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tv   Understanding Combat and Remembering Fallen WWII Soldiers  CSPAN  October 7, 2017 8:40am-10:16am EDT

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>> this weekend, where featuring the history of pierre, south dakota with our cable partners. learn more about pierre and other stops in our cities tour you are watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on c-span three. next on american history tv, author and u.s. military history professor john mcmanus presents an illustrated lecture titled the fallen american soldiers of world war ii, their world of combat. the national park service, shepherd university, and eastern national cohosted this 90 minute event as part of the lecture series marking the 150th anniversary of antietam national cemetery. professor mcmanus is the author of numerous world war ii books, including "the deadly
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brotherhood: the american combat soldier in world war ii." >> i will now introduce my friend, my colleague, keith snyder, the chief historian at antietam national battlefield. he was very much the architect behind the series, and he's a phenomenal partner for shepherd and has done wonders things for the civil war center. without further ado, keith. [applause] keith: thank you, jim. we really value this partnership we have with shepherd university. this is a great venue, bright partners to work with. thank you for your partnership, we really appreciate it. i also want to thank our partner, eastern national. they are the folks that have -- they have the store that i hope
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you visit. we are here as part of our ongoing commemoration of the 150th of the antietam national cemetery. our theme is remembering the fallen, the service and sacrifice of the american soldier. the story is much broader than just the story of antietam, it is broader than maryland, it is broader than the civil war. it is the story of american servicemen and women, who served together, who fought and died in conflict across the globe for 150 years. there are 5000 veterans buried at antietam national cemetery from the spanish-american war, the boxer rebellion, world war i, world war ii, and korea. our goal is to learn their story and honor and remember all of them. this is the last night of our three-part series, are commemoration is one week away. if i look panicked, bear with me, we are one week away. we have had a great couple of
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talks, a professor talk to us about sacred ground, we were informed about world war i and this evening we will look at world war ii. there are 72 world war ii veterans buried in our national cemetery. john mcmanus is an award-winning professor, author, and military historian. he is a native of st. louis and he attended the university of missouri and earned a degree in sports journalism. after a brief stint in advertising and sports broadcaster he found his love, an academic career. he earned his ma from the university of missouri and his phd from the university of tennessee. he is the author of numerous books, i cannot read them all, there are so many but i want to , share a few with you. "deadly sky the american combat men in world
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war ii," "the seventh infantry, combat in the age of terror." "the dead and those about to die." and my personal favorite, "grunts: the american infantry combat experience." this man knows soldiers. he has spent his life dedicated to the study of the american soldier. on a personal note, we got to spend the day on the battlefield today, and we spent the afternoon on one of america's greatest classrooms and to be there with a historian of his caliber to talk about soldiers and combat and leadership was a spectacular day. i am so incredibly pleased he is here to join us this evening, john mcmanus, thank you. [applause]
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prof. mcmanus: thank you. thank you so much, keith, i appreciate that incredible introduction. i would like to thank all of you for making time on your saturday night to come out here and hear me. i would like to thank the shepherd university folks for hosting us, this is a neat venue and a beautiful campus. i'm honored to be here. i would like to thank joe stall for hosting me for dinner, he is a distinguished alum of the university where i teach, and of course a special thank you to my friend and colleague, the day was just as special for me as well and i really appreciate all the leg work you have done to make this series a reality and more so than that i am extraordinarily honored to be part of the series alongside my colleagues.
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i want to tell you a little bit about the world war ii side of the equation. tonight our focus is on the antietam cemetery, and we pause and reflect on those who repose forever in cemeteries like the one a couple miles from here and so many others not just across , the united states but around the globe in the wake of world wars one and two. as the years sail by, the fallen can seem a bit faceless unless you step back and take a look for a moment and say, they are sort of like me. but it can seem distant, even through pictures, statistics on the page, and although world war ii was obviously the most
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recent, even so, it's 70 some odd years ago and that is a long time in the midst of the past. as the years advance, most of those who served in the war are gone, only about 10% of world war ii veterans remain with us all these years later, and the number of people who personally knew these guys and who experienced world war ii shrinks with each passing year. it is easy to lose sight of their flesh and blood humanity and more so than that, the reverberations caused by their deaths and what that meant to the people who knew them, the families that loved them. in hopes of closing the distance i want to introduce you tonight to two men in particular. these are medal of honor recipients, the highest military award you can receive. and even so the memory of them has faded after many decades.
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both of these men received their medals of honor posthumously at one of america's most hallowed battlefields, omaha beach. these were two men i studied in some depth because they played a major role in having that battle turn out the way it did and yet i think it is fair to say, though this is one of the country's most iconic battlefields, these are recipients that are not necessarily all that well known to most of us. i personally didn't know about them until i embarked upon it. i thought this would be a good place to start. the first guy, see where the blue arrow is? below that is joe pindar. he was a former professional baseball player from butler, pennsylvania, not too far from here.
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he was popular, athletic, he was handsome, the son of a steelworker, and he was the valedictorian of his high school class. he was someone for whom the future held great things it appeared. and he went into professional baseball after high school. he was in the minor leagues from 1935 to 1941, and that piqued my interest immediately. i got a degree in sports journalism and i am an and admitted sports addict. i found that particularly intriguing, that this guy was in pro baseball and was obviously was heavily involved in such a important battle. i looked up a little bit about his pro baseball career, he was pretty good. he had a 50-50 record, even steven. he was a pretty good hitter for a pitcher. those of you who have ever heard of the negro league have heard of a guy named josh gibson, one of the great power hitters of all time.
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joe pender retired him twice in an exhibition game against the pittsburgh crawfords. along comes the war and joe plays his last game in august, 1941 before joining the army later that year and he ends up and the first ever treat division. the big red one. here he is a little bit later on as a soldier, soldier portrait. joe pindar was a radioman, so he of tech five which is about a corporate -- corporal but without a lot of leadership responsibility. in the communication section of the 16th infantry regiment, one of the army's most storied infantry regiments. joe is with them, and in north africa and sicily, he had proven
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himself to be a very reliable and quite courageous soldier. he had a good reputation in the 16th infantry, in the communication section. people liked him. they always liked him in his entire life. he is one of those guys. he was a good person. on d-day, joe was celebrating his 32nd birthday. june 6, 1944 is his birthday. his group lands in the middle of intense fire at omaha beach. he lands within about an hour of h-hour, and i am sure you have heard of the circumstances of omaha beach. a very bad situation, particularly for the first three hours, and especially in the part of the beach where he lands, which is called the easy red sector. here he comes, there is this intense machine gun fire, small arms fire, mortar fire, artillery fire. his boss above the boss, lieutenant colonel john
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matthews, a west pointer, was killed like that, as soon as he got off the landing prep. instantly killed by a bullet to the head. a mortar shell, and explodes -- comes and explodes to joe's left, and the fragments shredded the left side of his face, just embedded in the left side of his face. as one of his buddies put it, "the left side of his face was shot completely away, and he suffered severe shrapnel wounds elsewhere in his body. so he is deal that is still try to get ashore. -- so he was still trying to get ashore. so pinder was hauling an fcr 284 radio. fcr 284 was a pain in the rear to deal with. if you can imagine trying to hauling around an air conditioner window unit it was , kind of like that. it weighed somewhere around 45 pounds, but it was obviously a really important piece of equipment, so here he is with part of his face gone, fragments in his left side, he is still in the water, obviously there is still a tremendous amount of
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fire going on. it is chaotic, it is bad. the heavy currents -- one of the things that is going on is the weather is not that good, it is very cloudy. it was a lot of misty spray. there is high winds and the seas are very choppy, it is hard to get ashore. the waves are taking you off your feet and they are landing in deeper water than they ought to be. so he is dealing with all of this, he hangs onto the radio, he makes it into the shoreline, i will collect the shoreline a , narrow neck of beach that are basically these rocks about 50 yards up the tide line. it looks like where you want to take cover but it is not that safe. they are trying to drag the communication equipment, the other radios up there. his buddies are telling him we are going to get you a medic, stay put. instead, to the astonishment of all his comrades, he got up, plunged back into the surf.
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to understand a little bit about what that means, you have to understand the dynamics of what was going on at omaha beach that morning. possibly the most dangerous place you could be for the morning hours was at the waterline, in the surf. this was the area that was easiest for the germans to target. omaha beach was a unique battle, in that when someone gets hurt you want to get them to a safer place, you drag them toward the enemy. you hope they will be sheltered or under some cliffs. in this case, joe is going back into the water where the fire is heaviest, and plunging back into the water to try to get more heavy radio equipment. so he goes back there, in spite of his terrible wounds he somehow manhandled the radio ashore. he's weakened from pain and loss of blood. he makes at least three trips into the water, according to the records of what he had done. including getting another one of those accursed fcr 284 radio's.
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on one trip, a burst of machine gun fire caught him in both legs. so his legs have got it but he is still able to move. one witness remembered he would not stop for rest or medical attention. pinder, why is he doing this? he kind of understands the great importance of the radio for communication. one of the things keith and i were talking about a lot today, obviously in a civil war battle, what kind of communication is there? hardly anything. as fast as i can carry a message through the maw. what changes the dynamic in world war ii at a place like omaha beach, where you don't have phone lines, you don't have cell phones obviously, is the radio. that's why he's like, the radios are our life. the radios mean fire support, they mean reinforcement, they mean logistics, they mean coordination, and if colonel taylor, the commander of the
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regiment is coming in about an hour later if he doesn't have , these radios, we are going to be nowhere and we will be shot to pieces on this beach. that is probably what is animating him, as a radio operator. he was imbued with that idea that the radios really matter and you better go and get them. once all the equipment is ashore, he sets to work getting them in working order. remember they have sand in them, , water, they have been beaten around. that is no easy task. this is what he is trying to do. his face is a bloody mess, it just looks terrible. you are seeing him at his best here. it probably would have been disturbing to see him that morning, and it was for his buddies. he could only see out of one eye, his right eye. the other soldiers are begging him to get medical attention, he won't do it. as you might guess, his luck eventually runs out. a machine gun burst comes in, a fatal burst, and he is killed. next person, the guy on the
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left is lieutenant jimmy montave, a native of richmond, virginia. richmond had some role in the civil war, didn't it? i don't know. jimmy was a native of richmond. he was 26 years old on d-day. by then, he had earned a reputation for honesty and bravery during the big red one in the sicily campaign. terrible, terrible battle. he had really acquired a good reputation. he was about 6'2", red hair, he was known as jimmy to everybody. he played basketball and football in high school. i tend to think he and his family -- you see him there with his mother -- he and his family embodied the kind of white-collar, educated, middle-class professionals who had a really risen to prominence in the 20th century industrial america. his father was vice president of a coal company in southwestern
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virginia, western virginia, where a lot of their operations were. jimmy was the youngest of three children. every bit the baby, the beloved baby of a close-knit family the , mascot of the family. fun-loving, full of mirth, lovable, irrepressible, impossible to dislike him, impossible to stay angry at him for any length of time. you have all known people like that. they have that classic role of the youngest in this tightknit family with three kids, one brother and one sister. a high school buddy referred to him as "an unshakable rat with a great sense of humor." another friend said he never knew anyone who didn't like him, he could have sold "ice to eskimos." that was the quote the friend had about jimmy. jimmy's family had a tradition of attending virginia tech. his grandfather had graduated from virginia tech, his father had, his older brother had. so jimmy dutifully attended virginia tech to try to become a
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mechanical engineer, but he wasn't such an involved or absorbed student. i have known a lot of students like this, more than i would like to. jimmy did not like those school part of college all that much, but he liked the parties the fun , part of college. he went to blacksburg and he had a good time and he did not do so well scholastically and he ends up being asked to exit the university. jimmy has to go back home and you can imagine how this went over, not too well. but it's impossible to be angry at him for any length of time. but he always carries that regret. he writes to his mother, he says, "i know my educational failure has always been a disappointment to father, and it is one of the things i would change if i had to do it over. taking this into consideration, my informal education has been good. i have seen a lot of life." what he's talking about is in october, 1941, the peacetime draft got him.
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he did not have a student deferment anymore. he gets drafted, he qualifies for ocf, he makes it through, what he's talking about is in october, 1941, the peacetime draft got him. he gets drafted, he qualifies for ocf, he makes it through, and now he starts to grow up. he starts to mature. he finds himself as a person. jimmy kind of becomes a new man, and that is what he is trying to tell his mother. i know it's not good and it doesn't reflect on the family, but i have learned a lot about life, about leading men. and that is where he finds his true strength. his father unfortunately died in 1942. his mother of course, in the wake of that, is very melancholy, but is consumed with worry about jimmy and his older brother, who was serving as a naval officer. she was, as many mothers are, a great warrior. but she was apparently a world champion, especially good at worrying. she's constantly in concern, and there was a lot to worry about. he writes to her a few weeks
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before d-day. "mother, i know these are hard times for you. the nerve string must be awful. i am sure the nurses cracking up more people than the war, but please don't let it happen to you." in a nice, roundabout way, don't worry about me, please. but that is easier said than done. she worried about him plenty. by d-day, his natural friendliness, his decency as a person, he doesn't have a mean bone in his body, but he is also very brave. you have seen that in sicily. he's in the 16th infantry as well. and his platoon sergeant said of him, "he was a man for whom i had the utmost admiration and respect for." he was 31 years old, and platoon sergeants don't often have nice things to say about their commanding officers, in this case he did and he meant it. so you had a close command team between these two guys.
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and the lieutenant -- i won't bore you with all the ins and outs, but he's landed at the extreme eastern flank of omaha beach, and that is the eastern flank of the entire american effort. so it's pretty important to make sure that is secured, because the germans could come in, counterattack, and break omaha beach over with nasty fire. the army ground forces on his left shoulder. he leads an attack that gets up the beach, of the bluff, and secures the eastern flank, and he leaves two tanks off the beach, which makes them a perfect target for a lot of the germans who were in a network of pillboxes on the eastern flank overlooking the area. somehow he survives. later in the day, the germans, knowing the importance of the
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position, send in a counterattack. montez is one of the main reasons the counterattack failed. you never look at one person, there are a lot of people in the battle. that he goes back and forth, according to testimony, constantly throughout the hedgerows. it's a confusing clump of the site, back and forth, destroying german machine-gun positions, because the germans were propping their machine guns and submachine guns over the hedge rows, shooting at the americans in the field and all that. it's a mobile battle. he's doing this, pitching grenades, going back and forth, and eventually when he is out in the middle of the field, a burst of fire catches him and he goes down and dies. we have identified where we think the exact spot was that happened, so if you ever visit omaha beach, it is possible to know that and see that spot. he'd said over the course of the day, this was a long day, one of the things he told his
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platoon sergeant, "this ain't our day." yet he is a guy who will always keep going. so here is two guys who have died performing what we would think of as heroic acts. pinder and montez. so what happens to them and their remains? as was customary for the world war ii army, the registration units policed up the remains of these men and hundreds of others who were killed, and they buried them in a temporary cemetery at the foot of omaha beach. later on, they will end up in the permanent cemetery that some of you may have visited. of course, the job of policing those bodies and burying them was a thankless and unpopular task. this was a quote from private thomas dowling. "we stuffed our noses with cotton and wore cloth across our faces."
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when dowling and his unit were in training in the united states, and they originally found out they were going to be a graves registration unit, he remembers there was a collective gasp. "oh, god, really? you are giving that terrible job to us?" and yet this was the job they had to do. what was most difficult for him and many others, at least according to his testimony, were the faces. the faces of the dead. "some stared wide-eyed, others died in the middle of the screen, their mouths hung open. others have no faith at all." for dowling and the other soldiers, they identified the bodies anyway they could. by world war ii, you would have had. tags, but that wasn't always 100%. they might have been ripped off, you might have lost them, things could happen. they might find your wallet, a billfold. you might find other identifiers, but they wanted to be careful to make sure they had who they thought they had.
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they would rifle through the bodies. any effects they would find, they would send to the next of kin. it went through a bureau, the quartermaster in kansas city, missouri. the graves registration guys go through, identify a body. when they could not identify a body, they took fingerprints if he still had hands. they took fingerprints because when you enter the army in those days they would fingerprint you, so you could match the fingerprints with some of the induction of physical records. you might check dental records, but that was a longer shot, and much more elaborate. as i mentioned, inventory of personal effects -- when you see these individual, deceased personnel files, you will see the almost tedious listing of all these things they find in the guy's pockets. anything innocuous or valuable, it's all there.
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it's supposed to be listed because otherwise it's over and. -- it's pilfering. the war ends, and there is a massive undertaking, setting about the task of identifying all the world war ii dead. there were about 400,000 of them. place them in a final resting place. this was a multibillion-dollar program, and i believe personally the program was from lessons learned in the civil war, where both sides are learning on the fly how to deal with casualties and bodies, and it is the union side especially that starts documentation in arlington cemetery and all this stuff, it really sets a legacy by the time you are in world war ii. so you have learned a lot from this. so there is systematic interment such as you would not have seen a few miles away in antietam at the time.
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so in 1947, the families of fallen still doubt what was called quartermaster general form 345. basically what that was asking you to do was to choose the final disposition of your loved ones remains. you had two choices. they could remain overseas, in a government-sponsored and maintain cemetery of the american battle monuments commission, or you could have the remains sent home to be buried wherever you chose. you could choose arlington if you wanted to, but more likely, you would choose a cemetery close you, that you can visit. what this prompts is a lot of very difficult, rather grief stricken arguments. i may think that sam should stay overseas, where he was killed, and that this is appropriate, the place he helped liberate or whatever, that's the right thing. and you may think just a strongly, no, he should be here, this is his home, where we can visit him.
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can you imagine the emotions involved if we disagree? even if we don't? you have all these stories in an era in which families are not quite torn apart, but certainly there is psychological wounding. the identification teams fanned out all over the globe, because this is a mass global conflict. you have remains all over the place, every quarter of the globe. they recovered 281,000 dead. i give you the number of 400,000, a lot of those were killed and training accidents, here at home, or were lost at sea, lying somewhere, missing in action, and we now know they are dead. the 281,000 was a pretty good chunk of those you could identify as killed in action overseas. there were about 10,000 bodies recovered that remained unidentified by 1947. and of course, tens of thousands of others who were still missing.
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about 61% of the families chose to bring their fallen soldiers home. so from far and wide, they are shipped home, 1947 in 1948 predominantly. when you step back and take a look at this, this is an effort to locate and return more dead unprecedented in human history. they could really only be done by a country that had the wealth to do this, the security to do it, but more than that, a country that believes the individual mattered. and that the government code this to its citizens. i also think that in a way comes out of the civil war. these are not just numbers. this is important, and my constituents are howling at me to make -- make sure this happens. when the remains are shipped back home in what are often
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called the ships -- the death ships, they are shipped to one of about 15 distribution centers fanned out throughout the country from new york city to columbus, ohio, san antonio, texas, and many other places. they are shipped there and then on, and they are buried with full military honors. just looking at that, i think you know what his family was elected to do. he's buried with all honors in the grandview cemetery in pennsylvania not far from his home. the government would provide $564 per body for funeral expenses. again, wherever the ceremony you wanted, that's where it would be. in some cases, it would be a
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townwide event. in other cases, you would come home to anonymity. there are some places where it was almost like a parade -- not a happy parade, but a parade in which thousands of people would turn out. especially if you were a kid at the time, you would never forget having seen it. what you are looking at here is an example of the roughly other 40% who chose for their loved ones to remain on the soils where they had sacrificed their lives. this is the normandy america cemetery. some of his comrades were killed at omaha beach on d-day. the majority were not. they are killed in the battle of
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normandy that goes on after d-day. they repose beneath crosses and stars of david. if you wonder how many of these cemeteries are there from world war ii, 15 worldwide. beyond normandy, belgium, sicily, rome, the manila american cemetery in the philippines. thousands of americans buried there. all over the globe, and their graves are attended by the american battle monument commission which had been established after world war i. dwight eisenhower had once held run it. it still exists and they still help from these cemeteries, but also i should point out some of
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the graves -- quite a few -- are maintained by locals. this is often seen as a great honor to maintain an american war grave, and it is handed down, bequeathed from generation to generation and holland or normandy or wherever we happen to be talking about. it is a piece of america that is still there. in particular, this grave is easy to pick out because it is the golden box grave that you rate as a medal of honor recipient. that's why you see the gold and you do not see that on the other ones. this is the emblem of him that remains. it is how we tend to remember them decades later. maybe what is harder for us to appreciate -- maybe that is a good thing -- much less understand is the world of combat, the world that ultimately cost them their lives. i wanted to give you a sense of that, too.
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there is a general sense of the kind of combat they would face, not just the shooting on omaha beach. if you are one of these combat soldiers who was killed in action, what your world would have been like. in a lot of ways, a big part of your experience is not necessarily shooting it out with the enemy. it is dealing with the conditions. it is a big part of a soldier's life. this is the european theater. that looks like a lot of fun, doesn't it? this is the 84th infantry division in the battle of the bulge. if you served in europe, let's get perspective. fairly temperate climate. obviously rainy, money, true. most of the time it is not too bad, but when the extremes are there, they are there. the winter of 1944-1945 was one of the worst on record.
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the talking about heavy coats or heavy rains, really quite common, especially in the italian campaign in 1943 and the fall of 1944 when the allied armies are pressing desperately eastward trying to get into germany, and you have the vicious fighting all up and down the line. these are the guys who were there, so i think maybe they can help you understand a little better than i can. one guy, ken weaver in the 87th division, a war of rain does not make things clean and green, it makes for mud and slop and cold, wet clothes, and cold, wet clothes make for an unhappy soldier. rain at night meant general misery. of course, so did snow and cold. biting cold. i wish i had a dollar for every time it battle of the bulge veterans told me i never would've experienced cold weather again.
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that's why i moved to florida. something like that. it is so common. you can understand why. this is a situation where you go through that chow line and go to a room like this and enjoy your meal. it's cold 20 seconds later. he's not frozen, depending on the temperature. you are trying to eat in it, and here comes the snow, and there's just no way you are going to get warm, and that is what this is like for them. he said the cold was enough of an adversary without the germans. kind of easy to relate that in this sense. wait until the dead of winter, the middle of january, at its 10 degrees and snowy, just go outside and try to live that way. even without anybody shooting at you, that would be kind of a bummer. that is what is going on. this next image is probably less
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pleasant. just makes you kind of do that, doesn't it? i wish i had a blanket. the driving -- just driving wind, sheets of snow and sleet. snow could be so deep that it was difficult to walk. the last sliver of france still in the hands of the germans, and the allies want to liberate it at that point, and they are fighting in hit, -- hip-deep snow. i'm not exaggerating. they may if they are kind of undisciplined and really cold take little pine needles, put it in an empty russian can, like that up for a fire. why would that be undisciplined? smoke and fire could alert the germans.
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you have to be very careful about that. that only adds to the misery. you cannot get warm because you cannot light a fire. was there any upside to the snow? yeah, especially if there is a lot of snow around you and you have shells coming in and exploding, especially mortar shells, they might've sort some of the fragments. from a medical point of view, cold weather would slow the rate of brief -- bleeding. if you know about what is most fatal in a modern combat situation -- bleeding out is really the number one cause of death. if you have something to negate that from a medical standpoint, that is good. the downside is you may have
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hypothermia, and that can kill you, too. obviously, it is not a pleasant thing, but the cold might have some upside to it. the other side of the world, the pacific theater, probably what you are looking at. what you are looking at here is an image from new guinea of guys crossing a water source in new guinea, and i can pretty much guarantee you in that water are leeches almost anywhere. you go anywhere, you are probably going to get some leeches, and you have to deal with that. there could be other parasites in that water. not a good idea, really, to drink it. you're talking temperatures probably in the high 90's, maybe 100-some of degrees. again, the way to relate to this is to go out and i hot, humid day, be out and it all day. see how quickly you get dehydrated. see how quickly you get angry and frustrated. the opposite problem -- you are always hot and there's no way to get cool. you cannot cross the stream and walk into an air-conditioned room or even a neutral temperature room.
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it's not uncommon for fights to happen in 100-plus degrees. steamy and extremely hot. difficult to breathe. you cannot imagine just how badly a human body can sweat. this is kind of a gross story, but illustrative nonetheless. john o'brien was a soldier on saipan, and it was very hot. extremely hot and had not been resupplied with water. it's like salvation. what none of them cared one would about is the fact that
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floating in the water were just dead rats. dead rats floating in the water everywhere. they did something you were not supposed to do gastric the water and then take your hell is on tablets. they are so crazed with thirst. think of how thirsty you are when you are dehydrated. they did something you were not supposed to do, drink the water and then take your halazone tablets. parts of new guinea, you're talking about 200 inches of rain a year. these are pretty rough climates, and when the rain comes, it is so torrential that now you are just soaked, edit does not really cool you off that much because now it is steamy. you may be able to relate to that. where i live, extraordinarily humid place because we were new
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the mississippi river. you think sometimes in the heat of the summer, the way that storm gets here, it will get so much cooler, then the storm comes, and you are hotter because you look and see the steam waving off the pavement. just sort of imagine that. that is what is going on. okinawa would be another example of heavy rain. this is a great quote from one of the great war memoirs of all time by eugene sledge. the rain became so heavy that at times we could barely see our buddies in the neighboring foxhole. just your general world in the pacific. this is the wounded man on the pacific theater beach. the reason i show this to you is just to give you a sense of another part of the combat world, the sights and smells
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kind of thing. what you would have taken in. you can just kind of look at that image. there is a lot to absorb in a way. so the combat zone, not just in the pacific, but wherever, is just kind of horror filled. place with a lot of sites, bad smells. after you are therefore a while, it just seems insane, arbitrary, violent, crude, very disturbing and soul crushing kind of place. a classic story you often hear -- it appears to be apocryphal, but it's not. i documented a number of instances where this actually happened, a soldier looking at a boot thinking it is indie, kicking it aside, looking inside, and there's a foot. one thing that stood out to me is an interview i did. this was a guy who was in the first engineer combat battalion of the first infantry division. what he remembered more than
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anything or stayed with him from world war ii, and this is, of course, decades later, he remembered walking by and a frenchtown, just an anonymous frenchtown that is destroyed, and he saw a dead woman in the street, a french woman lying their dead, and he's already seen a lot of that, and it was bad enough, but what he saw alongside it was something that made it unforgettable. she had been a young mother, and she had been nursing her baby when she was killed, and the baby was alive and trying to nurse at the breast of the dead mother. imagine if you have seen that, how that is never going to leave you. this man became a minister decades later. it was a powerful image of what the war represented. not the glory, certainly.
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so it was not clean. it was not orderly. ugly, cruel, tragic, wasteful -- all those words come to mind, don't they? you could argue that the pacific theater battlefields were worse than the europe because the affirmation heat made the smell that much worse and the decomposition that much worse -- the aforementioned heat made the smell that much worse and the decomposition that much worse. i think your indulgence because i know it's not pleasant, but it will give you a sense of what these guys remembered that they saw. the bodies would expand with gases and blow up like the loons, and in they would burst. you could not believe the odor. i know a lot of civil war accounts like that, too. sam watkins is a classic when in the battle of shiloh. here's another -- the air was always putrid. i doubt if anyone ever filled his lungs completely with a deep full breath. you did not smell the dead, you tasted them.
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barb the nose back in the throat. i can taste it now. you come across little piles of dead marines, six or seven guys piled up turning greenish gray and then black. that is what iwo jima meant to john lane. that's what he remembered. the sights and smells, the conditions -- in a way, that is what stayed with guys as much as anything as the next part will talk about, combat. if we are talking about with the actual fighting was like, we could spend our entire evening tonight on that. we can have a whole course on that. you could write volumes on that. i will just give you a few of the highlights. i have chosen this for a purpose. it meant teamwork, combined arms, it meant you needed everybody and their strength in the fight.
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so that is how the u.s. army fought. in this kind of combined arms teamwork. what that really meant most of the time -- the first philippines campaign is a good example. there are several of the others -- the battle of the bulge. most of the time, that's what it is, having to go forward and take something from somebody who does not want to give it up. that's usually a geographic objective. the boxes on a beach, a town, crossing a river. what it is, you are constantly advancing. if we're talking about a small
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unit like this when we see right here, that means fire and movement, very basic thing. we have to take an objective in front of us. one group will lay down the fire, right? fire support. the other group will maneuver around, try to destroy the enemy, take the objective. whatever it takes, that is how we will operate. one of the greatest myths you hear about americans in world war ii is that hardly any of them fire their rifles. marshall was a fine combat historian who kind of pioneered the genre of documenting the experience of the ordinary soldier, and the army did an extraordinary job of this in world war ii, but what he had purported to say was that he had collected systematic data in a scientific kind of way and could prove this, but if you look at his records and papers, there is no such animal.
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if you speak with some of the combat historians asking people if they fire their rifles, no, he did not ask that question. dig around in the records about the emma -- the ammo. don't you think the quartermaster people would think that they have a real backlog of ammunition because no one is really shooting. you will find units expending hundreds of thousands of rounds of small arms ammo and when we. are they all just shooting at dumps or something above? no, how are we going to advance? you are going to be pretty angry if you risk your neck, go forward, and my group has not laid down some fire. what i think happened is that
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marshall took something certainly that happened -- people not firing the weapons, not participating, and try to make that larger claim that was supposedly based on data that really was not there. people definitely sometimes did not fire their weapons. i would never argue otherwise, but i'm saying it is the majority who generally are firing their weapons. they have to, or you would not gain any ground. as one general said, did marshall think we clubbed the german student? that's a very good observation. -- did marshall think we clubbed the germans to death? that's a very good observation. one guy when he was new to his unit and it was his first engagement, he is kind of mesmerized by the whole thing as you might be as a rookie, he is
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kind of watching, and that distinctive ping, and he is kind of mesmerized, so your sergeant might have been interested in if you were firing, too. like the documentaries you have all seen, i'm kind of slow, but i started to think that that is not quite add up, so that is how you are doing this. one group working for the enemy with some fire, the other group maneuvering. very simple scenario, i admit, but that's kind of how they have to fight the war. that is what combat usually meant. advancing like this, exposing yourself to danger against usually hidden or dug in or maybe entrenched enemy who is quite determined to fight, especially in the pacific theater where the japanese often fought to the death.
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we advanced on foot most of the time. the tanks would disperse, start firing for us. this fire support from the tanks. whatever repel the enemy, we would jump back on the tank and go again. if you fought, especially like in 1944, 1945, in the european theater, that might speak to your experience. you would skulk around usually at night and figure out where they were or were not and the dreaded combat patrol.
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so let's go in there, capture a prisoner and interrogate this guy and try to get some info from him. a lot of patrolling in all theaters, but especially italy where the lines were often quite static. when you have static stalemate kind of of fighting, it tends to lend toward patrolling, so you probably would have done a lot of that. if you were a tanker, it usually meant advancing in support of infantry and vincent to gain ground. you would fight much of the day and have to go back maybe at night and resupply your tank. if you were a tanker, it was a great premium on working closely with your group. working together as one. your life would depend on it. much more so than as an infantryman. the tankers war was kind of terrifying in that it was sort of myopic. the infantry needs to be your eyes and ears. the intensity of the fighting -- i don't have to tell you this --
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was just incredible. extraordinarily violent. especially true in the pacific, i think. the ferocity could be astounding. in many cases, the enemy was shot from behind or blown up from behind. you were actually up to save your own neck in the safest possible way. no two men had the same experience. you and i could be fighting alongside each other for three years straight and still see the world differently. that's just the way things are. but just a few scenarios. for some, it can be harrowing, this pacific theater. when japanese soldier made it right up to our hole, so quiet i did not even know he was near. that was a guy named glen seers
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who served in the 77th infantry division. i think he was talking about the battle of guam. for others, it could be here he. i found out somehow, the average soldiers -- they found that somehow german reconnaissance patrol was going to be probing u.s. lines that night, and they sent orders down to the rifle company, if you see them, do not shoot these guys because we want to know what they are after. this guy remembered waking up in the middle of the night lying in a sleeping bag. there's a german soldier as close as i am to keep. this is what he remembered. said he got a quick look at a silhouette in the snow. that takes a leap of faith, too, to do nothing.
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you are just looking at the sky. you don't want him to know you're looking at him. that german patrol moved on. the guy remembered hearing and menacing crunch in the snow. sort of in the distance, they heard shooting. then everything silent. they found out the next day, what happened? we killed them all. no big deal. we killed all the skies. it could be here he like that. very adept at leaving people behind. the germans were better marksman, but still, a sniper is a sniper. there's a smart way to do this and not so smart way to do it. the smart way is team up with a
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tank or call and artillery or whatever or stay undercover while you hunt the guy. if you have guys who are pinned down behind a wall, something like that, you have basically we are going to act as bait. snipers could be terrifying because of that sort of quick death kind of thing and seeing someone get hit like that, but there was a lot of sniper hunting. it were one of these guys, combat in your world is just monotony, day after day of this. you are in it for the duration. you not getting out of it.
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what's going to happen if you are there long enough as this -- you are going to become a casualty. statistically speaking, this is the likely outcome if you are there long enough, and that might have been the most terrifying thing if you allowed yourself to think about it. of the 300,000 killed in action, about 2/3 were from army ground forces or marine ground forces. over half the p.o.w.'s and over 80% of those who were wounded from war. at least 15% of all riflemen were killed and 56% wounded. those are the numbers you are
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looking at just that the beginning on average. some units, like the big red one or the third infantry division that fights in north africa always through to take hitler's home at the end of the war, their casualty rates are, like, 400% during the course of the war or higher. that's the average. if you are there long enough, you're going to get hit or you are going to get captured, or you are going to have an emotional breakdown. wounded men could get out of combat for a while, but the majority are usually sent back. the voracious need from -- for manpower, if you were lucky, you got million-dollar ones, which meant you were hurt badly enough to get out permanently but not so badly you would get disabled permanently.
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think about that now, he would be like these are horrifying wounds, compat fractures, nerve damage and muscle damage. it happened, but it was not honorable. you hope for a million-dollar wound, the it is unlikely. what is it like to get wounded for these guys? probably scary, so i will give you if you firsthand accounts.
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i was shot through the arm, breaking the artery and my wrist. i put attorney can on my arm and put some power over the will to form a clot. medical care had come a long way from the civil war. a guy named alton pearson who served in normative. this is a guy in the battle of the bulge. heard screams from all around. several of the men were hit, some calling for in medic, while others would just crying. in his case, he lay there bleeding until somebody finally got him out, sort of a haphazard thing. was riding on a tank, and a german soldier shot a disposable rocket designed to punch through the armor of the tank.
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he related the letter, which i think was remarkable. i'm so lucky, so happy. he just lost his left arm and left leg, and he's writing to his family that he's lucky. that's the perspective a lot of these guys have. when someone was killed, it tended to come in swift, pretty ugly fashion. they're usually were not compelling last words or anything like that. it was just done. people did not crumble and fall like in those hollywood movies. they were tossed in the air, hit the ground hard, their blood spattered everywhere.
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a lot of people found themselves covered in the blood and flesh of her friend, and that is tough for anybody to handle. when you were killed in action, your next of kin would get a telegram, kind of a personal, but you have to remember there was a huge number of casualties. there were stories of western union people who just simply refused to do the job because the casualties were so terrible, and they were like i just cannot go knock on people stores anymore as the grim reaper. within two to, you would get a confirmation letter. what had happened is that the personnel section usually from company level, division level would confirm that you had indeed been killed in action and then they would send that encode to washington, and that's where the telegraph would come from. your family would be informed
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about the g.i. life insurance. you can imagine the sorrow that would generate from that. you can imagine the confusion -- i just got a letter from him, and it was stated that day -- sometimes dates were wrong. of course, there were mistakes made, too. someone up the street but it was wrong, holding out hope, you have an entire nation kind of grieving in a sense. what about combat fatigue? or what we call ptsd. probably about 10% of any combat
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unit is going to be affected by this. it did not mean you were irretrievable. it's like a wound. it could be fatigue or you are just broken down so much you can no longer continue emotionally. some had psychosomatic problems like blindness and shaking so badly or crying uncontrollably. maybe you cannot count on them because he is a medic and we need him to save lives and he is just staring into space every time someone gets wounded, and we got to get this guy off the line.
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danger to himself and others. that's what the army did is they would evacuate you if they could, and you would be sedated. you would be given a concoction which would put you to sleep for 24 to 48 hours, and either they would leave you like that, or they would have therapy while you were under, like simulate battle and try to work out your demons that way, or when you came to, they would give you a hot meal, maybe a shower, new uniform, have a pet talk and say how about going back? really callous from a 2017 point of view, but one of the things the army found out pretty quickly is that those they permanently evacuated, especially back here to the states -- then their symptoms would become permanent. they would develop the real psycho neuroses and mental illness problems because most did not want to leave. those commanders initially at the beginning of the war, sometimes hard to tell. i could fake these symptoms or whatever, right?
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pretty quickly, they are going to find out most of these guys don't want to leave because they feel like they are letting their buddies down, and they don't want that stigma. the army certainly had an interest in sending them back, but that was also the better thing to do patient-wise so that the symptoms did not become permanent. we realize, too, projecting after the war a lot of these guys are going to have issues, readjustment issues, what they call ptsd, and at that point, though the army in a combat setting is dealing with those things and really learning a lot, at the v.a. level and federal government level -- classic example i will give you -- one guy i interviewed who had -- i think he had been in the battle of the bulge, and obviously, he had fought a lot and had some tough times.
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by the end of 1940, he was really struggling. he went to the v.a., said he couldn't sleep, had terrible dreams, classic stuff. they told him just have a couple of beers before you go to bed each night. probably not the best solution, right? that was the state of health care at that point, but they learned. you live and learn. but that is another way that they would face the realities of world war ii and becoming a casualty. as one of them put it, i was in a pretty bad state of mind when i left. i was at a point i did not care if i lived or died. i saw men cry like babies. really hard to think about that, but that was a big part of the world war ii combat world. the bigger question to confront -- why in the world with a do this? you see guys like this walking on -- this is a french beach, soldiers just filing along. why on earth are they doing this? what motivates them to do this? you may know that only one
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deserter was shot in the entire u.s. armed forces in world war ii. eisenhower decides to do that to sort of make an example. they are not going to shoot you. they are really not going to incarcerate you for too long. or section eight discharge, but the punishment -- my point is the punishment is nowhere near what it would have been in the imperial japanese army, the german army, the red army, right tackle -- right? there were ways to get out of this if you really want to do, so why did the vast majority hang in there the greatest combat motivation, as i see it, what i have often called a deadly brotherhood. all the politics and all the ideals and all that kind of go out the window.
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it's just you and me and we know one another, and i know that i can kind of trust you, salon going to be there for you and expect you to do the same for me. it is to pressure. we have this lousy job to do together. none of us like this. we want to go home, we want to get it over with. if you are not part of that and you're going to make things tougher for me and the rest of us, there's a lot of guilt associated with that. if there is one thing that motivates human beings, it is the peer group and peer pressure. people your age and other guys like you and you do not want to have a lower standing in their eyes, so there is kind of a masculinity element to this, too, proving you are a man. the world war ii generation will readily admit they're scared to death. everyone is scared. doing your job means being scared and doing it anyway, so there's that expectation, but sometimes, there is the kind of negative masculinity.
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i'm going to prove i'm twice the man you are because i did not like the kind of things you said during training and i did not like your posturing and how you said you were better with the ladies then i was, you know, that kind of thing. more commonly, it is ok, i trust you. i've seen you in action, and this is a serious in mission as we have ever faced. strong bond, comradeship, fellowship, yes, love, in some instances -- a lot of instances. friendship. a lot of instances. friendship. bonds really powerful that the rest of us cannot begin to understand in many ways, and that's what a lot of veterans are searching for in the aftermath, the closeness, the trust. one guy said he felt secure among men with individuals and capabilities he knew as well as his own. they had been welded together by combat and the infantry was convinced his chances of surviving the next firefight were much better with his own squad than they would be in any
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other. there is a scientific underpinning to this, too. the army did scientific surveys, and when soldiers were asked what motivated the most when things were toughest, the most commonly given answer was not wanting to let the other guys down, fighting for one another. 87%. more so than the allied cause or i hate the japanese or i hate the germans or god or anything like that. it was the other guy. a complicated blend of her pressure, concept of masculinity, teamwork, fellowship, all those things. the thing that keeps a soldier going in horrendous violence -- self-respect and the need for the respect of your fellow soldiers. everybody was scared of getting killed. the thing that kept us going was the cohesion of being buddies. with new people coming all the
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time, they would get close very quickly. i think that is one of the prevailing legacies of the american combat soldier. that brotherhood. these people you see here on our screen, they were sons, brothers, husbands, uncles, nephews, grandsons of also its of people. nearly all of them were special to somebody. they were the kind of flesh and blood, the sin use -- sinews of america, particularly white america. they have, you could argue, bequeathed our world to us. most are gone now. i think they still remain with us in spirit, in memory. a profound influence over who we are and how we view our world, so my hope personally for one thing you will take away from this tonight is that we will never forget them.
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thank you. it has been a pleasure talking to you. appreciate it. [applause] prof. mcmanus: i would be glad to take questions if anybody has them. yes, sir? >> [inaudible] how do they wind up getting written up for that? prof. mcmanus: that's a great question. let me step closer to the microphone so everybody can hear better. the witnesses who survived, especially the commanders who survived at the platoon level, the company level, battalion level -- they were so impressed by their deeds, they said these guys have got to be written up for the medal of honor, so what they did in the aftermath of this is they collected all these
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first-hand accounts from people who were there and remembered. witness accounts, of course, were of paramount importance. in the case of hitter, there was no opposition at all and he got his easily. in the case of montase, it had to be cleared an improved and there was opposition at army level, and eisenhower personally interceded. he said to whoever was handling it at the army level, "you are wrong.
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this person was special. he needs to get the medal of honor." for the guys i talked about tonight, this probably two dozen other guys who did something pretty similar that we don't know about. even something like omaha beach. or there were people who got lesser declarations, silver star, distinguished service, so a lot of it is very subjective, and who happens to still be alive to be able to testify. >> with interested you in those particular guys, and did you get a chance to interview family members to make your -- prof. mcmanus: i wish i had. could not find any. what interested me in those two was when i did a book about omaha beach, and they've really figured into a great extent. what happens in that battle, so i got interested in the personally and was able to poke around and find a lot of information in the archives. certainly, you can know a lot more about them there. i wish i have been able to interview descendents or whatever. i don't think any of them had any, unfortunately. there was another recipient from the big red one, a guy named carlton barrett, and he
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survived, so he gets his medal of honor within about three or four months of d-day, and he was known as a very strong fighter. had a rough postwar life, died in the 1980's. >> about how many world war ii vets are still alive? >> i think it's 10%, so what would that make it? 16 million american world to veterans? what would that be? 1.6 -- that's why i do history. i'm not so good at math. still a pretty good overall number, but not very many as a whole. if you were in world war ii, there's a pretty decent chance almost urgently that you will be in your 90's. >> [inaudible]
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people refer to this as the last good war. why is that? prof. mcmanus: if you'll indulge me, i will rebel against the notion of any good war. maybe the better word is necessary war, but we do tend to idealize world war ii because there's an easy good versus evil contract -- construct. i think all of us who are sane can agree that not see as a -- not see as a -- naziism is horrible. i don't know that there's any ambiguity that this war had to be fought. certainly in europe and i think you could argue in the pacific as well. so i think we tend to idealize that as we look back at americans now having lived so much more complexity in the cold war era in the post-cold war era and having to come face-to-face with our own hypocrisy and contradictions.
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an example is when we fight this good war, we are fighting homicidal fascist racist regimes and doing it with an armed force that is segregated on the basis of -- you guessed it -- race, which makes us come face-to-face with our own jim crow and segregation, so it's no accident so it's no accident at all that the civil rights movement as we think of it really grows out of world war ii. i personally think is one of the reasons why world war ii is so incredibly important from many perspectives, especially from a social perspective in the u.s. the good war comes from an over idealization of it. if we were to go back 70 some of years and talk to some of those who were having to fight it, i don't know that they would have chosen that word, but i think most of them would have told you that it did have to be fought, and i do believe that now. >> what do they think of top leadership like patton and their
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division and army commanders and macarthur in the far east? prof. mcmanus: i think there is a respect for top leadership to some extent. if we are talking about patent, patton kind of depends. the army really like patton a lot. the mobile mechanized vehicle. the average infantry soldier were quite cynical. the first infantry division detested patton because they had heard -- you can imagine how rumors were spread -- that patton had said nasty things about them, so they just decided we don't like this guy, and there was this really awkward moment after the battle of sicily where they are aboard ships and they are getting sent they hope home but it's really to england for d-day, and patton is waving to see them off.
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they had a new division commander and they have orders, everybody needs to be at the rail to greet him, and staff is trying to tell them the flock -- tell them it is not going to work out well. he's like i know, just do it. it was really awkward because they thought they were being on the best behavior, and it kind of was good behavior for the big red one for them at this point, but they were just kind of staring at him, and it was so awkward. if we're talking about macarthur in the pacific, the average infantry soldier had a kind of snickering acquaintance with him of this sort of military god out there somehow. the biggest beef they would have had with him is that he would hog all the stories communiques, , and not mention their
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division and that was a common complaint no matter who was in charge, but a lot of them were just sort of distant from macarthur. those who actually encountered him tended to really look up to him because he would really be impressive in person. the way he spoke to people, he just really came across as empathetic. eisenhower was generally very well-liked because he so congenial. the classic example of eisenhower's when he meets with the paratroopers on the eve of d-day from the 502nd paratrooper division, and i think that says something about his character in the sense of facing people that he thinks are about to die. he had been told, as you've probably heard, that these guys are going to suffer 100% casualties. word of that spreads pretty quickly. overall, talking about the world war ii combat soldier, there is a kind of respect for higher echelons, but soldiers being soldiers, they are kind of cynical. and sometimes they are parochial, too. like general patton is great, but we really like our division
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commander because he was at the front with me, and that is what tended to impress soldiers, if they were right there at the front. really good question. >> [inaudible] what distinguishes the second world war from all other wars was a homefront involvement, and it was deep sacrifices made by the home front. prof. mcmanus: that's a really good point. and into speaks to something, my personal opinion as a historian, but you can see this throughout a lot of military history, is that wars are really decided by human will. that is a big part of the will of the country to fight the war and win it. i certainly oppose the idea that once you have the big allies in three place and the victory, the outcome of the war is inevitable. think about what we just talked about tonight. is any of this inevitable? we're asking you to risk your life this way and if we do not , have people willing to do that and people willing to support
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them at home in a massive way, as you pointed out -- that matters. it is kind of the same thing in the civil war, although there is a lot of opposition, both north and south. in the end, it comes down to the will on one side or the other, and it is extraordinarily important. you have seen it many times throughout history that the side with more stuff, more firepower, more wealth whatever, does not , necessarily win. the american revolution being a good example. what was the weak point? like you said, is the british homefront really on board with that war? no. and our own vietnam war is another example, is that what you were going to mention? >> [inaudible] in world war ii everybody was , sacrificing, but how do they expect to run wars where everybody has got all the butter they need [inaudible] prof. mcmanus: absolutely.
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the butter, as you mentioned, in world war ii, that would have been rationing. how long are americans going to put up with that? there was also a national speed limit of 35 miles per hour. how far would that take us? america, in a lot of its wars especially subsequent wars, , tries to fight while keeping things relatively the same here at home and you have the burden fall on a relative few. then you have that chasm. you always do. if you were to study world war ii, the sort of cynical view by soldiers of civilians, they are never going to do so what happened to me. that is not unique to world war ii, but at the same time, it is a greater chasm, and especially, the danger of having an all volunteer force as we've seen. that is one downside. >> [inaudible]
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fighting the war in terms of, where the soldiers are trying to protect themselves from the horrors by coming up with stuff. and world war ii versus the other wars, how they continued coming up with their own language to explain it. prof. mcmanus: great stuff. they were very creative. the world war ii generation is so good with, like, acronyms and irony, dry humor. there's a kind of parity kind of humor that you see in world war ii. for instance, one of the things you would have been immersed in as a young guy at that time is the sort of hollywood promotion of film and like marketing and all that.
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you will find sort of parodies of that. for instance i found a leaflet, , and it was handed out, i think at guam, 1944 during the battle. there are like, tonight, the main event is a banzai charge, japs,rgive me, the term, which they used the in -- which they used then it was not offensive. it will be thrilling come of this, that, the other thing, and you are just reading this, chuckling. you can imagine these guys back then, that was one way, like you said, to try and -- yeah, exactly. and nose art with aviators. that's a great outlet. there were double entendres. it is so fascinating because there is a sort of sexual
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edginess to the world war ii generation. it was sustained by later generations. it's pretty different than before. i would say what differentiates them from, say, vietnam and post-vietnam is by then, there is an almost kind of self-conscious imitation of american pop culture and movies and all that and a much broader, deeper cynicism that comes out in soldier humor and marine humor, but that is part of what they do. it's part of what makes them so fascinating. >> [inaudible] my dad was in germany and i asked him about that. and they really did talk about it, he said. he said the sense of humor is really what got him through. they would play tricks. when you line up and maybe have have a short guy on the other
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guy, and a number would not come out. it would irritate of them even , though they had to stand out there for four hours, they were playing a trick. different things like that, that they would do little fun things, and that is really what got him through. >> something you put over on these guys, all of you shared in that joke. [laughter] >> hogan's heroes does not really hold up that well in terms of accuracy. humor, that's interesting. >> i thank you. thank you, very much. [applause] >> in honor of the 150th, we struck a commemorative coin with a design from the cemetery, and we would like to present at that
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said that in honor of you. will be out front to sign books. [applause] >> thank you, everybody. announcer: this weekend on american history tv on c-span three, tonight at 8:00 on lectures in history, professor laura watts describe the evolution of the national park system. >> it is not a case of setting aside a natural landscape and leaving it alone which is what we tend to think of. what he was doing was making nature out of what out of the time was old sheep and metals and a big grassy area and central part cause of the sheep meadow's because of their where she on it. announcer: american artifacts, restoreth preservationist on
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saving slate houses. it is a type of preservation, that houses are buildings are disappearing from the landscape and by documenting them, that is one way of preserving them. documenting them and through my andbase is one way to share get it and learn from them. announcer: on oral history, continue our series on photojournalism with an interview with mr. perkins. who ended up on the front page of "the post," and yelling at the freshman, please, you are lined up against the wall with your chins tucked like this. that photograph was everywhere in the world. and i am convinced that the story helped make it. tv,uncer: american history
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every weekend, all weekend on c-span three. that mycame clear impression of breitbart as having an outside influence on the 2016 election was an understatement in the extreme. that in fact of to research, breitbart was the driving force on the right side of the political spectrum. >> sunday night on "q&a," contributing writer will talk about his featured story. >> i think this is what it gets to the disparity between the way i have always heard people talk about and continue to talk about bright heart does breitbart about -- breitbart about this machine. reality of the news organization and function of the day-to-day basis. announcer: sunday night on "q&a
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." night on afterwords, radio host a contributor charles discusses his book "how's the right lost its mind" changes interviewed by tammy bruce, host of the tammy bruce show. >> donald trump represented something, what the big middle finger from voters to the establishment. if you really wanted to deal with some of the issues, the republican electorate would've gone with the scott walker or ted cruz and they did not. in terms of communication, yes. he is a master of twitter, he liar,ude, rude, a serial he is thin-skinned, erratic and a fraud. this was -- this was relatively who-known and conservatives
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, not at local gold used to argue that character matters, the president was a role model, somehow find a way to rationalize the behavior of somebody who insults women, ,ocks the disabled, mocks pows paid a multimillion fine for defrauding students who wanted to get an education. announcer: watch afterwords at 9:00 p.m. eastern on c-span2's book tv. sitee monument overlooking." south dakota, c-span is spending time here. brothers were the first europeans to explore the area. that is the intriguing story, it was not founded on till 1915 by schoolchildren and they said, it is lead we can make money from this. they are heading out to the newspaper


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