tv American History TV in Pierre SD CSPAN October 8, 2017 1:59pm-2:55pm EDT
older, mid-20's, you are going to sit down in front of your computers then,bably text, by and admit to me that you have been to a battlefield or read something that made you think u.s. 3072. if that happens, my heart will soar. i love to think that some of you -- many of you will be unscarred, either in that way by this class. some of you as i have said before, i don't think more than a week's counseling even for the worse cases of the damage we are done, but some of you actually going to go out of here and stay in touch with the civil war. i consider that a spectacular success. you only papers. you know when. i am looking for them. [laughter] go right then.
[applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> interested in american history tv? visit our website, c-span.org/history. you can preview programs, watch college lectures, archival films, and more. c-span.org/history. to year, south dakota on american history tv. located on the missouri river, this capital city is the second smallest in the u.s. with a 13,000.on of just over with help from our cable
partners in the next hour we will explode his -- we will e,plore the history of pierr beginning with the state capitol building. mr. venhuizen: pierre is a pretty small town as far as capitals go. fort pierre is another 2500 people. between the two, probably 15,000 people. not only is it small, but it is pretty remote. it was selected as the state capital because it is in the middle of the state. it is really a two or two and a half hour drive from any other major town. that presents challenges. people have to drive quite a distance. the state is by far the largest employer and it really dominates the economy here.
when dakota territory was created in 1862, the original territorial capital was in yankton, in the far east corner of the territory. the territory was both north and south dakota. as the territory was settled, three distinct territories emerged. there was yankton near sioux falls. you had a settlement in north dakota. and bonanza farms. and after the gold rush, there was settlement in the black hills. deadwood is very famous and rapid city as well. it became more and more clear that yankton was not tenable. in the early 1880's, a southorial governor who
dakota ins considered to have -- south dakotans considered to have been very corrupt to this created a new capital in bismarck because he was associated with land speculation there. that caused a rift between the northern and southern parts of the state. we were two states. by that point, the capital was in bismarck and that became the capital of north dakota. yankton was not a viable option for south dakota. there were probably 8-10 cities that contended to be capital. pierre won that vote on the strength of its position almost perfectly in the center of south dakota. the western part of the state was almost completely unsettled
by european settlers. there were native americans in that part of the state. pierre's claim to be centrally located was kind of hollow. but it won the initial vote. there was a second vote in 1890. pierre won that vote also. a final vote was held in 1904 and pierre defeated mitchell for the final time. the construction of this capital building -- planning for it began shortly after that. that is why our capital building was not built until 1908-1910. there was -- i think every state capital is built to give a sense of importance and permanence and especially to have an imposing
structure like this built in a town like pierre. it would have stood out and made a statement about our confidence in our state and our future. construction was set back by about a year because of a dispute about out-of-state stone. it is kind of an interesting story, but when they sought the bids for this stone to build the structure, the low bids all came in from other states including minnesota, indiana, michigan. it is interesting, because that is kind of an analogy for where a lot of the early settlement came from. most of our early governors came from the great lakes states. that is where a lot of the settlement came from. this capital was built with stone almost exclusively from other states. there was a lawsuit that attempted to force the building
to be built entirely with south dakota stone. we have quarries in sioux falls. and there was a lawsuit that forced it to be built with stone and there is stone available in south dakota but that case was not successful in the decision was made to go with a low bid and that is why it is built without a state of stone. right now, we are in the rotunda of the capital. looking around the rotunda a little bit, there are 4 wells for statues. those wells stood empty until the state's centennial in 1989 and the state commissioned for statues by dale, a sculptor and now our artist laureate. integrity was encouraged. -- integrity, wisdom, courage, and vision are represented by bees for statues of goddesses -- by beesd those
for statues of goddesses who embodied these traits. the flags, obviously the south , dakota flag and there is a flag from dakota territory and a flag from the united states and flags for spain and france because they controlled this territory at different times and each corner has, one corner has a white flag and black and one yellow and those are the native american colors of the compass. there is a lot of symbolism in the rotunda. this is the governor's reception area and it was in the original governor's office. today, it enjoys the governor's office and the room the governor uses to greet guests and host small receptions and very often bill signing ceremonies. it was the first room restored one of state capital administration efforts began in 1976, the state capital restoration began with the u.s. centennial in 1976 and ended around 1989.
it was the first room restored and prior to that, it had a drop ceiling and institutional green paint and a really incredible to see how bad it a look. trying to understand how some time in our history, people felt it was an improvement over what it looked like. the real controversy that existed in this room since it existed was a large mural on the wall behind me called progress of south dakota. it portrayed an angel leading the european settlers into the territory, really trampling over the native american inhabitants who seemed to be kind of lying on the ground and being troubled by the settlers. symbolic in some ways, but obviously, pretty controversial
as our reviews of history have changed. it was a controversy for 20 or 30 years in south dakota. that in the 1970's, the governor as of the time attempted to resolve it by retitling the mural with the name only from our mistakes can we learn and that did not really satisfy anyone. in the 1980's, another governor put a curtain but the problem was it had gotten so much news
coverage that everybody who visited wanted to see it and they will always opening the curtain to show it to people and it did not serve any function. about 20 years ago, the governor at that time decided although the mural should be preserved and it cannot really be removed, there is a false wall built out and build to match the rest of the walls. the mural is behind the sheet rock, it is not visible to see. we have a picture to see and occasionally visitors are aware and want to see what it looks like. that is how the issue was dealt with. maybe not the perfect answer but sometimes in the situations, there is no perfect answer. this is a statue of general william henry harrison beadle, general beadle was born in indiana and was a brigadier general and the civil war and came to the dakota territory after he was appointed by
president grant to be the surveyor general and spent the rest of his life here. he is a very important figure in our early history particularly because of his advocacy for the school land concept. she thought the strongly that we needed to endow our school system and pushed for system that pushed for one in each township through the state that would be owned by the state and trust for the benefit of the schools in that township. over time, those parcels of land have been slopped into larger areas and as they are not all necessarily the same. budget to this day, we have the public land trust that operates to produce money for our school system. this was an innovative idea and one that caught on and other states that became states around
at the same time, north dakota, montana, wyoming, washington copied south dakota's provision. general beadle when the u.s. capitol invited each state to contribute 2 statues, general beadle was the first selected from south dakota. this is the twin of the statue at a u.s. capitol. well, i have been coming to the capital my whole life, my grandpa served in the state senate and i used to visit him as a little kid. and we have many school groups who go through the capital every year. one of the things that kids most remember and what they know is the story of these blue tiles on the floor. the capital was being built, the floor was presented by stonemasons from italy and traditionally the stonemasons are allowed to sign of their work somewhere. there were so many they do not want them to do that. the story is each stone mason
given a blue tile to place on the floor, supposedly there are 66 of them through the building. only 55 have ever been found. if you take a tour on the state capital and with the school group, that's a lot of attention paid to trying to find as many blue tiles as you can while here. i hope when people visit the state capital they see we have a lot of pride in our state and our history. and that they also see where open about our state capital and our government. the security here is a very light touch. there are no metal detectors. we have extensive hours where people can visit. we get a lot of visitors here from out of state. very often people trying to visit state capitals and all the state and they are impressed by
how open hours that capital is and how easily you can look around. >> behind me is the dam that sits in the north of the city of pierre. it was built after lewis and clark came through this area. it was built some 160 years after lewis and clark came through this area. come with us to learn more about their journey. >> although the lewis and clark expedition is key in u.s. history, the idea was to encourage more american travel of the missouri river and more american trade with the indians. the story of south dakota, there are interesting tales. when you come into south dakota, sergeant lloyd had just died. -- sergeant floyd had just died. they got to elk point, south dakota. sergeant.ed a new
it was the first election held in south dakota and interestingly enough clark's , slave york was able to vote in the election. highly unusual situation. further up the river, they saw this area that was inhabited by these devils, and of course they , had to go see these devils. once they got to the top of the spirit mounts, what did they see? there were bison. acres and acres of bison. these are men coming from the eastern united states who are used to seeing trees and forests and hills and rocks. and this open plane was like a farmer's delight as well as a hunter's delight. with all of these buffalo. come up the river a little farther, george shannon, the youngest member of the expedition at age 17, got lost. but the most important thing
that happened, the lakota here, many historians believe it could have been the end of the expedition because it was a confrontation. it was a great misunderstanding between the non-indians, lewis and clark, in the indian people here at the confluence of the river. they were walking into a very difficult political situation. these were just simple people, simple lives. they were sophisticated people, too. they were having a contest of leadership. they were competing for who is going to represent the tribe to these explorers.
they also one of the trade. the interest of the lakota not to allow free trade. they got more goods and service from traders and trappers than the indians up the river. of course, the american explorers, lewis and clark, they wanted to say, no, we want you to trade with us. we want more trade. not in the best interests of the lakota to do that. so, there was a competition and that kind of confrontation, they just did not understand. the other thing lewis and clark did, they left their interpreter behind with the lakota people. who earlier on the they had a great relationship with. they did not have a proper translator, so the speeches were
not effective. they lay out all of these wonderful gifts to black buffalo. that did not do anything with buffalo madison. they were angry because they were just as important, so they wanted more goods. that did not go over well. lewis and clark said, oh, take them out on the boat. so, when they come back, the partisan's men grab a hold of the rope and symbolically say you cannot leave until you give us more things, more goods. and clark immediately got mad. he ordered guns raised. imagine, the river is filled
with these american indians watching what is going on. and weapons get drawn on that side. the good thing is for this moment in time, the leadership of black buffalo really shows. he steps forward, tells the warriors to let go of the rope, and they do. the tension goes away and the moment of potential confrontation disappears. once dissident thomas jefferson sent lewis and clark on the expedition, they knew that they would encounter american indians and they wanted a friendly appearance with the american indians. they knew this would be key with this countrynt of to work with the american indians that were living here. when they came up the missouri river, lewis and clark had peace medals with them. we refer to them as jefferson peace medals, because on the
face of the medal is the image of president thomas jefferson. on the back, two hands are clasped in an image of friendship. those were given to leaders of the american indians they met along the route. very important in terms of the gifting that they gave. that were given to people they saw as the leadership of the tribe the key people that , they had to influence, especially talking about this man, this thomas jefferson, whose image is on this medal is the head of the country and now your new leader, too. that was very important. the diplomatic part, i think was important. and something that they took great pains to do. they were dressed in military uniforms. they showed their mighty guns. they loved the aspect of creating new things. they were letting people know that there was a new "owner" of this land and it happened to be the united states of america.
not only to the american indian's who were here, but also livingppers and traders among the indians and encouraging trade. dakota is the heart of the lewis and clark story. it is so important there is so , much about american connections with american indians and how that went and how it could have gone. they are pushing up diplomacy, trade, the military strength. and their scientific exploration. it is all about importance with the lewis and clark expedition. their whole corps about what they were all about.
>> all weekend long, american history tv is joining our cable partners to showcase the history e, self the coda. to learn more about the cities on our cities tour, go to c-span.org/citiestour. >> governor, thank you for meeting with us today. describe the state of south dakota? >> south dakota is an agricultural state. farm. up on a many people in south dakota -- i would say most -- are one or two dove generations immediately off a farm or ranch. touristlso a destination. we have the corn palace, lots of things that can bring tourists
to south dakota. we are also a financial services locale. people would not think so, but in the early 1980's when the interest rates were skyrocketing we are a financial services locale. people do not think of is that we, but we are. >> who lives in south dakota? gov. daugaard: i would say our demographics are not different than the nation. we may have a few older people -- our population might be a little older than the nation as a whole. but we are increasingly
in the sense that people in the rural areas are ,oving to more populated areas chiefly because farming and ranching is more efficient and larger scale. instead of a farm every quarter session come -- section, you have a farm every two or three sections now. that is our nature, i guess. the political makeup of the state. prettyugaard: conservative. predominantly republican. the republicans have a sizable registration advantage over democrats. mostf course, the third frequent registration is independent. so republicans to hundred 50,000 us just off the top of my head, about 250,000, democrats,
independents -- democrats 100 60,000, something like that. our houses of legislature are both over two thirds republican. i think the 32nd governor of south dakota and south dakota and's had only elected five , one progressive and for democrats since we have been a state. south dakota has been a state since 1855. 120 something years. you mentioned agriculture as the biggest economic driver. how does that affect legislation? gov. daugaard: certainly we are focused on our aggie economy. is very much a hands-off state. we have a laissez-faire attitude
in government. we do not regulate a lot. the u.s. chamber of commerce sees our regulatory climate is the best in the nature -- and the nation for business. they rank us number one. whether you are in the ag business or some other business. it's not that we don't regulate businesses, but we don't over regulate, i think. in 2011 you establish the first office of tribal relations of any state. how does south dakota work with the native people? 9 tribesaard: we have in south dakota. all are sioux tribes. some are looking at speaking. there are three different dialects. separatebes are all tribal governments. so, one thing i have always been deliberate about is not treating
all tribes the same. what is of interest to one tribe may not be of interest to another tribe. i am deliberate about that. i go to visit three of the tribes on their turf every year. i met all morning the other day with the tribal president, tribal council members. i visited their housing office, the transportation office and try to focus on what they are interested in, what their arelenges and opportunities and each tribe must be different. how does that influence you? i think being
raised in a household where both of my parents had a disability -- iy be more sympathetic may be more synthetic. i think sometimes people see people with a disability and they see that as being the defining characteristic. everyone has to be treated as individuals. disabilities. you can let the disability be an advantage that they leverage. there are others who try to let their disability completely be ignored and want to achieve and work hard and it do well in spite of those. if anything, people with disabilities have to work a little harder. so they often become more
determined and achieve because of that determination. >> according to a morning consult paul, you are the most popular governor among your constituents. to what do you credit this? gov. daugaard: poor polling, i think. [laughter] gov. daugaard: no, that varies a little bit. there will be sometimes when i'm a popular governor and sometimes when i am not as popular. , but in some nice ways you could see it as a black mark. if you are especially popular, it might mean you are doing things that are popular, not because they are necessary or appropriate. of like the parent who always gives candy to be child or grandchild.
if you're giving candy to the kids all the time, is that good thing? probably not. politics is complicated enough. the policy decisions that you have to make are difficult enough that we need a representative government. a peer democracy would allow all citizens to vote on everything. that would also demand that they spend the time in game -- and gain the knowledge, the background sufficient to allow them to make an informed judgment and that's not realistic in this complicated world. so, we have a representative democracy where we delegate tohority to representatives study those issues for us. and since we do not know what those will be, who was the
person who will reflect my character or my values or my style, and if i find someone like that i will vote for them because i believe they will make a judgment that would be square with my attitudes and values. believe i waso elected to exert my values when initiatebill or legislation. i was elected to do what i thought was right. the first year i was in office, what i thought was right was not very popular. we had to cut the budget, put the budget back into balance, and some people were very unhappy about that. i got lots of mail about that. after a few years, i think most people in south dakota see the medicine that we took quickly at once was necessary and
appropriate and now our budget is in great shape and now we are all those cuts have been restored and we are back in good shape. erasvernor, are there any of history you find particularly interesting or influential? gov. daugaard: one part of south dakota's history that is interesting to me is the time when peter nor beck was governor u.s.e -- and then later senator. he was a progressive republican. theerved in me 19 -- in as0's and is governor -- governor, he was very instrumental in creating tourist attractions and natural areas in that today are some of our jewels. for example, he conceived the the smallking all
parcels of school and public whenthat were created south dakota was freshly estate. in each township, a small part of land was set aside to schools. those were all over the state. what he did was exchange or sell to consolidate a lot of those into one large parcel in the black hills, which became i think, now the second largest state park in america. and that is the state park where we have a free ranging heard of 1000 buffalo, where you can see elk. he was also personally involved in laying out roadways from the park to mount rushmore.
are two scenic highways that do not take a short this is between the park and mount rushmore, but two winding scenic drives. that those through the granite spire. it's very popular among rock climbers. another popular scenic drive is iron mountain road which is andng down through valleys crests, pine topped mountains. it's just a beautiful drive. the other thing, after he served and became senator, he was instrumental in getting president coolidge to come to the black hills and see the carving of mount rushmore in its infancy, which convinced
coolidge to commit federal funds, and i think, save mount rushmore from collapsing as a project. so, for those two reasons, peter k was a very forward .hinking governor he had a great influence on south dakota history. >> what will life be like for you after public office? gov. daugaard: i have been governor now for six-plus years, almost seven years. i have one more to go and then i am term limited. at the end of 2018i will be out of office. i will also be 65. i will be eligible for social security and medicare. i am counting on you to continue to pay into those programs because i will be relying on them. what i'm i'm not sure going to do. i am not going to run for office again.
i've been in politics now over 20 years. six years as a state legislature -- say -- state legislator. eight years as lieutenant governor. now governor. i will have to do something. i do not have enough money in retirement to just loaf. i will go back to the farm. built a house there that is debt-free. that is where my dad was born. that is where our kids were born. that is home for me. that is what i'm looking forward to. back on the farm. a little more peaceful and spent time with the grandkids. >> chances are if you are walking through downtown pierre, you will come across one of these bronze statues. they stretch all the way to the missouri river. next, we will hear about some of south dakota's former leaders.
trail of governors was a project started in 2011 by a couple businessman here in town who were history box and wanted to find a way to promote south dakota history in the capital city. tourists visited the capital city, we get a lot of school programs. we wanted to have a way to inform people about the history of the state. --y could see something placing a life-size bronze statue of every governor. the trial goes around -- the trail goes around the capitol grounds, goes down capitol avenue to the county warehouse, the site of the temporary capital, and then it goes down
main street, down to the american legion headquarters, which is on the missouri river. this is governor george s mickelson. time ofeally a transformation for the state. governor mickelson was a very charismatic, it in, positive guy. he had been in the state legislature. his father had been governor in the 1940's. when he ran for governor, he was not a well-known figure. he did a lot of door-to-door campaigning for more year. an upset. election in he is very fondly remembered. he put a lot of emphasis on economic development. he was governor during our state centennial celebration. he also recognized a relationship with the native american tribes.
he proposed that columbus day in south dakota be renamed native american day, which was a change you made in 1990. he died in a plane crash when he had less than two years left in office. he traveled to cincinnati to meet with the owners of the meatpacking plant in sioux falls to talk about the futu plant, and they ran into bad weather coming home, and the plane crashed near dubuque, iowa. so, he's the only governor to die in office. it was a real shock for the state when it happened. it was a memorial to governor mickelson. this is a large sculpture from
the sculptor who conceived of the crazy horse monument in the black hills. the statues make an effort to capture the personalities of the governors being portrayed. so george mickelson is shown pretty informal. he has his jackets long over his shoulder and he's reaching out his hand as if he's going to shake hands. very much portrays him as the active, friendly person that he was. mickelson, george t. governor from the 1940's, is off to the front and around to the side in the west of the capital. a lot of our governors have faded into history, but peter remembered very fondly. he was governor 100 years ago, until 1921. he was the first governor to have been born in the state. when he was a young man, he started in artesian well drilling is missed.
literally bought a single machine and went along drilling wells. he found a reason to make it a lot cheaper. drillingded up thousands of wells with his crews and was very admired. parts of the southern part of the state only populated things to that effort. he started preserving land in the black hills. this is a really beautiful part of the black hills. he was very hands on. he personally went out, surveyed the highways himself, laid out where the fence should go himself. of thethe construction game lodge and a lot of the early facilities and the statue recalls that element of the legacy. it shows him as a surveyor pointing forward.
the rock formation. and there are the pigtail bridges, which are another famous feature he led the construction of. he was a progressive theater roosevelt type republican. -- theodore roosevelt type republican. he led the formation of state cement, other state efforts, some of which worked, some didn't. he was popular. he was the driving force behind the construction of mount rushmore. the badlands national park was established because of his work. and really, he made a very significant legacy for conservation and parkland in south dakota and the united states. arthur mullen was pretty typical of our early state leaders.
he was a native of indiana, went atthe university of indiana wimbledon, ran the newspaper in muncie, indiana, and he came to south dakota, the dakota territory at the time, because his wife had respiratory problems and indiana was too humid. he wanted a more mild climate for. he originally came to springfield, south dakota. he was a friend of benjamin harrison, a u.s. senator from indiana at that time and senator harris and arranged for him to be appointed to run the land territory.he dakota he lives a very couple years and then he moved to watertown in the northeast part of the state. e became very involved in our early statehood efforts. there were a couple efforts to get the code it admitted to the state. god benjamin harrison elected president in 1888, that was good -- got elected
president in 1888, that was good for him for two reasons. as president, he was able to make that final. he also turned to his friend as the last governor of the dakota territory, which was appointed by the president. so, when we became a state, he was very easily elected as our first governor. this was south dakota's governor twice from 1979 until 1987 and then he left because of term limits and he came back from 1995 to 2003. theears make him longest-serving governor in our state's history and the third longest-serving governor in our country's history. was a colorfulw character, and outspoken guy, and aggressive guy who would try to take action sometimes and one
of the things he is most remembered for is his management of disasters. when there was a tornado or some other kind of disaster, he would be out there personally directing the response, yelling to people, barking out orders. there was a very bad tornado in a town called spencer in 1998, and governor janklow was one of the first on the scene coordinating the response. commemorateseally that. you see that he was holding a old horn in his hand. that is not uncommon. maybe you cannot see the jacket he is wearing, but it is the south dakota highway patrol jacket. the governors of south dakota tell you a lot about our's eight. they came from the midwest. they moved here as adults, helped set up the state. you get into our middle period, and you have people who moved here as children, and now most
of our governor -- governors were born here or came here is very young children and really represent the state. most are fiscal conservatives. even a democrat cut spending. about budget has always been a very high priority. partiess of both emphasize the pension plan. we are the only state in the country, i think with a fully funded pension plan. you will have governors like evenck of bill janklow or our current governor in some step outside of the ideological lens and do something just to get it done, and that is what the voters in the state want. >> c-span has spent time here
spending local history. the verendrye brothers were the first europeans to explore the area. join us as we go to the cultural heritage center to learn more. jay: that is the intriguing story, it was not founded until 1915 by schoolchildren and they said, it is lead we can make money from this. they are heading out to the newspaper shop to sell off the lead. they happen to run into a couple of legislators who were in town. as they were showing off what they had found and they realized this is probably something important. the plate, on one side, it is stamped in latin describing who was going to bury it and a symbol on the front of it. it was probably stamped in paris before it came to the united states. on the backside, the names of
the brothers who were here, verendrye, and the date. that is what so is excited to hold this plate and know that these explorers placed it on the hillside over in fort pierre. the verendrye brothers provides with the first non-indian artifact in south dakota. what we found is the people were largely along the missouri river in what is now south dakota. about the time of the signing of the declaration of independence, we see anthropologist understanding that the people that we know as in the sioux today ended up in the black hills. act as that point and time, they started to dominate the missouri river valley pushing the people further north and they eventually ended up in north
dakota. the area, the early 1700s, middle 1700s was really trying to be controlled by the french, the english and the spanish and a lot of that kind of turmoil but largely populated still by the american indian and dominated by their ways of life. as soon as explorers came and tried to maintain control, it became the louisiana territory. pierre verendrye was the father and he and his sons largely investigating and exploring what is now minnesota and north dakota. there were considered failures in their time because everybody knew there was a northwest passage to the pacific ocean. there was a one way to get across this country and because they failed to find it, they were considered failures. later on in 1742, two of
pierre's sons, louis joseph and francois, traveled further west than they had. they stopped at the confluence in the missouri river and in the vicinity and a bluff overlooking the present city of fort pierre and they buried a letter plate claiming allegiance to france. the beauty of it was saved and could have been melted away and we never would have found it. here, people can look at the plate and understand this is the first time in 1740 three that we know there were none indians in the area. and it causes a great deal of excitement at fort pierre at the
time and further research into what the verendrye brothers were up to. announcer: this weekend we're featuring the history of pierre, south dakota with our cable partners. learn more about pierre and other stuff from our cities tour -- other stops from our cities tour at www.c-span.org/cities tour. you're watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. >> american history tv on time this in prime week starting at 8 p.m. eastern. monday night from the national constitution center, discussions on landmark supreme court cases, korematsu versus united states and brown versus board of education. tuesday, the life and influence of buffalo bill on the 100th
anniversary of his death. wednesday, the history of little rock central high school's integration with former president bill clinton. thursday, a discussion on the lead up and response of the forced desegregation of little rock central high school. friday night, from american history tv's oral history series, interviews with whoinent photojournalists have documented major events in american history. watch american history tv in prime time on c-span3. "reel america," "it's everybody's business," in animated -- an animated film offers the view that free enterprise is embedded in the bill of rights and criticizes excessive taxes and regulation. here is a preview.
us should be of willing to pay whatever taxes are necessary to enable efficient government to improve or expand any essential service. but with our current tax code, we should avoid pressuring government for new taxes that are not absolutely necessary. we all know more our government process -- provides, the more taxes it is forced to collect. none of us can escape. big business. small business. commerce. workers. housewives and all of us have to
pay our share. demanding more and more from government could create a tax burden heavy enough to crack essential blocks in the foundation of our business system. therefore, we shouldn't let our taxes reach a point where they destroy our ability to save and invest. for, as we have seen, a rising standard of living depends on a constant flow of savings dollars into our business system each year. in the future of our country, waves of destructive forces will continue to batter against our foundations. when they forced the interlocking blocks of our political and economic freedoms, we must be quick to use the tools our constitutions give us and repair cracks as they
appear. >> "it's everybody's business" errors in its entirety sunday at 4 p.m. eastern. history,t on american william wood university history craig smith discusses benjamin franklin's goal to redefine who is honorable, comparing a hereditary honor given from those with noble birth to an honor earned through good deeds and virtuous behavior. professor smith is the author of the forthcoming book, "american honor: the creation of the nation's ideals during the revolutionary era." youhank