was obvious, the changing face of europe. the nations receiving a marshall aid dollars were putting those funds to good work. roads, railways, bridges, everywhere the rattle of concrete mixes. and in the factories there was ever going roar and bustle. to marshall plan was the stimulant, nato was the shield. the effort came from hundreds of thousands of men and women that
worked with a will because they saw a mighty purpose. now they were working for peace, working for themselves and working for tomorrow. in strasburg, the council of europe was meeting regularly. many european nations, nato members and others, discussed the futures of their countries. no executivel had powers and members only advised on general trends. but it was at least a common meeting place, somewhere where it could be viewed as a whole -- where europe could be viewed as a whole. a start, but there was a long way to go. the arteries of the continent might be throbbing with new life, but still the age-old barriers loomed.
it seemed that little short of .tomic bombs could shift and yet the solution was easier than anyone had imagined. millions where it hurt most, in their pockets. the higher standard of living for the sectors that finally pushed down the walls. the higher standard of living for the sectorsonce the steelwol mines of the czar worthy crucibles of war. --hout them, war by one agreement, all were brought together under one community, the european community of coal and steel. a dream turned into reality. in luxembourg the city set up its headquarters and went quietly to work.
the idea was purely an economic one. 6 western european nations dealt in coal and steel decided to cooperate to prevent overlapping and wasted prices. to established in the field one common market. their reasons were economic, yet by this one act, a handful of practical visionaries did more for european unity than all those driven by blood and force. the business of making swords had been turned into shares. in the meantime at nato headquarters in paris, equally important moves have been made. a project to form a true european army to include forces from western germany had failed. in its place by general agreement of all nato nations, the federal republic of germany was invited to become their 15th ally.
a step vital to the alliance. for europeantoo unity. in western orbit and out of the no man's land. that was 1955. since then, old europe has seen much. profit list summit meetings, frustrations, hungary, cuba, and yet all the while a changing stage. now in the heartland of europe, the contentious forces of nato provide routine spectacles. by now they have been around more than a decade. ♪ the newly entity does not always breed contempt -- familiarity does not always breed contempt. many survivors were born when the atlantic pact was signed.
they were more interested in how things work than why. why was not so clear as it once was. why in the heartland can there be seen men and women wearing uniforms of states far across the ocean? why nato today? today the river rhine is too busy to consider hostilities. it is a long haul from switzerland to the sea, end of the customers are waiting. and the customers are waiting. nat exercises are ferried across, not for the purposes of conquering the other side. for now, german, american, british, belgian, and dodge all alled together -- dutch worked together to secure the heartland and western europe as a whole. now they are more than just
ruins to defend. today on the sleek new international trains there are still those that must examine passports and ask if you have anything to declare. they do it rather halfheartedly. prosperity cannot wait. sir, with reference to your order of the 15th, we are pleased to state that the desired consignment will reach you on time. even though your order is for half as much as your last. ♪ and here in brussels, there is something else to see now. out of their first idea of the coal and steel community has emerged a more ambitious move.
here in brussels the headquarter of what is now called the common market. international cooperation across the table in terms of practically everything that men produce and consume. six, but tomorrowx 13. only the beginnings, but there for sure. they are only there for sure because of the watch of nato, because of the men and women keeping 24-hour guard by land, sea, and air. for still across from the heartland only a few miles east of hamburg and frankfurt, men toil ceaselessly to add more wire to the enormous web of the iron curtain. there, even passing the time of day with the west is strictly forbidden. they scuttle away like mice
because they are afraid. where there is no wire, there is the law. -- is the wall. dividing families without rhyme or reason. nato today, those beyond the wall may be tempted to do something desperate. walls, us, no time for we have a train to catch. they over there can't join us, more than 50. -- more the pity. europe is moving ahead so fast there is a real danger of being left behind. ♪ and much as we wish them with us, we over here are going full speed ahead together. ♪
>> scanner view provides a panoramic view of downtown eugene. the overlook is named after the city's center, eugene skinner as we continue our look at this city's unique history. we will hear about it early pioneers. the lane county historical museum started as a pioneer museum. the of the is focused that the founders had. since then we have dropped the pioneer and talk about things up to and including the current day, but always with a perspective on the past. in the american trail story is a little in direct and has to do with boosters.