tv NATO CSPAN June 17, 2017 1:30pm-2:01pm EDT
chicago. it's usually respected man, senator dick newhouse, who everyone in black chicago felt he could not go higher because he was married to a white woman. so it is in the political tradition of black chicago in the late 1980's, in the early 1990's that for a black man to aspire to represent black chicago, it is necessary to have a black spouse. >> tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span "q&a." >> 70 years ago on june 5, 1947 at harvard university, secretary of state george marshall outlined an economic relief plan to help europe recover from the devastation of world war ii. marshall was eventually worded awarded the nobel peace prize for what came to be known as the marshall plan.
next on reel america, a half -hour u.s. army film from 1964 documenting the destruction in europe following world war ii, ongoing clashes between communists and non-communist forces, the creation of the marshall plan, in the formation of nato. ♪ >> 1945. as western armies sweep across germany, voices on the radios speaking in english and russian. until finally those allied in the struggle come together. for europe and the world, and
unforgettable moment. if only they continue to act in the spirit of that moment, what a europe, what a world by then have emerged. west of the elbe runs the river rhine. for centuries, the highway, yet the divider. the river of the gods and romans, christians and pagans, men and slaves, a river with a history of strife. it runs for the heartland of europe, the continent so long 22 toward that only dreamers like charlemagne could dream of it as a peaceful place. but, in spite of the bloodshed, most of it so recent, one europe is at last becoming a fact. born out of the very dragons ' teeth of war.
harvest from the seat of europe's own destruction. 1945, and the end of another european war. who has won, when in fact all have lost? a war in which more civilians , by then fighting men millions. but they always were spared the aftermath. much is gone forever. what is in its place? in the aftermath, near existence. an undamaged roof made a palace. a loaf of bread, a banquet. what a europe to grow. what a europe to grow up in. a black market where even pride was for sale to the highest
bidder. a europe that drew the end of self-respect and human values hearkened back to the jungle. but, in order that the wheels could turn again, some had to put their faith in others. they had to trust and sit around the same tables defined the means of putting europe and the whole world to right. it was evident the europe of 1939 was gone forever. the annexation of the baltic states, the huge advances of the red army placed enormous areas of eastern europe under soviet domination. he agreed on free elections. amid the ruin of countries such as poland, they were held.
they were was a matter of opinion. with communists already in key posts, it was no surprise things what their way. if anything else was needed to make the victory certain, there was always the presence of the secret police and a number of soldiers of the occupying red army. and peoples exhausted by war or hardly likely to resist such coercion. for all their energies were engaged in putting one brick back upon another. in western europe, where destruction had been lighter, morale was much higher. regimentation has then accepted only because without it winning the war would not of been possible. now is the end of the war, the essential freedoms of democracy burst out with new vigor. there was determination to see to it that such a disaster would never happen again. for the more deflected, there was the realization to become
security, europe must be united. but how could these europeans be united when they are also different? he was the blood of many races, not to mention different line which is. that languages. -- different languages. they might smile each other, but his neighbors they have nothing in common. sometimes they frontier was a natural barrier, who more often than not it was merely an invisible line across fields of trees. an invisible line and an attitude in mind. yet even in the time of , there were those who realized already what must be done. >> it is not the movement of parties, but a movement of people. it must be all for all. europe can only be united with a heartfelt wish and vehement
expression of the great majority of all the people, of all the parties, in all the freedom loving countries, no matter where they dwell or how they vote. >> it was all very well for winston churchill to make speeches in 1947. he had self-respect. he had enough to eat. he had a place in which to live. europe was the theater in which to plant such seeds. unity was down on the list of priorities. it was supposed to extend from the united nations. lack of progress with such that when delegates from east and west sat down the other, focus was so thin that even they were -- how could there be a record
east block every move in every direction? in the economic chaos of the postwar period, communism saw its greatest triumph. whenever there was dissatisfaction, they could fan the flames a revolt. world revolution, the ends justified any means. in countries like czechoslovakia, infiltration overcame the obstacles. at first communist leaders pay lip service to democratic principles, treating the veterans with respect he deserves his head of state. but then they looked up left-wing populist feelings and to approve taking drastic measures to obtain not just the power imbued by the votes, the total control of the democratic czech state.
soon, the president was forced to retire and died brokenhearted in virtual exile. in the parliament, the new leaders made her debut with -- their debut with enthusiastic demonstrations of support. then, in an exhibition of irony, they stood in silence to pay homage to an absolute number that an absent member. to an absent member. he now lay in state after a fall to his death from a window, by accident, suicide, for murder, no one knew. for the communists it could not have come at a better moment. if infiltration failed, there was always the threat of
strength. while the wartime allies had demobilized, they had retained their armies. here was a powerful tactic in any argument. in an attempt to gain control vital phosphorus, they offered to renew a treaty with turkey only if they could have bases. the turks call the bluff, they offered to renew a treaty with other neighbors in greece for not so lucky. in greece, the communist staged open revolt. a desperate struggle in which the government only kept control after bitter fighting. and already war impoverished people were given to the limits of hunger, suffering and despair. the method of settlement might be with guns, public it were -- but what good were guns without bread?
europe's problems stemmed not just from the recent war, but mainly from the neglect and indifference of centuries. what good were guns against ess? were this -- backwardn what good were guns against malaria, which sapped the strength of whole peoples? what good were guns against tuberculosis, rickets, squalor and filth? what of their hungry fathers, mothers, grandparents? now is the time to lift the stone and reveal the horse horrors that lay beneath. far from europe's shores, these were those who cherished their .uropean origins
in washington, george marshall may know the principles of the plan that will later their his name. >> the whole situation is critical in the extreme. there is no doubt whatever in my mind that if we decide to do this thing, we can do it successfully. there is no doubt in my mind the whole world hangs in the balance as to what it is to be with what we are endeavoring to put forward here. thank you. >> later, president truman for road to the capital to put the wrote to the -- capital to put the marshall plan for european aid before congress. >> i am here today to report to you on the critical nature of the situation in europe. and to recommend action for your
consideration. i believe it must be the policy of the united states. >> in europe, the response was immediate. statesmen met to figure out where american aid can be applied. the marshall plan took the regard of politics, only human need. for the communists, human need was their stock in trade. such a plan could only protector their own means of economic revolution by chaos. talks were followed by the delegates from communist holding in czechoslovakia. but a few dissenters could not call a halt to the greatest humanitarian step in history. cargo began to move across the atlantic. food, grain, raw materials. it was not just a matter of feeding the hungry. from chicago, illinois, to
france, a giant stele -- press for steel production. not only to put french mills on their feet, but to make them among the most vital. truly the power of the new world had come to redress the balance of the old. in paris, the organization for european economic cooperation was established. a council of 16 nations whose task it was to ensure the marshall plan a was used for the best possible advantage, to rebuild a shattered economy, and reestablished inter-european trade on the basis of strength. by their agreement, holland could import three quarters of the cotton needed for textile looms. by their recommendation, britain could receive the carbon for the all-important automobile industry.
france could bring into her ports to maintain vineyards at their best. there were tractors and other equipment for turkey to bring agriculture into alignment with more fortunate labors. then, steel for the shipyards of italy. over and above revitalizing europe's economy, the marshall plan with its funds and technical assistance, vast areas of italy, whole islands like sardinia and cyprus became battlegrounds in the fight against the malaria mosquito. everywhere, health teams went out to battle. for thousands, such undertaking often meant the difference between life and death.
a new hope for europe was read in the eyes of children. it was mere sentimentality. revolution first. the marshall plan is but a scheme to gain control of europe. down with the marshall plan. down with the marshall plan. strikes, unrest, and even sabotage. alarmed by the soviets, statesmen of western europe came to develop common defense. only a handful of nations signed the brussels treaty, but in terms of european unity, it was a historic step. the continent owes much to their foresight. the treaty brought tried and tested warriors to france to make the first tentative plans for meeting force with force.
there was little military strength in which to do it. the next hotspot, the city of berlin, occupied by a french, british, americans, and russians. ever since the failure to establish reelections throughout the whole city, berlin's situation between east and west had grown steadily more uncomfortable. now, the soviets felt strong enough to take action. their efforts to starve the western population were frustrated as all the world knows by the same berlin airlift. in a few short years of peace, the soviet era of domination had spread ultimately over europe. that's alarmingly -- spread alarmingly over europe. how could the brussels power alone hold? for poor old europe, talk of war yet again. what hopes now for the marshall plan? it wasn't surprising that the europeans read their paper with
cynicism and despair. then, they read how 12 nations in washington side what came to that signed -- signed what came to be known as the north atlantic treaty. and, if they had doubts about the new organization, nato, the need for it was proved at once by the communist reaction. this was driving a rift between east and west. this was an affront to all peaceloving peoples. doubt in the symbol of peace, and peace was their slogan. was this the piece for which so many had died? in normandy? in front of stalingrad and in the streets of paris? was this the aftermath they envisioned? and so, the peoples of western
europe pondered the new step and decided it was the only way. so they backed the atlantic pact. they saw there were worse things in war, and to avert war was to be prepared for it. and so, europe to the move toward defensive rearmament very calmy. in spite of all the threats when 's first supreme commander, dwight d. eisenhower, took his post, planned demonstrations came. in a temporary headquarters in paris, the military staff of the alliance began the task of building the continent. although they did not realize it, they were taking the first steps toward a western unity that was to extend far beyond the military. soldiers of many nations working together in peacetime for a common cause. the growth of nato's strength
moved at pace with the programs of the master plan. progress mingled with the goods pouring into european ports, trading weapons and other armaments, goods for peace and goods to safeguard that piece, peace. as well as the soldiers and airmen fromnd goods to safeguard that across the atlantic, canada and the united states, here this time to prevent the guns from sounding. month after month, the buildup continued. the buildup for war to prevent war. old europe took it all in stride. for those from overseas in these critical days, there was plenty to see. farmers from the midwest for instance, who came whether to
-- came to see whether french farm products were all they were cracked up to the, and found they were and then some. but for all visitors, whatever their mission, one thing was obvious, the changing face of europe. the nations receiving a marshall aid dollars were putting those funds to good work. roads, railways, bridges, everywhere the rattle of cranes and concrete mixes. and, in the factories there was ever going roar and bustle. the marshall plan was the stimulant, nato was the shield. the effort came from hundreds of thousands of men and women that worked with a will because they saw a mighty purpose. now, they were working for peace, working for themselves , and working for tomorrow.
in strasburg, the council of europe was meeting regularly. at its conferences, many european nations, nato members and others, discussed the futures of their countries. >> the council had no executive powers and its members only advised on general trends. but it was at least a common meeting place, somewhere where europe could be viewed as a whole. a start, but there was a long way to go. the arteries of the continent might be throbbing with new life, but still the age-old barriers loomed. it seemed that little short of atomic bombs could shift the walls of rubberstamps. and yet, the solution was easier
than anyone had imagined. investing in the areas that affected millions where it hurt most, in their pockets. the higher standard of living for the sectors that finally pushed down the walls. once, the steelworkers and coal mines of the czar worthy the crucibles of war. in one step by one agreement, all were brought together under one community, the european community of coal and steel. a dream turned into reality. in luxembourg, the city set up its headquarters and went quietly to work. the idea was purely an economic one. six western european nations dealt in coal and steel decided to cooperate to prevent
g to established in the field one common market. their reasons were economic, yet by this one act, a handful of practical visionaries did more for european unity than all those who had striven by blood and force. the business of making swords had been turned into shares. there was little future for swords. in the meantime, at nato headquarters in paris, equally important moves have been made. a project to form a true european army to include forces from western germany had failed. in its place by general agreement of all nato nations, the federal republic of germany was invited to become their 15th ally. a step vital to the alliance. a step vital too for european unity. and placed the federal republic for late within -- firmly within
the western orbit and out of the no man's land. that was 1955. since then, old europe has seen much. meetings, frustrations, hungary, cuba, and yet all the while a changing stage. now, in the heartland of europe, the contentious forces of nato provide routine spectacles. by now, they have been around more than a decade. but familiarity does not always breed contempt. many of the bystanders were themselves born when the atlantic pact was signed. they were more interested in how things work than why. why was not so clear as it once was. why in the heartland can there still be seen men and women
wearing uniforms of states far across the ocean? why nato today? today, the river rhine is too busy to consider hostilities. it is a long haul from switzerland to the sea, and the customers are waiting. besides, the rhine is now bridged in more ways than one. nato exercises are ferried across, not for the purposes of conquering the other side. simply to cross water. for now, german, american, british, belgian, and dodge all dutch all worked together to secure the heartland and western europe as a whole. now, there are more than just ruins to defend. today, on the sleek new international trains, there are still those that must examine passports and ask if you have anything to declare.
they do it rather halfheartedly. while the express is in full das h, prosperity cannot wait. dear sir, with reference to your order of the 15th, we are pleased to state that the desired consignment will reach you on time. even though your order is for half as much as your last. and here in brussels, there is something else to see now. out of their first idea of the coal and steel community has emerged a more ambitious move. here in brussels the headquarter of what is now called the common market. international cooperation across the table in terms of practically everything that men produce and consume.
today, just the sex, but -- today, just the six, but tomorrow, 13. only the beginnings, but there for sure. they are only there for sure because of the watch of nato, because of the men and women keeping 24-hour guard by land, sea, and air. for still across from the heartland only a few miles east of hamburg and frankfurt, men toil ceaselessly to add more wire to the enormous web of the iron curtain. there, even passing the time of day with the west is strictly forbidden. they scuttle away like mice because they are afraid. where there is no wire, there is the wall. the wall dividing families without rhyme or reason.
this is why nato today, those beyond the wall who sneer and smile may be tempted to do something desperate. for us, no time for walls, we have a train to catch. if they over there can't join us, more the pity. europe is moving ahead so fast there is a real danger of being left behind. and much as we wish them with , we overwithout them here are going full speed ahead , together. ♪ [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017]
c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1970 nine, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider. >> next come by u.s. naval academy professor james rentfrow explains how the navy evolved the 20 years between the spanish-american war and world of 1916en the naval act introduced submarines. the smithsonian posted this event. tfromobbins: captain ren earned a bachelors degree